tv Lectures in History Pilgrims and History Textbooks CSPAN November 27, 2021 11:00am-12:11pm EST
in 19 century and in historian it talks about frontier opposed to bustling state capitol after the war of 1812 and later a senior policy advisor, john roy price to president nixon gives a behind the scenes look at the domestic agenda and that all-stars now on american history tv, find full schedule cspan.org/history and here's lectures in history. >> the goal today is to think about how the pilgrims who ably have been been talking about all course long, became such a national part of our heritage such a huge part of her history and what happened and how do we get from the back of the coming it, to these annual remembrances like a thanksgiving and to the important place of them in political thesis and calling as a city on the hill
and the puritans did as well the pilgrims came here and so forth and how do we get from one place to the next the way we get there, is through the work of history and so we will be looking at today the united states to become a unit and an independent nation what happened to the historical right that is part of the historical rights take often is a focus on certain national narratives and where they develop what happens to maintain them and really to disseminate them to a wide population. and we talked last time we talked before about collective memory in about this idea the nations have a kind of what is called temporal deaths this idea of part of what makes nation and nation is the idea of shared memories and part of those shared memories is forgetting of their memories and other aspects of history. so we talked about this whole part of collective memory and
his relation to nationalism and here is certain since what we will do is be a network and that is what this lecture today is about pretty just to review where we've come from and where were headed next, we talked on american history and definitions of it and just to review this dual part to it, the passive sense of american conceptualism which is a model so in this definition, the position is assumed that the u.s. had a semi- achieved when the nations are seeking or that the u.s. is called to achieve and to model to others what are the nations have achieved rated but not in a certain sense to intervene, this is the path under passive model and the active models this idea that evincing on the mission in a position assumes that they threat our blessings and they cohen be defined in a number of ways to some of the ways against defined is religious liberty and free enterprise had a part of this idea is to
see when those ideas get attached for the american conceptualism. and the ideas is more of an active sense and usually, both of these senses either of the senses can include a religious sense of chosen that we are called, that is someone some divinity is called us to this position are set us apart, the model and often embedded in american conceptualism is a religious sensibility, chosen and what is it entail. kind of a preparedness, so if you say that the u.s. use unique what you're saying is is i have looked at other countries, compared the u.s. to other countries, and in x detail or why detail, is a comparative assessment and overcomes an american exceptionalism. more particularly, what were talking about today is usually about a historical frame, this either implicitly or explicitly about america's
unique virtues or usually entail claims about america's past about how we came to have those unique virtues for this distinct national purpose in the world. and s were collective memory comes into play such an important part and is the part of american exceptionalism we will be spending our time on today. so obviously the u.s. has a revolution and independence is declared and a treaty of paris and the constitution and now you have the situation. you have all of these colonies which were connected immediately to england, and connected immediately to one at each other, when i can accept that for a long time, they have not really seen each other as one nation. now you have this problem which is how do you formulate a national identity for all of these different colonies in different cultures and say they were in fact one nation.
and that is the work of cultural nationalism and is called that because it takes cultural work to build up a national identity and it takes cultural embedding and speech and text and civic rites and rituals to create his identity. there are three distinct ways that i will look at here, or of course that could be said that three features the rise right after the rams revolution in the beginning of the nation that we can think about predict first the idea of maps, we can know that where one nation for pictured as one nation and what should begin to see evident the early republic days of the new nation is using maps showed up everywhere everybody keeps throwing the map this one nation with one set of political boundaries over and over and over and this happens to hang it on the walls it tampers a than teacups and if you're surrounded by this map in in relationship to these others you will begin it to perceive
yourself as one with all of these others printed to the maps become one way of thinking about a national union and national identity and of course part of what were talking about years we raise this to enter sunday for the site of an imagined community and how do you imagine yourself in a community with people you will never meet, people that you have never met and people you know very little about and it suddenly your one people with them. maps are one way to imagine yourself as one people. the other thing that happens is rites, so you get the celebrations of the fourth of july for example and this happens all over the place, civic speeches and so forth. so a certain sense you practice yourself as one people and it's everybody in all 13 colonies practicing the fourth of july they are in effect embedding the sense of them as one people united across the colonies so the maps is one way and it rites is one way the last weekend the way we will focus on
today, the history, you write the stories of yourself as one people. you remember yourself as one people would so the maps and rites and history are ways of embedding or creating a cultural identity. and suddenly the rise of the historical societies and most people don't think too much about historical societies and yet they played this really important role in the early republic so the first society was most contentious historical society back in 1791, boston until today, and for our purposes which is partly why were thinking about the rise of the city in the hills sermon and how it went from - to write in and this is a society and we talked about how a new puritans knew about the sermon in his own name and never printed it and never remarked upon and nobody knew that there is no record of this. they find it in 1838, where,
and another historical society, the new york historical society that's where it still is today and find their and they send a copy of it to massachusetts which is the first place he gives printed predict what you see happening in the basic development there, is something more broadly happening which these are societies founded to preserve american history and pass it on and why are they founded right after the revolution in the constitution it because what they are saying is american history first of all is a thing, as a general is a thing that we ought to preserve a third of all is so important that all of the other nations will want to know our history so let's go ahead and collected. how's it and keep it and publish it. that's what you begin to see these places abound in the other thing that happens with these historical societies, we will see a bit more of this later the lecture, is kind of sectionalism to this, that is to say the boston and
new york are not the same places and boston's material, is not the same material as new york. you see this early celebration of pilgrims and the puritans and so forth and boston and anything is celebrating in new york and the earliest days of this historical society. they have a big gala to open the doors and they said that we went holden on the anniversary of what. hamilton gets remembered in terms of everybody remembering the revolution for sure but what is the new york counties go back to. netherlands, the dutch so the first big gala, is actually 19 oh nine, decelerate 200 years. in the coming of the dutch so you see the ways in which these historical societies and regional players in new york historical society begins by celebrating the
dutch in the puritans and the pilgrims and those people for sure but the dutch you know and each place begins to kind of emphasize the own histories as part of the national story. we will come back to this term in a little bit but when you begin to involve here, is what one historian calls sectional nationalism, that is my section is sort of a central section of the nation for the nation. if you want to know about american national history, you first have to know about my section of the nation, we are the most important. you get the sense of nationalism. by the time the emerging historical association founded in 1984, 200 of the societies have an open across various states. actually some of the biggest and strongest and most well supported was working in the midwest. wisconsin and iowa in such places they really wanted to collected no history, the
state supported the things pretty sort is a the significance of one of those things that i sent's history when even in the idea that rn of the sermon which you begin to understand that these unknown places like historical societies are all embedded in the way that we told nation story. reagan cannot call america city and help without in effect, the sermon being found and how is about braided historical societies keep it in printed which is to say that the language of american politics, the body for more than is a spike of beliefs or policy positions also contain the whole history of these primaries, historical societies, archives and so on. all sorts of individuals and institutions that collected, preserved the past authorities of our nation past and here's the other important part to think about. archives is much as they
preserve they also select and when these people went about banning archives of the . this is important and this is not important. just to give you a sense of this, i really important native intellectual leader malcolm, well, jeremy who founded this historical society totally and totally dismisses god, and so, these papers never end up in the massachusetts historical society, they are located later another people come back and say this guy is important and we need to collect him and another words preservationist selection. preservation his in remembering. they preserve, and they select and so in the choices that they make of their shaped not only what we do say about america but what we can say about america's best because if you want to tell the story coming bendigo find
the text in the records read all you have and so this is the kind of significance of these historical societies and archives. it's one thing to save everything in preserve everything but then how does the public get to know anything and what you see is only on whether doing is to say we are going to collect all of the writings and keep all of this stuff and later historians can tell the story so another words they divided these two things up pretty and they said, somebody else can put altogether and create a narrative as long as they got the stuff, were going to keep the stuff like that to happen so there's new interest in history gradually rises doing 7090 - 8030 historical work including they accounted for one quarter of america's best sellers pointed to a peak of more than 85 percent in the 1820s that's when you see this real true burst of
interest in american history. in in addition to the state law, so they're not only that people have to go to school put that when they go to school, they have to study american history so there's already this kind of push the state level to study history pretty because of the state laws because of this emerging population ages have tons more students. is a statistic to devastate this in new york on the number of schoolchildren grew from one or 76000 - 1916, - 508,000 in 1833, that's just 17 years later. and so that's enormous growth of a fewer number of students and not surprisingly in the market for new american history textbooks suddenly booted gross sales of the textbook from 1820 - 1855, increased to 750,000 - 25 and
a half million, and outperforming the nearest genre books five - one and that is textbooks are what is selling in early america. that includes more than history text books but history textbooks are part of this genre. and if you write a textbook, you been decided during want to start. what is the story again and remember this is that question we asked the first day of class. what is the origins of american look at a variety of answers that question that a person could come up with. because this jamestown mayflower, the declaration of the revolution. remember that each of these answers, have an implication of what you mean by america. they start with native americans at the beginning of america, even much broader sense of diversity of all the people who ever lived here
unbounded by any political geography or boundaries predict columbus means that america as we know it today, begins with european encountering the native americans are the discovery of the point of view of american jamestown, the english roots to define america and the net and is nation and then we ask the question why are the pilgrims and purchase of those under listed all, we hear in every thanksgiving and yet when we come to think about this as norriton of america, it does not make a lot of sense, the first people here they're not the first europeans here in the not the first english people here in the not the first english settlement here. so what makes them a kind of origin. one of the reasons they come this influential imported origin is because they could be used to give america a
sort of noble identity or cause so we hear the pilgrims came for freedom from god or self-government or all three of those things because they came for those reasons, that's what america stands for ever sense rated because i kind of language could be given to the pilgrims, much more easily than it could be given to say jamestown, then jamestown is been decided or erased or ignored so that wen start of the pilgrims and be committed to these things, our essential identity. so you see often happening is that you get this kind of contrast built-in and when the pilgrims came, it was on likely the spanish because what they did was totally horrible but the pilgrims came and that's what defines america or you could say that how many people came to virginia but that was just a while those are people sort of bad settlers.
that's not what america stands for or not the true origin of american but a habit of it the real origins came just a little bit later and so you get this wave of talking about the neck and his three so the identity and the origin are make step in purpose. the other reason we get to talk about the pilgrims is because of people who write the textbook happened to be mostly from new england. this gets back the sectionalism built into national history and by 1860, new england was only 10 percent of the u.s. population. but is roughly half of all textbook writers. it gave the key role of shaping the story of america that would come out and this is going back to the puritans themselves, the people themselves would frequently write history and of themselves and of new england
and so this was a long tradition of new england writing history. well into the 20th century, new england dominated the historical writings and when we talk about the pilgrims and puritans so much because the people write history happen to become mostly from new england in the 19th century. that is one sort of reason. so then you get these massive commemorations of the pilgrims and we look to the side. reporter: some point go quickly through these but this is just a reminder you these sorts of images and greatly began to emerge on maps 19th century so fallacious hemmings landing in new england in the last, call the holy ground, they left and stayed with their they found the freedom to worship god to get the sense in which the coming of the pilgrims began something totally new in the world, the newness was had to do with
religion and religious liberties and civil liberties and all of the ways you can put together freedom in god began with the pilgrims and the puritans in new england, this thing totally new. had a shoe get also all of these paintings that celebrate them and we look to the paintings before we saw them printed sort of religious dimension of the light avenue and heavenly light shining on the mayflower or the civil liberty version or mostly what each other, is compacting this idea of self-government in the mayflower. for the noble and heroic and yet domestic and agricultural sense of origins. and of course these other sort of famous landings of the fathers of the fathers of the beginnings of our people. and of course all of the way up through 1914, the first things given get images of a kind of peaceful settlement. to be contrasted with others and you also get these pilgrims society so with these new england societies
and pilgrim societies you basically we talk about a civic right, one way to build a national identity and civic rights can spread regional identities we get new england societies in developing in places like new york, and all of the place and what they are is basically everyone from new england get together especially if your are wealthy and mail, and you get together you celebrate the fact that you are from new england. you basically are going to remember the pilgrims and that's how you celebrate the fact that you are from new england and so they would have these elaborate face in december to celebrate the pilgrims landing in the mayflower compact and so forth and so forth and every december they would get together and celebrate a new origin and here is one particular membership in the program society so you get this sort of contrast always sort of contrast the wilderness, the developed town printed the native american before the english's elevated civilization offers coming with pilgrims.
so, commemorations, important sedition make sure that we are overemphasizing, there's lots of commemorations going on so think about what else is being commemorated in the 1820s, in 1825, we commemorate bunker hill in 1926, 50 years since the declaration of independence and anybody who knows who died in 1926 the same day >> so july 4, 1826, on the 50th anniversary of the declaration of independence, john adams and thomas jefferson, old archrivals, second and third president, the buckeye and you have all of the speeches celebrating of course the revolution and the declaration. so commemorations through the 1820s, is a big booming
business, speeches and memorials commemorations all of the time and this is again the building of a public history. memorials and monuments are super important, it is how people make their identity and remember it all of these civic rituals and all of these ways of started building a cultural identities and what happens in 1920, because of course it is 200 years since the landing of the pilgrims. so one thing to keep in mind is up until 1820, the pilgrims were celebrated mostly in new england. if you're from charleston's, you're like the pilgrims who, why is this important to me. and in 1820, partly because of the work of daniel webster, the sentiment become nationalized they become a national origin story in a speech that he gives 1920, is
one of the ways that begins to happen. so does anybody remember who daniel webster is. okay, so this guy is important, major order center, his empathy is that he signs off 1850, on the law and during that he becomes a great traitor of new england and that of course leads to 1851 and so, that is sort of where he and his and he dies 1952, shortly after that in in 1820, these are met on the horizon in a very important senator, speaker, house representative, lawyer a super important on various supreme court cases throughout this. and it is known as sort of the great speech maker of the
north so if you have the big commemoration ceremony will ask the best speaker to speak and of course he does his job. and what he does is basically he rewrites the history of america through desk and what he does as he imagines the spread of the virtues and with the gave us etc. transmitted from them all of the way from the atlantic to the pacific and he does both of those things in the speech he manages his voice of gratitude commencing on the rock of plymouth transmitted through the millions of the sons of the program so it loses itself in the numbers of the pacific sees so he gives this incredible speech and one person said it was like his face was shining like the gods, like moses my whole head was going to explode with a rush of excitement john adams reese's speech and he said this is the best specie is ever read and he said it's going to be
read 500 years from now and it should be read at the end of every year and reread and sent to all of the schools and it does end up getting sent to all of the schools. so one of the things you have as well is the sense in which the pilgrims are the origin of america because as they say in the speech, the moment they arrived, democracy arrives with them and christian institutions came with them so you see the sense of original is a pure origin the moment of arrival, is a key step in a keep getting the whole history of america. any sketches that forward to the present day. when you see happen after that is that turn of the step through education that thread. an education is this important way of thinking how do you get ideas from some of of a speech or hundred speaker in a speech like webster to a much broader population of a republican one of the way to do that is
through education and through text books from one the first sort of histories of america even though is it pilgrim history of america is webster. see begin to see the speech syndrome to the schools mainly in new england at the school children greeted memorize sections of it they recited this is how they come to know the history so this is important moment transmitting his version of america to a broader population. so what we will talk about now is the sense of the importance of education at this. so one of the things that happen, this is important to think about it the founding fathers, and you webster those folks with they often said, even arch rivals agreed in this is that liberty
learning go hand in hand. and to basically will not be able to maintain liberty and republic if the people themselves are unimportant and so this is the idea they keep talking about an informed citizen, you got to have an informed citizen if you don't have an informed citizen, the whole experiment will collapse. enemy just me just give you a vivid example of that. there is a guy named ebenezer, a great name, he goes around collecting records here and there and everywhere. and what he is doing, a sort of working with jeremy, to collect archives pretty writes a letter to click open dental congress is soviet, he said we have nothing to collect these papers no place to house them or publish them or keep them and you feel me up, i will go do that work in the continental congress
considers letter grants him $1000 is a lot of money those days to go do this. i also said to all of the sort of state representatives along the way to help them out make copies for him and they are hand copies in ebenezer's going to copy these out by hand. this is 1778, revolution is not yet over. not over until 1783 in the midst of the war itself, continental congress is like we need to give a federal grant for historical archives and keep these papers. that is one of the things are thinking about when massachusetts historical society sounded, it is chartered as a public utility like your gas. and there thinking about this stuff as public utility as essential benefits absolutely necessary for the maintenance of liberty and liberty in learning what hand-in-hand for these people.
the other thing that we don't know has got to him. where's the money coming from. but the point is they said this is important we need the support. >> violence and overthrow against a slow but sure undermining of licentiousness. to them, it meant basically everybody doing whatever they want. now, one of important things to consider is that webster is awake. and webster, as a whig, does not exactly trust the mass population, right? and so here you could see the
sort of mentality of saying, look, we've got to have learned leaders, but we also have to have an income concern informed citizenry. that's a sure way to end thing in disaster. all right. so one of the questions to think about here is to what extent that still applies. to what extent do you think a kind of informed citizenry is necessary for the maintenance of liberty or democracy or any of rest of it. i don't want to spend too much time thinking about this becausest a very broad question, right? -- because it's a very broad question. it's the kind of question that leaders often think about, and there's lots of different ways to go in. but if there's a general kind of sense of what you guys talked about, i'd love to hear some of those immediate thoughts that you have in regards to the question, what is the information that's needed, that
is what should education include? should that education include history, and if so, what kind of history should it emphasize or include? if those are some of the immediate thoughts you had or gut reactions to these questions. yeah. >> we kind of talked about how democracies, the essential is, like, the government having consent of the governed, new government. and part of that consent is education about what people are voting on, what people, like -- [inaudible] needs to be education about the hinges how people can participate in the democracy. that comes from the development of the u.s. american democracy, that's kind of what we were talking about. >> so civics or, like, the school of house, how does a bill become a law. [laughter] or basically how do you go about
participating in this thing we call a government. zack? >> i think two big points, first is that we don't have democracy everywhere in the world. so -- [inaudible] need to be able to recognize what that is, why it's working and what would be the signs -- [inaudible] and for us, we talked a lot about the constitution. [inaudible] there are a lot of things the constitution -- individual liberties and freedom, talks about checks and balances, bicameralism, federal i feel, all these things -- federalism, all these things are crucial to america. >> everyone should read the constitution and pirg out how this thing's -- figure out how this thing's posed to be put together. yeah. >> we talked about history
repeats itself -- [inaudible] nobody ever thought that they would win. the fact that that was so important to them that hay wanted to present certain aspects to their history, i think shows what could happen, and it's worth repeating it. we still talk about that today. but today things are, like -- [inaudible] people read the news on their phone, and that's what they base their decisions off. so i think there's the, like, this idea that the we have to keep history alive, but it's just kept alive in different ways. >> yeah. well, and thinking about way people --ed today, right? we're very aware of misinformation now, right in the idea that you could read a fake article or fake whatever on facebook, right?
there's realness, that it's done by real experts and so forth. but anyway, but this idea that information and misinformation do go hand in hand. well, this is true back then too. thinking about how do you trust a source, right? so maybe one of the things we need to be educated in, how do i know when to trust a source, right? how do i know when to trust what i'm hearing, right? thinking through that kind of scrutiny. yeah, jacob? >> people need to understand that if you want to be an informed person, then you must take responsibility to be informed, to read many books, many articles, to sit down with a cup of coffee and start reading. don't complain about it -- [laughter] wheedle your way out of reading, because if you do, you're use
less. going back to do the work and the effort, it's all talk. >> i think one of the other things you're raising is what is the balance between individual responsibility to be an informed citizen and the kind of systems or structures that we can have in place so as to inform people as they're growing up and as they're becoming a citizen. what kind of systems and structures are in place. to think about this simply, in the era which we're talking about, it becomes state law, right? so you have to go to school to learn some basic things, right? and they're beginning to think about, well, what are those basic things that everybody has to know, right? as you begin to pass the laws that send people to school, you've got to think about what they ought to be the learning in those schools. and these are the kinds of questions that they're shaping at this particular moment. yeah, one more. >> we were talking about the idea of what deserves to be the taught, that the, like, american history and, of course we should know american history more so than world history.
[inaudible] people, like, understand american history. you just accept that other people know whereas i don't know anything about, like, the structure of parliament. that's not something i feel like i'm exit -- expected to know. >> right. >> part of the reason we want an informed citizenry is for voting, electing people into office, and participant of that is they make -- part of that is they make foreign policy decisions. >> yeah. >> but, oh, if we are deciding what to do with this country, we should know that country's history. >> right, right. so part of you get a lot of articles, right, about our misinformation, our lack of knowledge in interventions that have been made in the middle east, right? just understanding the kind of cultures that are there, the various expectations that they have, right? but thinking through what you're saying about one of the ways to think aboutive isics -- about civics, right?
everybody should understand american civics, american government, how it works, so forth. you could also say everybody ought to be able to think about civics in general because that might actually enable you to have some scrutiny of american civic system, right? and i want to just use that example to think about -- talked about perry miller a bit and the influential role he had. this historian of the puritans in the mid 20th century. he also wrote about education. i just want to use his sense of this tension here to think about one of the tensions that sort of underlies some of these questions that arise about what should be taught. one of the goals of education in american society is often the sense of diffusion; that is, of making accessible, of bringing knowledge out to people, right? so communicating to people, training people up. the making of good citizens, a profound, quote, a profoundly
democratic conviction that the school should be so conducted as automatically to produce exactly what america wants. so america wants more workers, schools should be placed to train more workers. right? what america needs or wants, this diffusion. but he said the tension with this other underlying sense of what education is basically about, which is discovery. the sense to which education exists not just to pass things on or produce whatever it is society says it needs to produce, but to find out what we didn't know. in doing so, education has often faced the task -- and this is his words -- of bestowing reputation upon unreputable ideas that it could not otherwise ignore. that is to say educators do not just rep wily candidate society, they -- lendly candidate society -- replicate society, they also -- [inaudible] every american should learn to
set american civil society next to other civil societies "news of the world" to scrutinize the best way that -- in order to scrutinize the way governments should be run, right in the first is the kind of sense of diffusion. we need to train up citizens in the society. second is a sense of discovery, we need to figure out what is the best possible which means nothing is free from scrutiny, right in however much we might honor, right? and that's, i think, one of these senses as well. all of this matters because what we're talking about in this current, in this moment in the early 1800s is this idea of the increase of schooling, the increase of education, the rise of textbooks and general sense of what are those textbooks going to include. what are hay going to educate people in, right? how do they produce the kind of informed citizenry that they need. which brings us to emma willard. how many have heard of emma willard? anyone from new york? emma willard, anyone? troy, new york?
anyone, anyone? lol, this is great, actually, because i expected that, and i wanted to introduce you to emma will articled. she was this very innovative teacher, school founder, proponent of women's education and textbook writer. she was so famous in her own day -- first of all, the textbooks she wrote sold over a million copies which is a good payday. so even though she founded this school in troy, new york, it's right near albany today called the emma willard school, so is this, what she became most known for is textbooks. her history of the united states was reprinted 53 times over 45 years and translated into german and spanish. she was so well known that when she died in 1870, her death was reported, he had to obituaries n brooklyn, boston the, charleston the, new york, philadelphia, chicago, san francisco and several other says and towns.
everybody knew emma willard, right? and, in fact, her ideas for female education, she wrote this plan for female education which she presented to the new york state legislature in 1819 called the plan, basically, for short. and that's what sort of galvanized and eventually led to the school she founded in troy. but she also sent that plan all over, and, in fact, in bogota, in colombia they founded a seminary, it's called seminary school on her model. and all over the place, right? so she was active in trying to get one in athens, greece, as well. so she was internationally famous too. so i've been to the emma willard school because i went there to read all of her papers, all of her letters, the stuff -- they have a great archive of her papers there. this is just when you walk into the library at the school, this is just a single copy of all the different editions of the books that she wrote. these are all by emma willard or or in this cabinet. so what's her argument for
female education? i want to kind of lay out the argument real quick and then show how it relates to the common concerns of the era. her argument was basically that female education would not only make nation great, it would make the nation blessed. willard called unpatriotic countrymen the poll her advice and establish a -- follow her advice and establish consideration of international glory. what she was basically saying is, look, if you leave women only the genteel arts, right, only homemaking or whatever, you're basically uneducating half -- you're leaving half the population as uninformed citizens. we need a fully informed citizenry that includes the women. now, what this argument revealed, which we don't -- we need to, we need to think more about, right? first of all, in this sense, there were a lot of people till in the 18-teens and 1820s worried about whether this american republic was going to last. look, all they had was the
republics of history, and all of those republics had not lasted. [laughter] right? so mostly what he were thinking about was how do we make this last as long as possible before it doesn't last anymore, right? and basically what emma willard wants to say is you make it last longer by educating the women, by making a fully informed citizenry. and so lots of people saw education as absolutely essential to make the republic last. now, she's influential in the model of female education that she develops and that spreads throughout the nation through her pupils who go and found schools all across country. so that's one thick to know about her -- thing to know about her. what i want to dwell on is her sense of history, how she goes about writing history. one of the more famous things that she does is she brings to textbooks visualization. so think about the textbooks that you guys had in high school or whatever.
you guys remember they had these giant maps, right, of america. colored parts for this kind of colonization, color parts for that kind of colony saves, for that concern colonization, for that group living there, basically this sense of developing history through maps. she start ises that, right? -- starts that. and what she basically wants to say is by the visual students can grasp so much more of american history so much more quickly. in fact, she's so committed to this idea of just grasping the visual history of america that she tries to figure out how can i make a single image that will be the whole history of america up to the present day. and this is the image she comes up with, a tree. so a couple of things to notice about this tree. first of all, you see left and right it's the same kind of imagery you got on that membership on prelim myth society -- plymouth society,
right? the so-called native wilderness beforehand, english town after. so it's the sense of that kind of chronological development that she wants to tell. well, what does each branch of this tree then do for her? well, what it duds for her is it -- does for her is it establishes a turning point. and i'll show you on the next slide that a lot of this tree basically maps onto her table of contents. and what she wants to say is if you know the turning points of history, you're 90% there. the rest is filler. all right? basically, if you know the key moments and everything that happens in between the key moments, you know, it's fine. and so what are the key moments. well, of course here -- i'm going to read it to you. this is columbus' discovery, right? 1492. this is gilbert's -- [inaudible] so this beginning of
exploration. and then here is 1620, pilgrims' landing. what's missing from the tree? what's not there? we're not going to talk about the south, right? this is not a turning point in history. all right? so even though it is the first permanent english settlement in america, for her it's knotts a turning point -- it's not a turning point. it's not a thing that every pupil has to remember, the beginning of jamestown, right? instead what people have to remember is the beginning of plymouth, pilgrim landing, the mayflower, right? and so what you get between here and here, 1578-1620, in her textbook is a whole bunch of accounts of basic explorations and discoveries. including the spanish and the portuguese, the english and others, right? so forth. so basically jamestown is, gets wrapped up with the kind of finding of america.
you found america, you begin america with the pilgrims, right? and so that's how you can build into history all these turning points that allow you to move chronologically but assert origins at different moments, right? now, i told you before i was going to give away my example. i gave away my example a couple weeks ago. 1643, does everybody remember now what that confederacy is that was so important in the 19th century that everybody remembered it, that it was a turning point in history, the 1643 confederacy that nobody remembers today? what happened in 1643? we talked about this two weeks ago. >> [inaudible] >> who united? who came together? what confederation? yeah. >> it was, wasn't it, like, some of new england colonies to fight against the native americans? >> yes, correct, right? so four new england colonies come together in 1643, they say we're going to unite for our common defense. and, of course, this becomes in the 19th century one of the key
turning points because it is one of those moments of union between colonies that's prefiguring or looking forward to a much broader union of colonies that's going to come in 1776, right? so people are celebrating 1643 in the 19th century. today we don't remember it at all. this is how we think about public memory, cultural memory changing over time. it doesn't remain static, right? collective remembering is a dynamic thing. some things are remembers in one generation, forgotten in another generation as unimportant. all right. so here you see the table of contents, and i just want to draw your attention to here because this, again, draws out sense not just of confederation, but also importance to emma willard of textual history, that the confederation, the compacts are these various important texts that get written over time. so why the 1620 an important
what she called epoch in american history? landing on plymouth after having found the first written political compact of america. the first written political compact of america, right? if you call something "first," you can, in a sense, erase mig else that has happened before, right? by simply calling something "the first." also what's essential here is that she says it's written compact. that's what matters, right? and again, this prefigures a written political/social compact that's going to come later to frame the nation. these are how the stories of the nation are being written, right? so just to review what do these epochs of origins allow her to do? each is a break, each break can be a possible beginning. so effectively what it allows her to do is say, yes, i'm moving chronologically through american history, but here are the moments to dwell on, here's origin of something new at each of these key turning points,
right? columbus is a section to himself. then first epoch is all these discoveries. jamestown is in the era of discovery. but it's not in the era of first political compact of america, right? that starts with the pilgrims. all right. what does she say about these pilgrims? when they come, this is what she writes about them, on no part of the history of the united states, perhaps we may say of the world, should eye of the by land throe first legislate with more interest now on -- [inaudible] of the pilgrims. that's a much higher caste of moral every pollution. keep in mind how often we've seen this, right? stay with us, electricity. so this idea of moral elevation, right? they came here unlike anybody else. right? everybody else came for goals, these people came for god.
that's the basic sense of contrast, right in the hope of gang was the love of settlers. the love of god was there. in their characters we behold the germ of that love of liberty. and i want you to think about that germ of the love of liberty. there's built this into idea a sense of germs or seeds that mature, right? and we're going to see that again in tocqueville next week, okay? this idea that a nation is what it is in infancy, and it just grows or matures into what it was planted as or began as, right in and those correct views of the national equality of man which are fully developed in the american constitution. this is origin of the pilgrims, right? so you can see the way she's establishing that. so i said that she's very famous for introducing math into american riskily. here you can see -- history. -- maps. what's noteworthy about this map is it's not called the first map of american history. the first map is next, the
second one. [laughter] all right? so the introductory map is just basically a bunch of native americans, right? if concern so you could see is way in which this kind of history makes native americans into the backdrop against whichy begins. this is just the setting. st the introduction. this is what the world looked like before it began, right? and you can see the way in which this kind of history maps very well on to the beginning of genesis. anybody know how genesis begins? anyone here? spirit hoveredded over the void, right? then god said let there be light, right? there's this sense in which there's a void or a vacant land or an emptiness that is just waiting for order, waiting for something to arrive. that's how a lot of these 19th century histories of america are
written. an introductory map and a kind of chaos, right, turbulent waters of a certain sense of all of these native american tribes moving, no sense that any native american tribe owns that part of the land or pezs that -- possesses that part of the land or taking over what they, because this is just void of movement, right? so this is an important map for thinking about the how these histories incorporate native americans as a kind of setting or backdrop so that the the first map begins here. this is, again, gilbert's patent, 1578, and begins with a written text, the patent, right? this is where you get the coming of the pilgrims then, second map. you get the mayflower compact up there, the arrival. and you get gradually more and more settlement on the east coast. is you get the pilgrims land at
plymouth, and then notice here, right, so between the maps -- we've already looked at how she races jamestown from this -- she shz erases jamestown from history. in the sense that that they're not a founding. that also means they're not going to appear on any maps. they're not there yet. 1620 their already there, but what does she say? and this is the ship actually arrives in 1916, so close -- 1619, so close enough. she paints a dutch ship with negroes from africa purchased by the colony of jamestown. so insofar as jamestown appears on any map in our history, it appears as associated with slave ry, which is why she doesn't want it to be a turning point in american history. because if it's a turning point in history, you can't not talk about the history, right in but if you say the pilgrims came here for freedom, you can, first of all, ignore the fact that
they had slaves, which they did. and second of all, you can say that that whole slavery business is not part of the essential identity of america. that happened down south. up here this it was this morally elevated group of people who came. so creating a kind of national story that's doing important cultural work in creating a sense of national identity. incidentally, i was just listening to lectures about the american revolution which i do when i run sometimes. sorry, very nerdy, by the way. but they were talking about jefferson's draft, of course, the declaration of independence versus what eventually happens and, of course, this very famous elimination who charges the king with having forced them into the slave trade, and there's people in congress who feel a little tender about that, right? especially folks from georgia don't really want that in the declaration of independence. so they take that stuff out.
but what jefferson says about this is it wasn't just southerners or who wanted that removed. it was northerners who wanted that removed because why? they're the sea merchants who are making so much money on the slave trade. so when we think about slavery as a southern institution, we're forgetting the fact that it was very much a northern institution too, in particular through these merchants. but also in the fact that it existed in puritan new england. all right. so these maps go on and on. then you get to this point, and you can see just -- let me just give you this sense. this is a lot of maps between here, but i just want to give you the sense of the gradual ordering, right? so if you think about, again, to go back to genesis, what you have is void and then by the end of creation order, right? now look at these maps. here's the introductory map, then first map, the second map and a series of other maps and then this.
right? you have this gradual sort of development of order out of chaos. right? in the sense of the history. so this is 1789, the constitution, and, of course, one of the notable features of this map is where's the western boundary? [laughter] all right? whoops. so you get this sense of a map that is not yet done being written, right? and you also get the sense that built into these puritan groups is a maturation that needs to continue. that needs to continue expanding. that expansion is sort of natural to what it is. when you come with a kind of morally elevated purpose of freedom, liberty, etc., etc., that's the natural thing for it to do, expand. right? and you see that built into webster's speech, you see that here. now, what's so interesting is that in a certain way the rhetoric takes over the speaker.
because the whigs were not necessarily expansionists. the democrats were but not necessarily whigs, right? in fact, the annexation of texas, there were a lot of new englanders really opposed to it in part because they thought it would give too much power to the slave powers. in other words, expansionism was not just a given in this culture. there are a lot of people opposed to or questioning the idea of american expansion. and yet when they turned to this rhetoric of puritan origins, of pilgrim origins, of why they came, of this morally elevated rhetoric, then webster can't help themselves but see it spreading to the pacific. because why would you not want that thing that's sod good to spread, right? that's what it has to do. that's the sort of natural trajectory. all right. so then that brings us to this guy, joey bancock. i told you if -- george
bancroft. he wrote ten volumes of u.s. history over the course of 40 years and was sort of the major, especially at the beginning, the major authority on american history, right? and his account of the pilgrims, which is very much like willard's, gives you a sense of what is happening to this narrative as it's being developed. so this is, again -- this is a bancroft quote. as the pilgrims landed, their institutions were already per sented. democratic liberty and independent christian worship at once existed in america. think about that as this sort of incredible origin story, right? what that sort of ignores is the facting that pilgrims and especially puritans are working out church-state relations over course of many years. there's nothing automatically formed when they land. they have to work it out. but working through all these sort of messy developments over
time does not offer you a clean break, right? last week you guys were reading origin r rogers about exceptionalism, and one of the versions of exceptionalism is a clean break, right? so the past is past, this is something totally new. here you get this sense of a clean break, right in this sense in which the moment they stepped ashore, everything was set in place. and all that could be done then is for it to grow, right? or for it to mature or spread. so you get this. through scenes of gloom and misery, the pilgrims showed the way to an asylum for those who would go to the wilderness for the purity of religion or liberty of conscience. just think about we read reagan's farewell address at the beginning, right? how many echoes are already built into this language. and this is 1834, right? in the history of the world, many pages are devoted to commemorate the here -- heroes. in the eye of reason and truth,
the colony is better offering than a victory. the citizens of the united states should rather cherish the memory of those who founded a state on the basis of democratic liberty, the fathers of the country, the men who scattered the seminal principles of republican freedom and national independence. so notice that by the time of bancroft this is what the pilgrims are, republican freedom and national independence. they are origins of that. right? so this is the way in which the pilgrims begin to become nationalized at this moment into a story. and we're going to talk in two weeks, we're going to read other documents to think about that other aspect; that is, how do we get from that story to the spread of that story west and what's the relationship between american exceptional limb and manifest destiny and ideas such as that, all right? let me leave it there for just a second and ask if there's any
questions that you guys want to talk about. so just to review some of these important points, it takes means to build history, right? history doesn't just happen. it has to be written by somebody. it has to be spread in some kind of means. that could be speeches, it could be memorials, textbooks, any number of things. but it doesn't just happen, right? it has, from there has to be the cultural intermediaries. if they're from a certain section highlighting the importance of that section to the nation becomes one of the sort of crucial features to that, right in so if all the historians were from jamestown, what were our american history look like now. but most of the house historians are from -- [inaudible] so this idea of the importance of the mayflower becomes sort of crucial to the whole thing. any questions?
any thoughts? any comments about all of this history business? yes. >> do you think the domination of kind of pilgrim narrative over jamestown was, like, a conscious effort, or do you think that was, it just kind of happened naturally? >> i think who things. one, this idea of a local -- one of the things you see happening is new england not only losing out on population, but on political significance. four out of the first five prime ministers are from the south -- presidents are from the south, they're from virginia. so they're not getting the kind of political significance they feel they deserve, right? so the national significance of the history, right in yeah, the prime ministers come from down there -- presidents come from down there, but the nation come from up here. so you see there's a kind of competition. i also think -- so emma willard
specifically called the virginians, she had a section called bad settlers, and that's about virginia. [laughter] right? so i think there's something conscious about the idea that she doesn't like what they did down there, and if america stands for that, then that's not really a nation you want to stand for yourself, right? so if you could kind of talk about it in a way to move on from it and ignore it or say, you know, that's, that happened, but that's not what we really, that's not that crucial thing that happens. origin is really up here. yeah. >> if the textbooks had been written by southerners, the ardent supporters of slavery, do you think they would have consciously left out jamestown? deeply hypocritical. >>. who knows, right? these counterfact culls of concern counterfactuals of thinking about what if the south a had this culture of history, how would it look different?
st hard to know exactly, right in but the fact is, you know, one of the reasons why the puritans became such a, you know, in my mind, fascinating culture is partly because they wrote everything down. they were just incessant about writing, right? including their own history. records, church records, everything, right? and within a decade of the puritans coming, they've got a printing press because this is crucial to them, right? they've got a printing press within a decade of getting here. a decade. that's, like, crazy, right? this doesn't happen in the south, right in and so one of the reasons is just, there's just so much more written. and if you you're looking for the sources, perry miller says i started with the articulate beginning, and it was articulate because it was written could be basically, right? he's sort of conscious about what he's doing when he says virginia doesn't matter, the puritans matter. why cothey matter? because they wrote it down.
but that's, of course, chronological in the sense that he his about them because they -- he thinks about them because they wrote. any other last questions or comments for today? okay. i want to leave a little time to hand back your papers. and we'll wrap it up. we'll read frederick douglass for thursday and then get into tocqueville next week. stream history on the go as a podcast anywhere anytime. you're watching american histor. >> we're looking back to this date in history. ♪♪ >> who was 3 years old responds to a whispered request from his mother.
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