tv Wampanoag People CSPAN November 25, 2021 11:30am-12:26pm EST
part of including the classroom is that basic in politics is at the end of the day, about people coming together to establish norms and cultures of respect and institutions. we do things collectively and we need to work for the groups and the kids understand predict that is what is going on in his early grades and that conversation printed. >> you can watch his entire debate online, at cspan.org/history pretty simply search for danielle allen or mark bauer line at the top of the page. [inaudible]. [laughter] >> that means good morning friends in my language, good morning friends and how are you doing today.
my name is. [inaudible]. and i have ties to hear right predict my people have been around this area of messages for over 12000 years. and we are still here today okay. what i am going to do today is the culture of people, one of over thousand - in america, the different from the other thousand and he could be language, could be diet, could be the house you live in but one common goal that we all have is that we think about life in general. human life, plant life, animal life, we don't put our self above or below that and that's one thing that we all have in
common. i do a lot of teaching, and asked the people, float ways to become from. the human race predict so we should all respect each other and that's when were coming from predict we have been here for 10 years and is my lovely wife judy. and also right next to me holding up his mantle, and what i'm going to do is the last year, before there was any major interruption in our culture, i'm going to bring you to a new year. and you think about year, a lot of people the new year think about january 1st. our new years start when everything comes alive and think about it, when does that happen. springtime, when the birds chirp and when the oak leaves come through and that is when they hearing start to run and everything is no again pretty
and it could be a day or so different really think of other than the creator, and it's not a guarantee do we do a lot of dancing. and a lot of socializing a lot of feasting and once that happens, we know we have to get to work. and these are the types of houses we live in during the summertime, the spring and summer and this is the spring and summer house and we live in single-family home during the summer braided and then we favor space for planting it. in these leaves here are captives a water plant in in the plantations along with richard, we've been doing this for years and everything we do at the museum, we do ourselves so we go and gather the cattails in late august or early september we make them mats in the winter for our houses braided the last three - five years. they are waterproof, they have a natural funnel and these houses
would hold one family. and is different from a european family back the end of the european families is husband-wife and the kids in our family as husband of five kids, aunts, grandparents, and you're looking at three or four generations in one home. it is different so we would have englishmen come into our houses and say, this guy has five wives. will maybe but maybe not. [laughter] may not realize what they are looking at possibly, what they are looking at is grandmother, aunts, so that's what my job is to look at these families break it down when the means. so those of the houses that we live in the summer and what we do during the summer, now this is our planting field and
everybody loves beans corn and squash and it comes in and takes care of the field. the woman are the givers of life. so they also give life to mother earth. so we look at the planting field and a has amount. but the woman does the mound first dirt and that's where she gives life predict when you plant corn, you have to wait for different signs of nature pretty once the hearing start to rot and you wait until the next new moon rated the reason he did in the numinous it draws gravity ud it helps that corn seed grow. sleep on the court, and then you let your beans are next with the means will add back into the ground) the stocks of the corn. forty from the bottom, squashes and watermelons and pumpkins and they have a large leaf predict
those shade the ground. and vegetables through probably representing two thirds of the diet it printed. in the culture large part of massachusetts near boston. and parts of rhode island and all of the islands, pinkies, and others. so back then we had over 70 communities in the wampanoag's braided does that sound familiar nantucket. and other communities. these are main places in town names but they've always been the wampanoag communities. and at one time a member over
100,000 and today is about 12000 and will get into that but that's a planting field, what is next, this is going to be the givers of life. what do the kids do in the spring and summer. [laughter] , she's my daughter she's one of my daughters and this is her in this picture when she was 11 years old. it may be ten and that the youngest with her and what she is doing is picking food, picking the berries in the right ear has vitamin c. so the kids were allowed to be kids, they helped out a little bit but they have fun and they play games that went swimming and they had running races. they joked around. and the person will go through four or five names and lifespan
and you change a person, the names change also to fit how you are pretty we still had people in our community they give up the names depending on how we are. what is that mean. cash him a means one who looks up, not because she is physically strong and all that but almost every single day, she wakes up in a good mood, she leaves the house but everybody feels it pretty soon you give the name depending on the person and kids were given more responsibility as they mature. this is me my lovely wife judy and we did a lot of fishing back then. still a big part of the cultures we do this today. we go fresh water fishing a lot of women get there muscles crabs and the biggest fish we go for
and you with the biggest fish was, brynn first and oceans and back-and-forth, 20 and 30 feet in length sometimes. surgeon in the sturgeon is a big fish we go fishing for these fish at nighttime. we had about a wooden range from 1 foot - 9-foot, and big enough to carry 40 men. we have recordings of your opinions bringing in the boats that were actually being sailed. not paddle look, sailed and we did paddle longshore budget we would go out at night time for
the sturgeon it. on the torch would like the water in the sturgeon would flip over on their bellies rated and longtime official bigger than the boats. so you have to drag them to shore. and they would walk on the beach at low tide and you can walk right across the backs predict lobster on the big deal pretty use lobster for fishing bait in times of changed read we had so much lobster that you had to pick them up. you go back 100 years ago and lobster would feed the prisoners in jail read every single day in the prisoners had a big uprising and they said we are sick of this we don't want no more. [laughter] so lot in the massachusetts,
they get prisoners twice a week and if you had them more than that it would be called are considered inhumane. and then ships come in they were so embarrassed and said we are very sorry. is not a big deal. so we did a lot of fishing and men are the keepers of light. and the women give light. so that's what we do with the majority for the fishing. now half of the time we think about going inland and we want to go inland a little bit away from the ocean it and know it's hard to do in nantucket but i'm sure you try to find more shelter pretty you get protection from the window from the ocean okay and that it might be a half a mile or 1 mile. these are the houses we live in. and they have these houses, and in the winter they can be
anywhere from 100 feet long, to one of the biggest houses that we found the footprint of this house. with a structure like this, it was 300 feet in length, three and 20-foot link and 60-foot in with. think of a football field, that's how big this house was in the frames were made out of cedar in the outside box would've normally been - but we don't have those trees around anymore so we used a different tree we used these why cash and fourthly some are being wiped out these days. and mended the hunting. we had for the deer in the big game. there's so much deer around here
at one time in the mainland the ego for the lack bear and elk also for the big game in small animals, skunk. anybody? skunk was considered to be a delicacy. how do you get to the skunks, very carefully right. [laughter] you get two boys one would be in front distracting the skunk and the other boy getting from behind and grabbed him and left him off the ground braided nor first come to spray, they have to be having all fours on the hind legs to release the stink client is pretty and if you pick them up eat they can't do that. then you bang them over their head is a very carefully cut them open and you take the stink glands out predict if you puncture them, you might not be welcome in the community for a while.
[laughter] will recently, i haven't tried it best use of elder say you take the gland of the skunk and you break it open, and you rub it on your arthritis and works rated. [laughter] i don't have arthritis yet. and what we do a lot of the winter, is weaving. and we are known for leaving it the wampanoag, similes weavers of the best in the world, a relative of mine, and down of the smithsonian in dc. we had string, we made string, we use different plants, milk weeds, different kinds of trees and we would take the stocks after the dead we pull them out of the ground and we open them up and we take the fibers out
and work them together with her legs. and in 1620, they would see a woman making these baskets and the guys cannot keep up with them predict that would have berries and roots in them so have small bags that you can see here also had large bushel bags for storing our dried vegetables we had food during the winter. so here's the interior of the house, there is my daughter, three out of my four read i have four daughters and a voice, so as the oldest daughter. into sitting on the ground, cash, and storm, and wanted tell you we work with scholastics over the years and in 2016, they came to the plantations and for the video crops and across the
united states. we set the script and he did the colonial side and i did the wampanoag side. we showed how we lived back then in the 17th century and then before up to what they do today. so my children playing on that playground and running the rights unless the kids do. they think were gonna because we wear different clothing today but it we are still there. i do a lot of teaching. sometimes, i walk in these third grade classes them playing a video called the wampanoag way, you can google it read something father and it and so i'm in the 17th century scanned and i walk into one classroom and i see a boy watching video on
screening season walking in. [laughter] and he said you are storms dad. so inside of these houses, we have bedding, we do not sleep on the ground, we have mass on the bed and big round shape today and get really warm as well in the houses, when you make these houses, i do quite a bit of these houses i build them and every 10 feet or so, you want to have this on the side, best to keep you warm in the winter. you can't really see in the balls, we have the maps on the wall which you have bark, and interior frame, and you have your mets. mats. in the house is in a dome shape,
and then you pull the mats around into the middle and goes around the circle. and they said the houses were so warm in the winter that the native children they would see them run out naked in the winter jump in the snow so they get quite warm. so we lived like that for thousands of years we went through that cycle we celebrate new year's again pretty we come out because we need space for the planting. in the winter community, with from 300 - 3000 people before the disease hit. now that was before any major interruption. that cycle happened real quick. one thing that i want to say quickest you hear the term survival to the native people.
they say how did you survive backbend but we've been doing this for 12000 years okay, he just didn't wake up one morning is a g, avoiding a food today. there's a system already set up, long before people knew how to fish. so back in 1513, and 1514, there was trading going on, european trade, and in 1524, and the trades in the early 16 hundreds, and back in 1514 though, when the trading happening, but the english wanted the french and dutch work allowed a lot of pelts and a lot of europe saddles were made from this and
okay. but what happened in 1514, english captain the came down the coast and remember the state, he came down the coast and went to an area called plymouth today and what we call another name. a thriving company, probably over a thousand people. if you're traveling to nantucket and you would have somebody you said hey what are you, they would probably say wampanoag. they would expect you to know that this was wampanoag country. and they would say what are you. but when thomas came down he had different ways and this happened to our people as well, this was before writing shares, so he
went down and he stopped in different countries and then he also stop and talk to the wampanoag people. he would govern their to england in one of those guys from england, squanto. he would be a merchant with john sweeney, for five years. he learned a lot about english culture and he knew a lot of english over the five years. and what happens to squanto, a wealthy man who will and a lot of these trips was asking was from this area. they said squanto is. and he was up in newfoundland with the captain. they said go get him. so he sends a person to go pick
him up and mind you this is 1619, or five years braided so he is not seen his home for a few years so i picked him up in newfoundland it by thomas and he comes down the coast, they stop on the island it and pick up what was considered to be a chief in his own language and he knew how to speak english and knew a lot of the english captain spec them by name. they kept on going down the coast home keep when they were going down the coast in 1619, they saw something extremely devastating, the most devastating that the never happened to our people, disease. so the major epidemic that happened between 1616 and 1619, in england, this plague your skin will turn yellow, people got open source on their bodies
and they died within two or three days once i got this and wiped out the native population of all along the coast anywhere from 70 - 90 percent were wiped out within two or three years. and i love plague as you know did in fact a lot of the island and nantucket the disease was on the water. and some people refer to the plague here but what we know about it is over the years, hepatitis, skin turning yellow, open-source and disease control came out ten years ago and they believe that it might be left over and what that is, they believe some french trade ships going over and they had wraps on the trade ships and the wrap get into the water system causing this disease. and that's what this theory is now and i always say this every time a talk, even for whatever
name you want on it, it doesn't matter to me. what i do know is the most devastating thing that ever happened to our people. so as he was coming down the coast was squanto and achieve, they come to - and they find out it was devastated. imagine that squanto coming back home and finds out all of his people are dead. with that change he was, i think so. they end up going over to the vineyard and this area in 1611, overdue england anyway tobacco. how did he made about was in 1514, they were asking him as well, is there gold on the island and he was a chief, he was on, braided ethanol said yes there is gold and you bring it k
home and i will tell you where the gold is at pretty so in 1614, the running back home and in native tongue which english did not understand pretty run to the beach, and then jumped over on the shore so the native home so another ship was coming in in 1519 so five years, and he said come to get me again so there's not a fight that breaks out in the gets injured in squanto, and oh how they got loose but they did read in the end up in the community a lot of people think that's a great leader braided like a said those 71 communities and what we know for sure as he was a leader of the biggest since strongest wampanoag community. called bristow island it today.
so as fast track to 1620. they arrive in what is called plymouth today, december 1620 and they had a really bad year and winter a lot of people died. that was the deadliest month they were building a home on the mayflower and there was good water. soak two days walk away, 40 miles west of plymouth, and island and today, heard about these people building homes and the one thing that we are used to, were always used to people coming over the europeans coming over and also they would come and stay. that was different. they would bring their women and children that might've meant a whole new set of people.
so he said come here, you know how to speak english and he said yeah, wanted to go into these people find out why they are building the homes. it was a leader and he was thinking, he can speak english and is also not one of my men. so we didn't know what would happen to him so march 16th, 21, he walks into the village and he did not have much clothing on any unknown just beach bottoms and he goes and any says, come english men in their own language and they were shocked. he told them about the land in the area and the plague became throaty actually state that
evening. that's different in a carefully watched them overnight he said you know what, i'm not from here, i'm going to bring you a leader who is so he goes back and he said come along read and later on in march he came alongd brought 60 of his men and that is when they make the famous treaty between the two people in the peace treaty and diplomacy and one of each other at the time pretty you think about it, coming down the coast, that plague stock them dead in the facts right before he gives the people started in the territory. and why did it stop right there predict what we have two good thoughts. they did not like each other, it was two or three generations before that was european contact aaron down there, there is a large body of water, and disease
had to go over the water pretty did but then again, the wampanoag were depleted and numbers. and right along the border so before the chief came out. [inaudible]. so how you really felt here, it wasn't an universal answer, we have to go from community to community. if your brother got kicked by the slaves prior would you be happy, no. so seven pieces of treaty, if i get a war you help me out and if you go to war all help you out. that treaty lasted for years with no known major conflict of war. in romans 1621, that's when
squanto comes to live with the colonists and he teaches them how to plant corn predict this really is famous for, teach them how to plant corn and he said squanto, he likes having power y cause a lot of trouble back in any died in two years later because a lot of drama in those two years. and he went back and did the same thing, back and forth and back and forth. ... all of a sudden he comes out
with gifts by the way. with his own personal life. at the same time the ship that was coming in the water and governor bradford was distracted, he said wait a second, the guys got frustrated and went back home. he dies in 1622. that evening when he was in one of the houses he said he had a nosebleed that wouldn't stop. something with the called indian fever back then. some type of hemorrhaging going on. when he was lying on his deathbed he asked english it would be accepted into their gods. although he might've been a change person he knew what he was doing. this guy writer doesn't get much praise in the textbooks.
it wasn't because of this guy history would definitely have been different today. he made that treaty with the english in 1621. he needed somebody else, this was 40 miles west come he needed an ambassadorship at her. that's when he said hobbamock to live amongst the english. he lived between howell and spiel with his family of over ten people the last ten or 15 years of his life. use closest friend english, closest native english which would have as a friend. his wife reports back and forth what's going on. they never give her a name. they don't say much about his family structure. he lived in a home like normal, what he was used to.
likely be kept peace between the people. is considered to be one who counsels anwr and one who leads in the battle and allowed time the english considered to be indestructible. he was chosen from childhood, special qualities come special people choose you. from then on you are raised. one of the final stages, you are given a stone knife. you would go into the woods alone for whole winter. he came back you would. if you didn't, you wouldn't. he was highly respected amongst the people. he kept native people within like colonies, so. he was a key role player. let's skip up a little bit here. this right here if you've ever been in the homeland, my homeland, this is the oldest meetinghouse in the united states.
it was built in 1684. we heard a bit about praying towns. we know what is called -- learning about the king james bible and they say higher cool, was one of my relatives, was preaching to non-native people here not every everybody t he's doing either. the chief called them out, what are you doing? we have her own ways of doing things. why are you teaching something different? literally punched him in the face. he continued to preach and asked him, over here, we'll talk about what he did. we know it was the first praying town of about 14 of them. you had the cottonwoods, john elliott, do i have that room and
looking for here? i want to talk about this right here. this is his son right here. back in the native ary when praying town was being formed first, john elliott was up there. he was teaching native people, caleb was one, he may have heard of caleb is crossing, and these two guys would've been the first to graduate in class at harvard university back in 1665. one graduated, caleb did, joel did not, okay? joel was considered -- the reason he did not graduate is two weeks before graduation he went home to martha's vineyard. on the way back stopped here in nantucket and got killed. it was probably his own people who did it because christianity didn't make it until what, a little later, so you had a lot
of traditionalists who are still here. i always say about the praying indians you don't know what they were going through unless you walk a mile in their moccasins, okay? so i never judge like that. what harbor did back in 2011, invited my family up there and gave us a posthumous degree in his name, which harbored really does, and this is it right here. also when elliott was teaching the bible to native people back in the '50s and '60s, he felt like native people were not picking the religion of quick enough, so what he did, he hired native interpreters in my language. i say that because there's a really good story, right? back in the 1990s there was a woman from my community, she's a vice chair today, her name is
jesse. she was having a dream speech is it people were coming to her dreams speaking a different town. this happened night after night after night. she said people look familiar but did not know their names. one of her dreams the people spoke english to her. they said that wampanoag people have the chance to get the language back, would they say yes? so she took it upon herself, went to mit, graduate with a degree in linguistics and started piecing the language back together again. how this was done, elders who still could speak some of the language, old records were in the wampanoag, okay? similar language families. what helped a great deal was that bible, king james bible in the wampanoag. when one of those first editions in our draft today. today we have our language back. my wife is one of the teachers of the language.
we teach pre-k up to third grade and every year we add a grade to it. going back three years ago or maybe two, the wampanoag is taught still right now in the high school, as taught as an accredited course like english, french, dutch and portuguese. we open up to other students. that's a real true story because if you lose your culture is part of what you are that is your identity, and we got it back. fast-forward to war. nobody likes war but war broke out. what i can tell you in 1670 -- 1657, 1660 that's when the two of the first big leaders lost their lives. governor bradford lost and 67 come past way. you got the next generation coming up which didn't care for each other a whole lot. why? the thought of land, when people thought of ownership and other people did not think of
ownership. one culture would build fences around where the land, the other culture walked across what they would call their backyard. you can't be here no more. this is not yours anymore. that's my culture. for a native person they thinking what you mean i i cat be in a more? i don't get that. land is part of what you are as a person. different culture of thought. also the reasons, you know? in 1675 the war broke out in june, the low deist war in new england. lasted around massachusetts a year or so, a couple years north -- that guy was something to reckon with. he heard about, on nantucket, a native person talking bad about him. he took his canoe and paddled
out here to confront this person. he also asked a lot of people on the island to join in the war. i believe they stayed by themselves but the war lasted about a year. it ended up with benjamin church led by native guy fighting king philip. august 12, 1576, at his home and when they found him they dismantled him, , took his head off, they took his arms limp by land and threw it around and took his head back to plymouth to put on a post for 20 years. they are thinking what are we going to do with his wife and his kids? a didn't think death was right so what happens a lot of these people sold their slaves. there was no -- do anything i can think close is what's going on today. a lot of these people sold down to bermuda, one of the island stand there, and those people over those hundreds of years still have their culture identity. they know who they are.
so we as wampanoag people go down and visit them one year, and they come up and come to their powwow, which is going on 200 years now. july 44 weekend different around come see us. they were just up there a few weeks ago so it's kind of cool. a little forward to what happened here. large population 400 or so people over here on nantucket and there's a vaccine given to native people in 1763 that wiped out two-thirds of the population of people, you know? you heard gino's story a little bit earlier. that's true, you know? like what happened to these people? people remained isolated by themselves after that. a lot of people might of took off to martha's vineyard so people were spread out. you hear a lot about the last indians and all that. you look at that's from a
person's lens, personal lens. a lot of people say if it's not recorded, it's not true. it's not written down, that's not true, so. that happened. let's go forward to 1830. you guys heard of president jackson? 1830 he wanted to remove all native people on east coast which he did west of the mississippi. oklahoma was one of the states relocation. the reason i bring this up is those agents came around here for wampanoag people. they wanted us out west to oklahoma. there's 19 native voice that stood up. his name being john quincy adams. and he said if you bring these people out west they are going to die. the reason they're going to do is because the rely on seafood in their diet, and they believed him. that's why we were left alone.
the last two they say the indians from nantucket. who knows? some people's lenses. they died within what, seven months apart? seven weeks. what else have we got here? this is kind of cool right here. we might be doing this next year out here. seriously. we just got, we just got a 40-foot wall return, don't know if you know, looking at it next week. a 40-foot white pine log which will make a 20 man boat. it would be considered the largest boat in new england, okay? this picture is from martha's vineyard. back in the '90s, right, like
a say i been at the museum quite a while. we also okay we used to make paddles from nantucket. why can we do this again? we had a 30-foot poplar tree donated, that's what this is, we also had a 20-footer, white pine. they guy in the back is a wampanoag. we all wanted to steer this boat, this big 30-foot boat. we looked at each other, hey, let's race for it. we took 212-foot bolts. he took one, i took another and went across the old river and phuket make it back first. those like speedboats. he beat me by half a boat length. he got to steer the boat. this trip took a lot of planning. took three years of planning. we finally made the trip though.
it involved large nation of people. we left the place called -- [inaudible] we left woods hole august 18, 2002. we left 6 a.m. we left high tide. we had the wins at our back. we landed -- it was a straight shot it would've been five miles. we had to get out of fairy lanes. took a seven-mile to battle. i gave the elements. how long did it take? the most experienced paddlers include myself, three hours, three hours. nobody living who could say this is how long it's going to take you. any guesses in the crowd? [inaudible]
>> an hour and a half, correct? absolutely correct. what happened when we made this trip we kind of beat the ferry. those people had to take a shuttle to the ferry. take the ferry over and take another shuttle to the beach. we had beaten them thereby a half hour. we are going to have a big celebration. working to be dancing and singing when you guys are right. even a clambake may be, you know? that day we left it was really cloudy. when we were coming in, all the boats, where is everybody? we were not wearing watches so we did know how long it'd taken us. we saw people on the beach in bathing suits. sunbathers from nebraska. [laughing] once we landed, we were dressed
in 17th century scans, you know? the first thing out of the mouth was like, do you guys do this everyday text aye, this hasn't been done in in a couple hund years. but like you said we got this 4e making, a lot of things we want to do with it next year and one thing will have nantucket involved in with some ideas. so stay tuned. leaping up to 1871 a lot of communities cut incorporated, mine being one. what that meant for our people is okay, now it's considered -- let us give you 25 acres of your own land but now we will tax you on it. so that word incorporation means a different term and my
language. we lost a lot of our land like that. fast-forward to the 1900s. cape cod became cape cod tourist attraction. where i live in mashpee nobody ever look to mashpee, not until part of the '90s. and mashpee was the fastest developing town in massachusetts in the '90s. and today, let me go back, today we have, we literally just got fully recognized by the u.s. government back in 2007 as a people, okay. what we do today we have health services, programs or housing, health, education. we do our powwow, which is july 4 weekend. this is, this writer is a a special dance we did this past powwow. this was a lot of my family. we did it for my brother who passed away back in 97, he got got killed down in rhode island.
his name was milton and we danced for him. this -- want to share something. i haven't visited here in eight or ten years, but my daughter and myself we went out to the cemetery of the road where my family is buried, a lot of my family. my father was raised here. my aunt was raised here. my grandparents were raised here. my grandfather, his first being -- from mashpee. my grandpa moved here from mashpee. he was born in 1886. if my grandmother ruth, born 1895, passed away in 1964. she had a stillborn son, 1919. i visited the grounds yesterday,
right, and i googled him means of nantucket and came across a picture that i have in my living room. this is my grandmother. nantucket fest historic sia writer. there wasn't a name underneath it. ruth westrum that's my grandmother. she passed away in 1964. i've got to do more digging to see where she was from. this is one woman. i've heard from a corner. i heard it is not mashpee. i can find in the records so i'll have to start keep on digging to see what i find. thank you, guys. any questions? that's my story, guys. [applause] >> this week we're looking back to this date in history. >> in keeping with a long-standing tradition, pumpkin
and piquant are hereby granted a full and unconditional, unconditional presidential pardon. i wish all americans a happy thanksgiving and may god bless you. >> follow us on social media at c-span history for more this date in history posts. >> black friday, the sale you've been waiting for starts this friday at c-spanshop.org, c-span's online store. shop friday through sunday and save up to 30% on our latest collection at c-span
sweatshirts, hoodies, blankets and more. there's something for every c-span fan for the holidays, and if you purchase helps support our nonprofit operations. shop black friday deals friday through sunday at c-spanshop.org. >> this veterans day the national world war i memorial in washington, d.c., the 1918 armistice ending hostilities between germany and allies was remembered with the tolling of u.s. navy ship bell and the playing of taps. the ceremony also mark the centennial of arlington cemeteries to move the unknown soldier. >> today you will hear the tolling of a bell 21 times signifying the armistice at 11:11 and for causing all hostilities to in on the battle
>> starting now on american history tv, it's the recent pamplin historical park civil war symposium. over the next several hours civil war scholars will discuss a range of topics but first it's a look at the mississippi homefront during the civil war with university of southern mississippi professor susannah ural. >> i i want to get right to our speaker. we are so happy to have susannah ural here, and she's been so gracious to come in with, coming in and actually getting our first speech tonight. susannah ural is professor of history and codirector of the dale center for the study of or in society at the university of southern mississippi, scholar of war and society, she's a author of numerous books and articles on the u.s. civil war era, including the latest monograph hoods texas brigade which we just talked about today at seven days. soldiers and families of the