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tv   Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Centennial  CSPAN  November 14, 2021 1:01am-2:01am EST

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tolerant, rather than being an ethnocentric nation. i think what is included in the history book is very important to all of us today so i hope you will enjoy getting are coming to grips with the story and learning about it and then learning about the streak of your community or your state that perhaps is not as well-known either and thank you very much for coming today and i hope we will see you again next year. cspan's work in history tv continues even on full schedule for the weekend under program guide or at cspan.org/history. >> today we are going to talk about the tomb of the unknown soldier and this is the 100th anniversary of the tomb of the unknown soldier, the unknown soldier did in the capitol, and
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sam will talk to you about that in the me give you a little perspective on sam, you see him as our organizer of this event but let me give you a little bit of background about him. his childhood and he earned his master of public policy and a bachelor of arts in public policy from the college and joined the society in june 2016 and is held various positions serving as a tour guide and a speaker and communications professional, working with retail and program management and working with the basic administration of the organization and before he came to the historical society work for a trade association that is a freelance scheduler and a title abstractor in a commercial property master and so samuel holliday comes to us with a
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fascinating background and a real passion for history and so it is my privilege to welcome you and welcome our speaker today, samuel holliday. >> thank you so much for that kind and warm introduction. it is truly nice to work with you and it's been our mission to inspire patriotism which is i really think a beautiful way of capturing what we do here, that being said, and as we get in today's discussion, i want to set the stage by first explaining why it is giving this talk and is this in porton anniversary of the 100th anniversary of creation of unknown soldier and of the first one entered world war i and known of the tomb of the unknown soldier and there's history but also a little bit of personal society history. that goes into how we have gotten involved in this commemoration as a summer
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program, many of you will recognize the person in the middle, the award-winning historian we gave him the freedom award from the highest honor, and some of you on the call and the other people think picture here some of the finest people who walked the earth on the left and you will see cosby, who is a great great friend of the society because in part, her father, the late congressman counted our organization in 1962, 59 years ago this year in the right, you will see her late husband the wonderful neil cosby who served for an extended period as treasurer of this organization but relatedly for today's conversation, the col. cosby served as part of the honor guard of the tomb of the unknown soldier if you look closely, i know is difficult depending on what ledger looking at the pain he is wearing on his
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lapel is representation of the two - badge and it was part of his identity was close to him and he helped found the organization focused on the tomb of the unknown soldier and the society of the honor guard the tomb of the unknown soldier will talk more about that in the little bit because we have the sort of society family connection, this is particularly meaningful to talk about the history and it talk about the capitol history for tomb of the unknown soldier. so there we go so i want to a step back and talk about how it plays a role in her understanding of public life, and memory and from some of the earliest designs of the capitol building, there was this picture here you see the crypt of the capitol and decided to house a tomb for george washington and of course many of you who been there are listening to some of our other women are, there's an empty tomb for george washington but from his early conception,
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this was a place of somber reflection on the lessons we can learn from george washington and i think it's an important way to understand at the capitol and jane, the capitol of democracy not only place to set this for ourselves or govern ourselves as a people, but also a place where we celebrate the best we have to offer and mourn those who we have lost, congressional and state ceremonies they take place in the capitol rotunda. this room picture here in the image, and so as we push forward is important to think that this is where our country comes together again to celebrate and mourn those great figures we have lost one of the ways that i just mentioned that we have paid tribute to leading figures in important people in our nations history, through the state ceremony, the summer location as part of the official state funeral in which the casket of
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the deceased is placed upon a catapult today so is a structure which we will talk more about on today's program. and the republic are allowed to come in and pay their respects, the rotunda and it is a very powerful and somber occasion if you're ever in washington for such an occasion, of course we hope that there are few and far removed but it is typically open to the public and it's really powerful way to participate by paying tribute. and he reclaimed first at the landscape in 1952 who passed away and this is very rare honor, only 35 people or nation's history have late and state through today and only ten have laid in state before the world war i unknown so henry clay in 1952, abraham like in 1965 and charles sumner and vice
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president henry wilson in 1875 in garfield in this picture was actually from the ceremony in 1881 and senator john logan in 1886 in mckinley and 1901, peter charles, designer from the city of washington late in state when he was reinterred at arlington national cemetery on his way to that he paused so he can receive state honors in the capitol building they felt it was important as they were paying tribute to a figure who had for brief time fallen and buried in a pauper's grave and then well relevant to world war i, admiral was laid in state in 1917 and before we get to world war i in
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1921. also congress is played a role in supporting the memory and the preservation of the tribute to those who have made the ultimate sacrifice and a measure of devotion and service of our country in 1862, congress passed the include a provision receiving from the national archives image of it in transcription and the transcription and provided with the authority to acquire land and create national cemeteries for those who gave their devotion and those who died in service to the country. ever since the congress has been involved in preserving the memory supporting those families who have lost loved ones in wars. and as we push forward we we start to talk about what happened after the civil war i should mention before we get into that, there's a significant number of unknowns buried at
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arlington from the civil war, believed to be more than 2000 remains in a large memorial that we can get into that a little bit later but you get to the spanish-american war was fought in some locations in the civil war the mexican-american war the revolutionary war the war of 1812 and you have a policy in bringing back the remains of the deceased service members who died fighting and bringing them back to the continental united states to be buried also the home. that conflict did not last quite as long. it had significantly fewer casualties than the first world war which plays into some of the decision-making about how to deal with the and how the importance i should say of a tomb of the unknown soldier and before we get to that though i will mention that in 1913, congress approved it and authorized spinning for the
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governments creative new memorial amphitheater at arlington national cemetery and at this point cemeteries had been used since the civil war and they recognize the need for a larger and more somber space to accommodate the visitors who were there to pay tribute to their deceased loved ones. and so they again appropriated the funds in the authorized spinning to create this new amphitheater and made this investment in arlington national cemetery as the nation's premier cemetery in place to pay the respect and respect and tribute. after the first world war you had representative hamilton, this fish family was very prominent in the our politics going back in the colonial era and his father was a secretary of state and his grandfather was
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a general adjunct general and so here he is any part of this first world war and highly decorated and one silver star and retired out as a major from the u.s. army is picture is here on the left and is his uniform with one of the lt. generals commanded him during the war anyone an election as a republican from new york through congress and served there for 25 years in the hamilton was really the driving force for the creation of the tomb of the unknown soldier and also he was major and the kids on capitol hill this concept of a tomb for tomb of the unknown soldier was one that was put to good use and was demonstrated by france and the united kingdom after the first world war and this was a tremendously costly war, a devastating war in terms of
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casualties in terms of what was lost and there were significant concern and conclusion of the war that retrieval of remains from some of these battlefields thought they were peril, and some of the chemical weapons used during the first world war close significant risk and so rents in the united kingdom actually had terms to restrict how many of their soldiers lost during the war could be brought back to the cemeteries at home. so those countries both opted to pursue the creation of the tomb of the unknown soldier and their respect to the abbey in london and in paris they were in turn with great purpose, unknown soldiers so that the people of those perspective countries united kingdom and france would
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have a place to go if they tributes to the ones they could not bring home to their families. and it really served as both attribute and very personal tribute to those to pay their respects and so hamilton fish and scene of the steps in the importance of the sort of memorial and while the u.s. was still undertaking referred to it and great number of unknowns and that resulted from the first world war and so he offered legislation to create this tomb of the unknown soldier and place it onto national cemetery here just across the river from our capitol city is a monument for the nation to mourn those lost whether they came home are not. so there were a great number of unknown soldiers who had perished by the end of the first world war in the selection process was actually fascinating and i should mention that they
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gathered from several different major battlefields and unknown soldiers who had fallen in battle and brought them to a small town in france where one of the highest decorated soldiers, enlisted veterans of the war, remain the final selection of the anonymous to be the unknown soldier to rusted arlington an internal memory and as a symbol is a tangible representation of all of those other unknowns and others who work across notion from their families and loved ones. what you see here's the unknown soldier of world war i, brought ashore here in southeast washington dc and is brought to shore from the u.s. olivia which is seen significant battle and formed and performed validly in
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the first world war and was brought back from france it was a reportedly smooth passage and as they went through tibbetts, there are reports that the swells and the windows were so strong that the marines guarding the casket which had onto the deck of the olympia were given the option to retreat below decks and they refused so they can maintain their watch during this challenging time and pain is high tribute and honor to an unknown soldier in representative of so many others would given that last measure. and then it proceeded up to the capitol building as we have been discussing. the lying in the state state ceremony is a somber high honor to pay someone.
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and what we can see here, we mentioned briefly of the catapult and the cursor highlight here, the catapult upon which the world war i unknown rest in this images the same constructed and used for abraham lincoln and in fact, every ceremony since abraham lincoln has used the lincoln catapult which in the architect of the capitol and across the street and they preserve it and they display it when the visitor center reopens, it is on display and their exhibition hall until it's needed in which case they would remove it to make sure that it is ready for further service to our country and supporting those who we pay tribute to predict so they have a state ceremony and then they proceeded for the internment on november 11th, 1921 and if at the casket by horseback and takn
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over and they have a state funeral ceremony in the amphitheater which has been recently completed at this point it is presiding over by president harding and is made on just the other side of the amphitheater here and has created for the unknown soldier and you can see that this is just a small snapshot of the thousands upon thousands of americans who came to pay tribute him again is one person representing so many more. in the channels through which they could participate in public morning and memory. congress involvement in the tomb of the unknown soldier is how we pay tribute to those, did not end with the first world war and in 1926, the congress appropriated a small spending to increase and improve the tomb of the unknown soldier to enhance
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the tomb of the unknown soldier by adding this large monument on top and jump back briefly, this initial tomb of the unknown soldier was actually at the same level as was surrounded it and they added this like structure above. and in the immortal words, here in this grave and i will consult my notes later on. it is a beautiful and powerful sentiment but you have this structure added on top of the existing tim to create that much more prominent space in that much more somber of the space to remind people that this is a place of greatness. and i should mention that we all know that there were conflicts after the first world war has the name first world war and after the conclusion of the second world war, congress
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passed what is now public law, 79 - 429 authorizing the internment of the world war ii unknown soldier and at the tombb of the unknown soldier and they were in the process of preparing selection and preparing transport back to the united states and another of internment with when the korean war broke out they suspended that operation. after the korean war concluded congress passed a new law of public law 84 - 975, which authorized the determination of a korean war, unknown soldier in and around the tomb of the unknown soldier at arlington national cemetery so they continue to to view this as a way for the nation to pay tribute against all of their lost whether they were repatriated are not in a place where the country can come
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together. both the world war ii and the korean war of the unknown soldier or soldiers in the capitol building and you will note that they are side-by-side in the rotunda and as we briefly mentioned, in the state ceremony, they have used the lincoln catapult which you can see in greater detail here. what the congress and the capitol institution it decided do to facilitate this dual ceremony, this joint ceremony of high honor was to create a replica an exact replica of the second capitol that can be used with multiple caskets are needed as a side-by-side you have the lincoln catapult in the second catapult and they actually during the course of the lying estate they rotated the caskets of the world war ii and korean war so some point both rested on
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the lincoln catapult as part of this great tribute and they were then carried with great honor and somber spirit to arlington national cemetery in front of farther along the main area we were showing you a moment ago. after the conclusion of the vietnam war, congress passed in 1973, 93 - 33, which the selection of an internment of an unknown soldier from the vietnam war. there was actually at this point, some skepticism that an unknown, that there would be unknowns this week in advance the identifying technology which had been introduced by the first world war but they had been made more reliable and more reliably used to identify remains whether there would be unknowns.
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but by the 1980s, the unknown soldier had been identified or selected i should say that comes up later in just a moment. in a brief note, the fourth, son of hamilton the third who we spoke about earlier, he actually introduced a resolution if in congress and then himself a republican congressman from new york earlier that same congress he introduced a resolution to select and unknown soldier from the vietnam war. but as resolution, folded into the larger package which was passed later that same congress. i got a little bit ahead of myself, the unknown soldier from vietnam was actually successfully identified. so there was some thought as
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people working through the challenges of prisoners of war and missing in action following this vietnam war, family of air force first lt. believed that he might have been in the vietnam war unknown so the department of defense created to resume the vietnam unknown soldier in testing they confirmed that in fact the vietnam war was lt. michael - so at the request of his family, his remains were moved it closer to home to the national cemetery in missouri. and that happening in 1998, then in 1999 on a summer 17, which was constitution day and more importantly for the purpose of prisoner of war missing in action recognition day, part of the defense predesignated the vietnam war tumor at the tomb of
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the unknown soldier for all of those missing service members who never made a home. so in a similar way for george washington as a permanent tribute to those lost, even though there is no one directly. as we get to a point here, i want to mention that we are part of the bigger quilt of recognition and commemorations the bigger coalition of commemorations i should say, all the important centennial of the entity is the society of the honor guard to the unknown soldier founded in part by late great neale cosby and they have done some fantastic work organizing the commemoration of an really wonderful research and their websites and they have a really great concise and important history of the tomb and the tomb cards and a lot of
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frequently asked questions and we can work on some of those as the people start to submit questions. and the president of the organization is a wonderful fellow is been very helpful as he participated and try to help as they organized this commemoration and another helped us on the research has been one of our history interns. and thus concludes my brief overview of the history of the tomb of the unknown soldier and legislative history and now i would welcome any questions you may have. also the screen chair and jane. >> what want to do, one of our listeners have a quote that stays here in the tomb, here rest honor glory an american soldier known but to god. so thank you for that.
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and we have a question on to the unknown soldier remains on the various wars, delete together or are they replaced when there is one from a new war, what happens. >> that is an excellent question and makes me realize that i should've included an aerial view to help illustrate this in the might be able to pointed out, one of the photos that they included in the presentation but they are not on top of each other, they are not all of the same plot if in excess, there is the world war i unknowns, and then to the east, i'll make they get my geography right here, there beside the tomb for the world war i unknowns, below grade so at low ground level are the world war ii and korean war
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unknowns in the empty fault for the vietnam unknowns pretty so they are separated they are in the same vicinity that everyone is familiar with read so they are all there and guarded and the map is between belowground bolts the world war ii and korean war unknowns and the gallery. for more people can pay their respects. >> so here's an interesting question, they have such creative questions. do you have any information about why they were used instead of beer because a sort of had religious overtones while beer is more secular as a term.
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>> absolutely that something that i've learned over my years working in a scholarship historical society that there are frequently incredible questions from our audience tonight have to say that i actually do not know the answer to that is fascinating. i imagine, i need to be careful here because were historical society we want to make sure that we give you is accurate information as possible and imagine the term was selected during lincoln's laying in state in the funeral process is the commemoration and because everyone is used his sense of the term that was selected. that was when they created the second one especially when the created the second exact replica. so i don't know the reason and in fact that term was selected at the time but that is an
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excellent question. gosh, you gotta love our audience. >> given time, we will hear someone write or type in the answer read here's a question, dean of the selected in the selection process for choosing an unknown soldier braided like how do they determine this if the soldier is totally unknown it braided presumably the check the dog tags and the registrar and the interview families, will how does that come to be pretty. >> that is a great question and i'm glad it printed out some of my research notes here because i can give you guys exact answer in just a moment. i can tell you the initial part of the question, whether someone was truly unknown had a sort of just be assumed that that if they could not identify the
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remains of the fallen soldier on the battlefield, they were often times buried in large not quite mass graves but they were buried as unknown soldiers. and there were many of them. the number i mentioned earlier, just at arlington, there are over 2000 unknowns from the civil war by the time you get to the first world war, there were again, i think that the number that hamilton fish mentioned was more than 1700 unknowns deceased from american service members fighting in the first world war. so in terms whether they were identified or unknown, that was really you know, pretty much whether they determined it when
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they fell in battle, who they work. and that is where the technology of our time has really for the evolution of technology, has really improved the way we can pay tribute more specifically read and we can identify people the dna technology which at this point had meant that most while we hope it is none but it's enabled us to identify to get that last measurable devotion in terms of the actual selection, i can tell you that before the world war i unknowns, like a symptom of the gathered these unknowns military personnel from different military cemetery set up quickly in france.
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they brought them to and apologized any french-speaking listeners here, and the champagne region of france where they prepared the city hall in the towns of the selection on october 24th, 1921, major, quartermaster for dated by french american soldiers rearrange the - so each rested on a shipping case on which they had arrived and i should also mention that the arlington national cemetery prepared wonderful resources for the centennial of some of the unknown soldiers as well their website is arlington cemetery . mill headings just a wealth of creation of if this is a topic of interest to use of the rearrange them so that the selector cannot determine which battlefield the soldier had fallen for each of the four
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unknown gathers and then edward younger, who was served in the second battalion headquarters comedy second battalion infantry, american forces in germany and received a high military honors and was called upon to select the final unknowns to make their way to washington and he did so by placing a bouquet of white roses on one of the four caskets and then a similar ceremony took place for the world war ii unknowns, actually not to get too far off topic of the question but world war ii was such a global war, there was an significant logistical effort to make sure that this unknown soldier could represent all of the unknown soldiers whether they were in europe, africa, in the pacific. so the actually carried out a similar process with the gathered a group of unknowns from each theater and made an
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anonymous selection and then they kind of kept repeating the process until finally the one unknown each from the european theater and the pacific theater or the atlantic theater the pacific theater were placed on board a naval vessel just off the coast of virginia and they were anonymized once they were on the boat in the selector did not know which was from which the attorney placed a bouquet of red and white roses on the selection of the second world war so it's fascinating and also very somber process they went through printed and for the first world war, the second world war and korean war likewise they had a similar process in place. so that is a bit the selection that's a great question as well. try not to jump ahead of anything i saw some question put
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into the chat area, some of the answers. i know they just also asked and perhaps the listener donna if you can put that into the chat for everyone that would be helpful. the tool for people as you can see this discussion. by the way, i meant to mention earlier, before we jump to the next question, when introducing the legislation at four the world war i, the original tomb of the unknown soldier, hamilton fish had a really beautiful explanation of why he thought, he said the purpose of the legislation was to bring home the body of an unknown american warrior who himself represents no section create a race, and you moreover america in the same
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sacrifice for a heroic time. as we talk about public morning in memory and then was at the heart of the legislation. >> samuel holliday, now that we have much more sophisticated identification process, there is no unknown soldier beyond the vietnam war and that is actually an empty vessel, is that correct. >> yes that is correct and it's likely to remain the case and again, you hope that is none, you hope it is not in default of our service to the country but in some small phallus that the dna technology in identifying technology has reached a point where we can identify those who
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give that last measure of devotion to their family has closure and so they can be re-created. your name and that their families have a place to pay tribute to and in a very personal way so the tomb of the unknown soldier is a beautiful memorial in an important way that anyone who lost someone could go pay tribute to the channel of the unknown. i think it's reasonable to say that being able to identify people so that they can have a more personal tribute is better. we are fortunate and i think it is something to be said for the ability of more rapid medical care. they can do incredible things with medicines in the 21st century. they was not available for those
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earlier conflicts. so the combination of factors, it is thought to be nearly certain that there won't be a future unknown we can certainly hope that that is the case. >> sam, how can we be certain that the unknown soldiers truly fallen american and not an enemy or an american ally. >> that's an excellent question and i think a lot of that has to do with how they were initially man identified as american soldier or enemy soldier. but not necessarily identified as an individual person so again, this is one of the areas where i can draw some but he a
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definitive answer necessarily on the world of work on the specific unknowns fled it seems reasonable that they were initially because all of these unknowns you know, they were not taken straight to the battlefield to you know, to washington. they were put in as unknown soldiers, american cemeteries. in these foreign theaters and harkens back to our recent conversation when she serve in the battle lines, overseas cemeteries for the american service members killed in battle. so again it with the careful landis i can say it is likely they were able to tell readily whether someone was an american servicemember or enemy servicemember in conflict and initially they were closer to the battlefield but that is next
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question actually brings up an interesting point that tomb in a that i mentioned about the civil war and arlington, is a mix of confederate unknowns and they had difficulty to the point, they had difficulty and again by the time they moved them to arlington, they had been in other parts of the cemetery and other parts of the area that they had difficulties identifying at that point that when they were or whether they had been confederate reunions of the civil war unknowns tomb in arlington is a acknowledged mix in the documentation. >> so tillis was their opposition, this is congress you know.
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to the creation of - >> well there are some things in our certain this life and friction in congress seems to be one of them but to the best of my recollection from research this is pretty widely held and through all four of the initial interments, there was pretty bipartisan things that work for this sort of memorial. chocolate with this way, i don't think it was an uphill battle for congress in the 19 and in the 1920s braided started jump back over but we are seeing from a the chat section, and similaro the point that the uniform there wearing for where they were buried can help draw the solid
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thinking that these are in fact american service members that does initial sort of triage identifications that this is an american servicemember put them into an american cemetery but they were not able to identify them so thank you for those in the chat questions. >> someone asked about recording and everyone who is registered can e-mail and i will give you a link to the recording so if you want to share this with your friends and your neighbors, we would be happy to do that you should know that a farmer person who served in 99 - 12 under 2001 wanted to pay a special thanks because it was precious time in his life. >> i love you and thank you for your service and is really i
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feel and i can speak on the behalf of the societies in order for us to play pay a small part in this commemoration that this is an important anniversary and likely we are talking about, our mission is to inspire and inform and trent patriotism and part of that is recognizing the sacrifices and be able to have this constitutional conversation and that telling the story of the democracy in the united states capitol is a story of sacrifice for future generations and sacrifices made for the preservation of our democracy. so is been an honor absolutely pretty. >> somebody has a question and you showed a picture of the monument his self. how is the monument chosen and how was the sculpture chosen and what is the history of the monument in the gathering around
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the tomb of the unknown soldier. >> this see what i have in my notes. so i will pull up the right will pull this backup in a moment and believe the question is about the actual sort of monument and wino the figures facing toward us in his image are represented ballard and there are six readings representing for the world war i unknowns, six of the major battlefields of the first world war and then there is that quote facing towards amphitheater and the sentinel
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courting the tomb the beautiful quote one of our listeners alluded to write are given to us because it was too good of a quote to get it wrong. so it is here. specific information to kinda give to you guys about the so yes, that is the quick brief on that and again, the honor guard and summa and around the national cemetery they both put together some really outstanding resources to talk about this in the anniversary. and the authenticity of the history of the two and i can tell you this that i do know that the memorial was carved by the, i know apologize, on call today with the brothers who did some of the carvings were in the
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lincoln memorial and elsewhere and they worked on this monument at the tomb of the unknown soldier so it is steep in washington dc as well. >> as we come to the end of our time, that we can talk about the gathering and one of the things that he was very interested in was the encouraging people to celebrate the tomb of the unknown soldier in their own communities on this veterans day coming up in november. while there is not tomb of the unknown soldier in every community, there are people who served in the military and people who lost loved ones across the nation.
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that is one thing that the as a society has a set of resources that we can included the follow-up information with the ideas about how to celebrate. they want have bells, everybody do the valves and including you can do this on your phone and the amazing thing is that now you don't need a church bell to have a coming in after church bells on your phone and a variety if you wanted to see the creativity of the american spirit as we move forward. >> if i made to the point, they have a whole list of centennial objects that they are promoting and working with people to plant never forget gardens with a representation of the tomb badge
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and that here lies the glory known to god and attribute that we may never forget and those who remain that we may never forget those who made the sacrifice and when she said there working on these national projects and so all that is on to your point, is on the true guard .org website and we will share the follow-up. summa there are a couple of things that people are sort of posting about the chat and in the q&a, one of the things in the chat is that 41 members of the society will be going to plant on october 18 to be part of the recreation of the world war i selection. the question looking through is the british tomb of the unknown
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soldier is very important in its national life but not really visited much by foreign dignitaries grants are tomb of the unknown soldier is often visited by foreign dignitaries. do you have any insight on how the tomb has become such a big part of global diplomacy. >> that is a fascinating question and i and this is one of those other areas where i need to be careful i will say i don't have a specific answer to it but i can infer that the british tomb of the unknown soldier is in westminster abbey which is still functional space for the purposes. and of course our international
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cemeteries more of a public, it is the whole purpose of the national cemeteries paying tribute to those who have made the ultimate sacrifice for our nation. but in terms of how this is become a source for global diplomacy, it is fascinating question. it's a geopolitical question, a foreign-policy question but you're absolutely of the question is absolutely accurate in putting out that you can go to the arlington national cemetery and has a photo page that you can find it albums of images and going back a dozen years of every world leader that is come to visit washington that later reads to the tomb of the unknown soldier and perhaps part of the answer is that we have a
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process available for these world leaders to pay tribute to his perhaps part of the as well as during that first target of the world war i, the unknown for world war i was decorated from provide a great number of the dignitaries to award some of the military's highest honor to the world war i unknown as part of the service. so perhaps, a little bit of interest, perhaps part of the impacted importance of our tomb of the unknown soldier is that there was already some global interest and appreciation of and respect for what we were doing here with hours with our world war one pretty and thank you, and i will mention a brief
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correction that they never forget guarded plaque is the east of the tomb, not - for anyone looking to and you can find more information on that. >> the other thing that several people started commenting that it also may be that the united states played a critical role in finalizing the world wars which invented created the united states as a military power and for the tomb of the unknown soldier and many european nations and beyond have their tomb of the unknown soldier and sylvia's have a tomb of the unknown soldier but this is ours and we are talking about hours we also have to love james livingston who pointed out is made up of seven pieces the
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model is from marble or from colorado and his culture was thomas hudson jones and the architect's warmer rich. we are very interested in our folks who really have great resources. and samuel holliday, we are just about at the close of our time and so would you like to kind of give people a charge as we move forward, we would like to see people not just listen to this and say isn't that interesting, but we would like you to take action we would like you to find a way in your own communities to plant a garden, to do a commemoration it and this is 100 years of the tomb of the unknown
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soldier and this is one way that we recognize the people who served in the military and the families whose loved ones served in the military in the past and even today. so sam, give us our charge as we move forward. >> will that is well put jane and i think that you know, but i would say is our role as mentioned earlier is to form patriotism and specific engagement in part of civic engagement, there are a lot of ways of people engage on democracy, it's a participating but the important piece of that is respect and appreciation for the sacrifices that have been made and give us the system. and here are in 2021, and we
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have this absolute privilege to live and exist and work and support this democracy we have the because people have made ultimate sacrifice time and time again to give it to us, many generations long so i think that our charge to ourselves and those of you who are are kind enough to spend time with us today is that as we go about this 100th anniversary and that tomb of the unknown soldier, think about how the civics and engagement and participating in our democracy can to be lived in a way that pays tribute here to the sacrifices made. is incredibly important and is part of our duty in our obligation as citizens to be part of making sure that the sacrifices are not forgotten in the we live up to the promise of our democracy when not always
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lived up to the promise of our founding or are dignity but we always do and part of that is making that commitment to pay tribute to remember and to you know appreciate. >> will thank you sam and thank you for your word is a research and your scholarship and appreciate seeing you in a different world today pretty. >> this veterans day national world war i memorial in washington dc, in 1918 pharmacist ending hostilities between germany and the allies was remembered it to the u.s. navy entered navy ship and the ceremony also marks the centennial of arlington cemeteries tomb of the unknown soldier and world war i servicemen were first laid to rest. >> today you will hear the bell 21 times, signifying the pharmacist and 1111 and the
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causing all hostility the in on the battle of the western front. and then you will hear taps and that is claiming commemoration of this continual of the burial of the world war i unknown soldiers across town in the arlington cemetery only known to god. ♪ ♪♪ ♪ ♪♪
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[bells]. [taps]. [taps]. [taps]. [taps].
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[taps]. ... comcast, along with these television companies support cspan2 as a public service. our weekly series, the presidency highlights the politics pic

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