tv The Civil War Civil War Historian Discussion CSPAN November 25, 2021 6:55pm-8:01pm EST
commanded, nothing about but the ramps, motorcraft, essentially essentially both of a large 13-inch mortar amid the ship and his idea was that we need to stay below the city and fire long-range, markers into their parts until the evacuate. but david farragut said were going to break that thing and we going to go crashing by just pull up in front of new orleans and which had been stripped of most of his local offenders because they're concentrating for the battle of shiloh and is right there by the jackson statute, along the front of new orleans, you've all seen the photographs if you not been there. but his guns pointing and said, gotcha. the way not to do it is to not to try it and that was not his option. are we done.
lunchtime, thank you everybody. [applause] >> and no more from the recent historical parts civil war symposium. >> this is usually the fun part in the afternoon to have speakers give their different viewpoints and have you ask questions. i think usually the first question is what are you working on now, and what difficulties are you having in performing your task. so let's start over here with will. we know he has a lot of stuff going on civil start with him and work our way down the line. >> well what i'm working on, well everybody is people know i'm still working on this project, got my last research trip coming up at the end of this month, harvard is reopened at this library finally after 18 months being close they got a lot of good stuff out there so
i'm going to go out to cambridge and then i will be done in a long story short, the way i organize my writings is that i collect the three phases, hunter gatherer phase, quantified everything that you have, and the organization phase, in which i with the stuff that i found on a five by eight card, and organize them by topic, and then there is the writing phase and so i'm almost done with a hunter gatherer phase, i have 13000 note cards and so it taken a little over to organize and i thought it could be finished with that by the end of the year. and probably finish writing after the holidays and i worked diligently, i probably put 30 hours a week into the project and is a big project and i would imagine that i will be done writing this by the end of next year, the early 2023, takes about a year.
one of the general editors for the series, that i am involved with and so maybe pete can tell me how fast they're turning around the manuscripts these days. >> that's okay. [laughter] >> maybe we should not have put these two together. >> what is your book starting what is in and predict. >> lying to is going to start with august and i will probably start with the transition will be the court of inquiry filing trader and then i suspect going through the election of 1864 which someone i think greg this morning said they he thought that was the seminal event of the civil war and certainly to me was a turning point, it was the point beyond which the confederate said no chance to establish their independence and the soldiers on both sides, or extremely interested in the election of 1864.
and they wrote a lot about it and there's a variety of an interesting opinions and you had soldiers and you had confederate soldiers but you also had a variety of different opinions from both sides i think that is something that not too many people have delved into from the soldier's of the election of 1864 pretty so that's probably where it will and now deal with the battles in august and the railroad also in september and n the spring church and people farms and newmarket heights, for harrison, and in the october battles. and on the south side and all of those fights that the army engaged in north of the james river. and then we will be quite a bit on soldier life and i probably learned more about the workings
of the army and the daily life of soldiers on both sides of not just what the eight and the size of the task for the way the army works and so i will figure out a way to work that into the stories as well. >> your major roadblocks have been the cause - so you can complete your first take pretty. >> bullet is been a tough year for everybody libraries archives are no exception. you get a variety of responses for the most part, and the repositories of these unpublished manuscripts reside have been very good and some will give you scans or copies but mostly scans now no charge and also that was great and others will do this for a reasonable fee read and if you want a king's ransom for those scans and then there's a few of the do it. harvard was one of them, they
are harvard and i am not so but they have been very good about arranging five visits ahead of time and you have to show your vaccination card, where mask, you have to make an appointment. so they are being and being very careful but is been tough to do manuscript research and i think my colleagues would agree that is much better to go through the repositories than just to rely and getting things digitally remotely because joyce find things and make friends with the archivist. and the library and in the ways .22 things that you may be didn't know about things before so there's a valley of going to the places but we just didn't do that the last year and a half. and i married in archivist. >> so peter what are you working on now.
>> a better book on gettysburg, what the world desperately needs. [laughter] but of course like everyone, you feel like you're doing this from a different angle and i think that william. and three confederates and - and the idea is that obviously highly biographical and a pickup on july 1st and rather it starts at the end of the campaign. and when we think about the operations we included stories of the rank and file you see the lives almost at that very moment, the point of contact. and rather of course the things that the men carried with him, and the long personal stories that they had and carried throughout the campaign rated so the idea is that these individuals will provide through which we can see broader issues at work and so many of these are cultural and social things and not deeply interested in and i
think that throughout the campaign studies in a way that i will be doing the things that will does predict not going to do any evaluations, all of which i think are extraordinarily important and i think that this book will do people may be new to the civil war, interested in gettysburg and look at the contours of the campaign, but you also get something a little bit different and you will get that human experience pretty. >> you are working with the primaries all manuscripts. two of the individuals for my previous book, who work for the common soldier and the others that i found through recommendations and people say hey, the soldier you may be interested in, gettysburg and really rich and so to give you an example, john - and north carolina, and his brother charlie, guided his arms and
died on july 3rd and preceding the case for the campaigners, and they give us a glimpse of the homeless north of wilmington and didn't own any slaves and then put into the the storyline is crucial to understand why gettysburg had the impact that it did on him and another soldier as charles, 12 years and the book is very difficult. and is published by the publisher no longer in existence but charles going, gave opportunity and a man in new york and he was a farmer, excuse me farm laborer and he wrote about the war in a way that not the way that he thought the people wanted to read into see, he was the war in which he just pulled back the curtains pretty
in his descriptions of the opening attacks, against petersburg, it just makes you shutter after you read them. so as we all know, we have ranked sources that are truly extraordinary and they give us a look into the interior world of these men and so yes, it's exciting project and i'm have been retired for about a year and i've put it to good use and i said to my wife, she's got work at the library nine - five and so i suggested that they go to france for a writers retreat read. [laughter] and were still under negotiations. >> there's a lot of primary sources in france. [laughter] >> greg, what you doing pretty. >> i just finished up biography of wartime biography and chester
nimitz, at war in command of leadership from a pearl harbor tokyo bay so it really begins when he takes command on the last day of 1941, and ends with a signature on missouri on the peace agreement so that's really a focus on him and the war. i shared some of will's frustrations with the inability to get into some of the archives in the process of this but i was lucky enough to be in residence of war college for a couple of years and a wonderful naval library at mayo academy, and there archives as well pretty i just finished i wanted out i'm engaged into another great courses course and some of you may have seen my time is money here mentioned to me that you see my specific work series that i did for them a couple of years ago. i did a lot of history u.s. navy to the present. >> while that seems like a big
project. >> i think and i mentioned the other day that i have a book coming out in trump, the public faces the called running the race, based on the setup of watching the race of his life in his career unfold read and i do think it's an amazing story about how he invented reinvented new audiences and continue to look for what would be the next thing they would garner him attention and the ability to continue to work and he made adjustments as he went through life in ways that maybe he began to surprise some people when they think about a handle on him. he did march with doctor king to march in washington and he did civil rights but he also championed many other things read and he was of course most famous for holding - for my cold
dead. but is really combination of a lot of different things like most of us will be right about individuals read the great turnout in the complex and individual predict from also working on hunter gatherer phase if you wanted me borrow that from will, on emotions of war. and part of the goal is to try to get into is much as possible, the diverse nature of the war in almost every phase of it, not just the anger and bitterness that you associate with world of there's plenty of that in all of our work informs what we do later on in my book, the work its own, there's a lot of emotional stories involved in that. and one of them for instances george pickett's reaction to what he sees happening while he's actually north carolina after gettysburg and is limited condemnation of the federals and a behavior in his opinion is an example and again how even not
only goes into the letters and diaries and journals and newspaper accounts, but also forces the official records. in one of the other things, i keep reading said talk about propaganda and demonization in all of that is a part of this and there's more than that would depression, and just go down the list of things of human beings would experience and understand that any phase of the war and not all phases, they have that occurring individually and across the communities. "of what i'm trying to do their nevada couple of other small projects but those will keep me busy for now. and also grading papers. >> the civil war resources. >> when anything you save about the civil war, interesting thing is the desk has some connections, and he was actually next civil war soldier and a movie and a couple of other
things where he took an interest in in fact, the trials most famously for georgie scott had included william shatner before he flew into space. [laughter] and he was actually one of the federal prosecutors in fact, prosecutor not in the george see scott but in the tv versions of that something i think that a lot of people don't realize and he was very interested in history and in the book and interested in the civil war and came would be his civil war movie and is very disappointed that it turned out to not be and of course i think it would be more disappointed that is not only civil war channels from the western channel all of the time. [laughter] >> i really didn't think he would think much of that pretty hundred. >> john what are you working on pretty.
>> sketched out more of seven chapters, wartime to try to get an idea of how thorough the research is in what holes still remain so that is front and center and on the back burner, the project in 2013, have been writing three - 17 years to work. and took a while, 17 years and all the needed maybe this would be a good subject for research. what about the prison camp, in its entire history, results in a very important industrial site inside a lot of brutal debts and before and after the war, major industrial site in the century after the work read thus eliminating a home assault pretty much every message of the civil war, the prison camps and today, the gym of the system, the park system heavily visited,
the project is focusing on the history of the prison camp, the kind of synergies and elimination about a place and i'm entitled life-and-death past and present americans family river. the greatest obstacle is postretirement laziness. [laughter] and the fact that when i was limited told me to go outside, i didn't and i been doing so ever since pretty. >> is a nice day to work, i don't get anything done. between winter and summer is when i get the work done. >> you can't win it unless you started the silk for me that is the same thing. i'm incredibly lazy and if you
like a project but i haven't started hitting of them predict the rest of these questions are specific to the different speaker but i do want the other speakers to try minute when they feel like it. so as long as we don't start like in bytes or something. and this one is for john. when we used to an updated version and see if a book pretty. >> good question, five of the harvard university press and asked me to do it after 2015, but i spent so much time talking about it to the media and lost my voice and i had have surgery in the wake of all of that. if i were to do it, would not change the focus of and i would do a new one and i think that the history holds up. our what the future would hold, i didn't see much what happened in the last 16 years in that
space has changed is much more rapid than i would've anticipated but i sort of toyed with the idea that it an updated introduction and kind of knowing that in my change again. >> and we are considered to be so this one is for doctor simon. what was chester nimitz's role in breaking the japanese garden today depend on the card records or we've got a head and did what he did anyway pretty. >> he would've gone ahead and did what he done. that is a question because her couple of labor and layers of all, first all the organizational structure, one not well known. as a chief navy communications in washington dc, and a subordinate and they were brothers. they were both admirals, and name is regimen and there it as
the redmond brothers and they believed that the important thing was to have all of the information gatherings centers, send the information to washington where could be assessed and measured and then recommendations be sent out to the various regional and theater commanders but by the atlantic pearl harbor is that because layton who was nemesis intelligence officers, joe the head of the code breaking group in the bank naval district building, they will) and had spent three years together in japan and work together on japanese culture as well is code breaking and they short-circuited the system. so he would call them on the hotline and he said i've got one the man the blue eyes is going to want to see. something about chester nimitz he is startlingly blue eyes read and so layton would meet who met with him in every morning at 8:00 o'clock, every morning, seven days a week at
8:00 o'clock, he would say, rushford thinks this and then chester nimitz would act on that read and then they realized that was short circuiting the system and that information should come to me and i get information from square and combined with dino so they conspired to get him out. and they essentially fired him in chester nimitz was furious about that and he went to chief of naval operations are making an and stated in king said no, not going to do it and i want centralized here in washington where i am so the story midway in the importance of code breaking at midway is the story of how chester nimitz and his team, that is to say breast regulation, got that information in time to confound the japanese expectations and midway that gradually faded away because now it's going to be circuiting through washington dc in the work other triumphs shooting
down probably the most famous but i think that chester nimitz benefited from that personal relationship that he had with both of them. and that dissipated into what was called the global information gathering agency. >> we all know the charlton heston was there. >> an early version. >> so this is for will grain, out of all of the battles, which one fascinates you the most. >> that is a good question i would say the breakthrough. [laughter] [applause] [laughter] >> very good.
this one is for brian. it was grant generally upset with thomas in the army, that missionary rich pretty. >> yes, many, they have that moment and some people make a lot more of that moment of regret showing up suddenly and unexpectedly, i thank you so the whole point, sudden and unexpected this difficult for thomas any of things find out and in order. very quickly, probably not without wilson specifically and he really did get back into the groove of things and did what he was supposed to do as a whole but then grant wanted to attack immediately. and thomas realized that was not going to be likely to lead to success so he he thought the tech would fail and it did and he thought and together they decided to delay it but that only meant that then you can
have who you really wanted was determined to get sherman's income sherman will get the job done and i was like, of course there's no better person him on the right but it will stop sherman in his tracks and in addition to geography had it would be common to break line but it's really more and even that question, does thomas really plan to attack the way he plans to attack in the way that he plans to attack will that is part of the question because grant is impatient and there are other generals that are not fulfilling their - and they are not doing what he supposed to do. so there's a lot of stuff going on but ultimately, the men themselves i think really do carry out the mission and one of the things that help me understand it in a way that i really do not understand before, you really have the confederate out in front of the rig. but out in front of it so when
you get to that point and attack, you really cannot say they're under fire so then you go up the only real way to then have some of what they kind of take the fire and of course we know about the military press, that's a very good spot to be need to be on the forward facing slope the covering ground a better but all of the problems, the men benefit for some have choice either go back to go forward go forward, so really thomas said over and over, my man amazed me in this another engagement of the men made him pretty. >> and brian, a book of essays on the chattanooga campaign rated and there is a wonderful essay on the famous scene on orchard knob for thomas and granger and grant and i think that myth and reality,
interested in that and i would highly recommend that book on essays on the chattanooga campaign rated. >> read the thomas biography first mac. >> of course the rangers are interested in finding a canon in doing anything else but there is the one thing about the military press that the guy that put down the long line it on the top, did better. annie was from maine. [laughter] so here's the main guy contributing to the cause pretty basically. >> this question is for the both of you, how effective with the troops by 191864. >> i have some wonderful quotes
rated and the vast majority of the desertions in the union army in 1864, came from these fellows who work had mercenary motivations for joining the army. but then in the counterbalancing god, the majority of officers and enlisted men, is increased by 100 troops of fine working on the men in a doing a great job and were glad to have them read like most things, and civil history, such as black and white, it was up about jumpers, they will good reach credits records but in general, there were people joined the army in 1864, with inferior quality in general and the veterans. >> only thing i would add to that is recent book, that soldier and focuses on movement, received a valley or kind of inducement and i think will is a
great scholar and writer and i'm not sure i agree entirely in which he stresses the role of economic incentives over idealism. i think applies to this question as well. obviously not one over the other but certainly valley men came into the army and they are sufficient, they had over time, and above all, they can't be more divided by. [inaudible]. >> the rest of these questions are kind of general and what they want is for anybody to chime in whenever they feel like they want to contribute. i promise you this question would not come from me. how come we don't have a lot of stuff about the main troops during the civil war.
well let's put it this way, there is a lot of main troops here in gettysburg and you've done a lot of research in this main troops. the first main heavy artillery and the other groups and you want to make a comment about that. >> main was a small state and there were that many people in a universe of the soldiers is smaller. i am not sure i agree with the premise of the question. there is wonderful histories of main units some of which are still in print. in the university of maine has good manuscripts, bolton has good manuscripts so i'm really not aware that the main have been given the short stick but perhaps they have but not my role they haven't. >> seventy brother book about
main troops in gettysburg and this was not all that bad. [laughter] >> actually visit to the professor but she cannot be here. what was the role of the desertion during the war read. >> it absolutely is a type of dissent and focused on the confederate side and they can mean a number of things, who can bring from - two men waiting down the commands placed on people back home and become so great they feel compelled that they have to be with the army and then to the few, it's a statement that's a pure rejection of the confederacy which almost never know me almost never veered towards unionism and then the things you can't forget is all of that is
that physical world that that soldier inhabited at that particular time in the military situation within that particular outfit gets down to the clothing and food and basic necessities and whether being met. that option of leaving the ranks. and you can see the back-and-forth and that their conversations that they have with us on the home front, and some great letters pretty and one not far from where we are in 65 and he everyday saw him running across the union lines and being captured with the idea that hopefully they would get out of it in the prison camps before they would get sent home in his letters would describe them running across a no man's land it and inspired him to consider desertion as well. they would hide letters from his
wife for north carolina begging and keep would follow in the wake and he wrote to her and he captured the dilemma. and he said if i make it home, i have to hide out predict we can just in the front porch and she would say, people are coming and will help us out pretty and if the caption read they will bring me back to the army i could maybe get shot. so he said i don't have a lot of options here read and ultimately he said i'm going to put my trust in god and hopefully god will directly in terms of what decision of course i should take rated and i was that the man was just going to sit his out and say in the trenches and take his chances printed within two weeks later, he decided in terms of the calculations of his chancesf survival would be an ultimately concluded that it would be
better to give himself up and that's what he did pretty so my point is a decision that the soldiers made them up they go round and around about it and as a host of factors considering and it's almost never a rejection of the confederate or the union. >> i would like to add it but keep in mind to the relationship between the fighting front in the home front and that is in 1862, in particular if you have the shunning man of military age who didn't go to the front and they would wear white feather in all of these senses that if you are fighting coming another 11 by 1854, certainly it is 65, entirely flip so is an index also and morale but only the frontlines but on the homefront as well is great story and i remember everybody back in it chestnut civil war in one of the many great stories is the guy who deserts and goes home and they track him down in the drag
him back in his wife goes with him and she is a train polls way, she's screaming in, dessert again jake, dessert again braided that would've not happened in 1862. >> and there are many stories of a man who goes home because his wife is died and he started take care of his children and then once he has him coming back, he stays a little bit too long and he comes back and is treated as a deserter. >> here again in north carolina soldier in northern virginia after he decided that he needed to go home and would take care of matters with his family on the farm. well, virginia soldier who left for the very same reasons, he goes how many takes care of his
>> and they saw mcclellan as the man who was going to end the war and and their exposure to danger and all of the hardships that they suffered a very few of them deserved it. they were antiwar in the sense they had been glad to go home but they didn't resolve their problem by leaving. so in the union army, they were not those who lost the will to fight and they never had the will to fight and there is a big difference with the union soldier and a confederate soldier. they had the role and they lost it for whatever reason. not vice versa on the union side. >> the timing is very important. and on the southeastern
virginia, they had a bad habit to go over to the enemy and turn themselves over to get out of the war. so with the saddles and the bridles in the confederates were thrilled to have them and when it came to a larger dilemma for the union then they took steps that severe that if you do that you just somebody that gets a furlough gets to go home. >> and it is really good. robert sandow. i don't know of another book like it but it deserves. >> think of henry stanley who fought for the confederates and then to become a galvanized yankee and then
joined the union and then then he deserted again. so that's not to send. maybe that's just cowardice. but he did go find doctor livingston and with those generals not conduct personal reconnaissance? [laughter] there is a simple answer often times we criticize generals and therefore they were derelict of duty of the cowardly at worst but that's not their job. to be doing that. their job is to orchestrate everything.
sobol the smith did conduct his own research and his own to the detriment of the effort and he said there was no engineer officer sent to him and therefore he had to do it himself and was ill and was calling on his hands and knees to discover all of these things. some of that is bs from baldy smith but. >> and then got wounded and then that cost arguably the confederacy a talented general where he should not have been. >> i quickly went to say and
then to take in the mexican and disposition to go sit on either side of the issue with the high command to understand the importance of their staff to get out there. >> grant and lee have a nice contrast from the overland campaign for example. grant is not the kind of guy that generates tears on the battlefield. but how many times have we see lee inspire his troops and then not directing the tactics that showing themselves to risk his own life in an emergency there are two different styles of
generalship and to draw the conclusion of which is better. >> so his high command is disintegrating from the overland campaign. and he's out there a little bit with antietam but it's really 64 high command starts to fall apart. >> and the willingness of the campaign and then somebody or something to call attention and then to move back just a bit. >> and he was in the front all the time so it depended on the general and what their style was. >> and here we have the example of grant actually
watching the battle out front. there is plenty of times when grant has been exposed to danger there is that famous episode at city point with that explosion and 143 people were killed and many more injured. it was a terrible thing and everybody was running away from the explosion. and grant just sat there from the danger and was curious about what was going on but not showing any fear whatsoever. so grant was no cow word. it was a leadership style. he saw his role to be out in front to inspire the troops personally and make decisions. another generals use that and we are attracted to the general to be that much more appealing personality to call the shots. >> .
>> this is an interesting question. and it's asking for an opinion from everybody. was there super weapon of the war? >> and there is there a weapon and make the biggest difference in the world? and what you could not replace? >> i would quickly say no. i don't think so but to argue that to use the words revolutionize what occurred on the battlefield but it change things more than what they acknowledge but ultimately the technology to be radically altered to know that's the
case. and they had the command of the battlefield in world war i. >> what do you think? >> and that transition in the tool of war and it is also a transition that john and i have done a lot of work on this and prior it was a ceiling navy and wooden ships and then between 60 and 100 yards. they are using rifles, artillery and that
changes the outcome of the war since the confederacy did not. >> and that made a huge difference team and then the ironclad ships between the torpedoes and the anti- torpedo technology to bring even davidson's torpedoes were removed from the vision of the flotilla. systematically. so because each side was able to develop technology already underdeveloped before the war, they could, that new technology.
versus the ak-47 did if you remember that made all the difference in the world to allow the confederates to win the war in 1863. that was nothing like the ak-47 and made a difference in the war. >> this is a great question for everybody. what do you think of the inclusion of historical events or works of fiction especially release tv shows given the uneven accuracy? does this do more to confuse the general public card does this of the people to learn the world history? >> yes. [laughter] >> we all want our young people to have a greater sense of history? this is where you can spark
some interest. was here real guy? but the downside of course is now i know who this guy was. and who seduced. so there is an upside and add downside at the museum of the american confederacy very much a mixed bag with some visitation with the speaking engagement as it debated the merits of the book and then how to pronounce it quickly if they believe them at face value but i applaud mr. frazier for an interesting approach that he for the most
part fictionalized the gaps that we will never be able to know and that premise for starting the book so all and all it has helped to introduce the central character but that make sense. >> there's some great fiction out there. it's not about the home front but the experience and not to overlook those killer angels
and to give access to think about the past in a serious way. that they have been cast in the remake of solomon and she the. [laughter] but every generation has books and novels and movies because movies tend to not be based on history either they are but almost every movie we can think of has actually been in print but the idea and i think in part with a built-in audience to come to a movie.
could not do that he was under political pressure because lincoln demanded that he do so. and that the tactics with the complicated discussion and with that endowment in communications and then to commit his troops and then send it down off and then those attacks that he was blameless but that was not burnside's fault. >> and then to be successor
and that everybody thought he was a terrible general and why was he named commander of the enemy afterwards? >> we have time for a couple more questions. of all of the leaders which fascinates you the most? >> that's right about the ones that fascinate me the most. for good bad or ugly and since learning about him and to me robert e. lee is immensely interesting and complicated and i thought a lot about him and you don't get more fascinating than that. and that's the reason why i chose to write about those individuals and then to may be
thinking about a george washington getty because he is actually very good and underappreciated but not confederate but that is one reason there is some blowback because every time i mentioned that to a book publisher they roll their eyes and said we will pass on that one. and i might do that. >> and i would say abraham lincoln and is endlessly fascinating and the self-made man i was talking about with 19h century frontier and self-made and self-taught autodidact. and the enigma in so many ways i'm what's deep down inside lincoln? more books on lincoln than
anybody else by far. >> i would agree with that anything else to say and then to approach the writing. and then as a hunter gatherer and the organizer and the writer. john says to find out where the holes are so i can do more research. those are two different ways of approaching. im more in john's camp. so start writing the minute you have an idea. go as far as the idea takes you. now i need to learn more and then you find out where the holes are by writing. but a lot of people, most people, they want all
of this stuff before they begin to write. so i would just like to hear how which one of those templates argue in? >> so i research and i start to write and as my writing progresses as those resources are different and those that i might have considered in that direction so at the same time , i would just get overwhelmed. there is so much information and trying to make some on —- make sense of that. so now that progress of writing and research at the same time. >> it is the mountain you'll never climb.
and then the paragraph becomes a page and then the page becomes a chapter then suddenly you are climbing the mountain. so that information you get should inform you as you go see you may have to also i tell my students you can't build a house without a plans if you have a thesis but then you have the structure in the plan and the thesis that changes good and then to get paralyzed on the notion but if i come up with something i cannot deviate from that of course you can nobody will care if you do. >> that such an important point in our field. especially with historians and the security of the pieces and
then to seek more analytically and to advance an argument and that sense of skills and to find their place. and then to find your place and so what happens is you see young scholars and with that openness that may be that substance for an argument could be off. oh my god. i feel the pressure. i need to have a dissertation that would stand out and i have to chart a new territory.
and i have to just go for it. and that is what so much academic historians does not resonate because it is so argument driven they go hand in hand and how to become a dictator is troublesome. we do not attempt to draw any conclusions. and that is perfectly fine. and then we have that body of evidence as wholesome as it can be that makes the writing
go faster in that way. and then with those preconceived notions that you have between the polemic and then narrative history. >> and that self-discipline so everybody in history needs with that 23rd century but i don't do outlines anymore all my teachers are rolling in their graves but i don't do outlines. i have an idea sometimes a sketch on the back of an envelope and i know i went to go basically and to see that developed.
and also the research and how much of that can be done online? and despite that background and to be spoiled by digital sources and much less willing to take the trouble to go to the archives technology affects me but in the writing phase i continue to work but may be terribly lazy by only getting into it to find my way through revising and revising. and then to do more research. and then an outline in reverse
with that research and outline. >> and then i go a little more right my little book i took two.five years to research and then i wrote the thing in 28 days. so i have to agree that i have to have all of these things lined up first before i can even start to make an opinion what i am actually writing about. >> you did great. a big round of applause for the speakers. [applause]