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tv   Lectures in History The Continental Army  CSPAN  October 23, 2021 12:11pm-1:18pm EDT

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last thing that i would like to do is offer up an honor of the soldiers near and far, we need three cheers for george washington in our continental army. hip hip hurrah and company dismissed. okay, your exam and then we are good to go pretty. >> next, on lectures in history, william woods university professor craig bruce smith, teaches a class about the american revolution and the continental army. he describes how the market forces from the british military demographic organization and selection process. he also talks about the significance of military operations in the northern colonies. >> welcome everybody, to this exciting venture in the history
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of war, today we've got into the continental army so welcome to all of you and welcome to many of our new students and watching from who knows where so happy first day is a say. focusing on the continental army and this is situating this very much and abroad history of war and the military the continental army in a lot of ways is different than other armies that have preceded it largely because it is one that is very much based on ideals and certain concepts and beliefs rather than sort of your traditional army. so what is the continental army first of all, anyone. america okay and so the continental army base in america, it will become the first united states army in the
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u.s. army and is is the army of america yes, but certainly part of the american revolution. yes, united colonies so when does the continental army began, not necessarily the start of the revolution. this was the beginning of the work and a couple of classes ago we were talking about the french indian war and the french indian war was a world war that fundamentally had several different nations primarily france, new york, american continent in the british colonies and many americans had fought alongside the british soldiers and officers during the war does anyone recall some of the things that transpired. [inaudible].
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okay, so the british are looking down on the colonists who are for a number of reasons and that was the tactics and for a lack of formal military training and some of it has to do with how they dressed. we know there's a lot of resistance and there's a large of who holds the higher ranks in a colonial officer, does it outbreak a british officer and as you recall the british officers are lower ranked #the out ranked any colonial officer this infuriated the young jewish washington. so our story begins after the french and indian war and the start of the american revolution so who was give me a standard answer, what caused the american revolution, taxes and the phrase. [inaudible]. okay, we have enough for the representation. taxation's and under and tyranny, that is perfect self
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from there, from the taxes, is also more than that. it is about being treated with a full subject or british subject and openly it falls into violence. in the starts after the tea party and there's the boston in a number of what our intolerable acts and goes into the shutdowns of the local governments and is going to bring in the martial law in massachusetts and the british actions starts under thomas gage's general god military and pattern weapons leading to increased tension. this will ultimately build to a chance to seize the gunpowder and any interest revolutionary figures like john hancock and others in resulted in . [inaudible].
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is this, the shock heard around the world. and it happened in concord a bit anyway, the first because the american revolution is fired when the british regulars made up with a colonial militia. and shots are fired, who fires the first shot. >> no one knows rated. >> exactly but who do this in the british are, the communist rebels, who the communist they fired the first shot, good enough they are british. those murderers and is a myth that the war begins in this eventually with the militia to refreshing in a militia unit was between ages between 16 - 60 and they would meet up roughly once a month and train and think of it like the national guard today.
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most american colonists do have some experience with a gun or musket, more so than your average british soldier margins from horror fighting the americans read but they don't have a formal military training and ranks and stuff. and shots are fired and the colonists lose in the british winds but this is the profound moment that is going to begin the war. thomas jefferson is going to refer to the british, unprovoked murderers and open violation it of faith and honor and define sacred obligations of the treaty which these savage nations even they observe so what is jefferson getting at pretty. >> he sang like one of the british like slaughtered like we did not provoke them. and they were like savages printed. >> so this is new ethics behind
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an fundamentally immoral and uses this term honor and ethical like and what the british of debt is something that was so barbaric kit to determine that this cannot be looked over and this is beyond the and this is a justification for war. we talked about briefly the war principles and what makes a war just and noble in every circumstance? it basically comes down to who attacks use of the americans are presenting themselves as an egregious party so you're planning a defensive war which means what, the rights. largely based on everyone's there is who's read this in class, the philosopher who nation is very much going to correctness of the morality or the owner of a war based on the
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star set so the british are the war, he justifies americans. meanwhile, conquered the bridge, the same that because of has a bridge. so the americans are successfully conquering the bridge waiting as the train skilled british regulus and so what you think this is. william wallace and scottish rebellion. >> trinity. >> okay so you have to cross the bridge meaning the numbers still matter and if have to funnel and rated and he believed this 19th century poem where the shot heard around the world and as for the americans - under orders with the fire. so think of americans colonial militia fighting and probably think of the romanticized notion
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of this so what is the minute man. so they jumped out of the bed, fully clothed them for their hat on and grabbed their and they run out of money to fight. the average musket of the time takes a minute and a half to load. so the idea is the minute man is fighting the regular style and what we called today the style very much copying the native american style and why did the americans develop this style as opposed to the british were fighting very much in land or nation openly information rated. >> they had to defend themselves against the native people that were waiting in the americans when they got there so they had to adapt to their tactics on the kind of learned. >> yes exactly the adapted over centuries pretty. >> also the british were equipped to fight in a style of warfare and they were marching in ranks.
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>> so we've seen is specifically, the battle where the british army defeated by the french and allies using the same tactics. >> the british of the higher numbers to accommodate to that. >> so they had to accommodate and adapt. and now, the positive reception on the march back from the concord is sort of this attack from an we see them fall down there from hidden positions. and they were on these exposed british army and was interesting on this long march back, think about this. the british armies marching back and doing immediate march from boston, to the outskirts of the men marching back with limited ammunition. they can be easily take off we can see in this map is these little explosion boxes and every time you see that, there is
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actually moment where there was a pitch battle so despite the common moment of their sitting and running and hiding behind trees, things like the patriots, there are pitches along this in the forced the british to retreat to boston and defend themselves. ultimately the british tend to take four or five colonial positions of poker hill which as everybody else's actually retail in the americans lose but they have heavy heavy casualties but still this is not continental army, these are colonial militia forces in their been pretty good ratios. the concord retreat to boston and sort of a victory and the idea that the british when but they have heavy losses.
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and this is fighting in massachusetts, that is ultimately going to force a unified response by the colonists and the question is does this america's war, is a massachusetts for. in the continental army will be formed by what you guess, well under the continental congress, we are going to get george washington as commander and chief entity say he is surveying these countries honor and very different than the young washington we talk about his early 20s where he actually resigned his commission and he says, and his country will blend and this is a fundamental reversal of control of washington saying that i am taking this out for the nation and enhancing civilians and he said i take my orders from congress. i do not function as a military dictator. meanwhile, he's in opposition.
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and charles - you remember him from that to second lecture. he is a general, flea. so charles lee acre of trying to change his rank and he thought he would be one of the people commander-in-chief there is others as well and we had a lot of respect, he does not think the americans could fighting the traditional european style and he thinks they should be using this guerrilla militia so that maybe he was retreating back to make the british chase them into the areas in washington is fundamentally opposed to this in washington uses multiple styles. is very much trying to fight the war more the traditional european style and there are a few reasons why an one of them is is concerned and how this
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revolution would be viewed internationally. is there fighting as european do, they will be respected and if they are not, then they may not gain alliances or support and so this is different and these two will sort of clash. many times throughout the revolution. openly washington approves and that's a story that is coming anyway, washington is going to take command any is going to now continental army in boston, they spring of 1775, so right after the fight on bunker hill and at first the for two sites do not get along for tissue and particularly militia of massachusetts and when you think back and we talk about those warfare, the massachusetts militia in particular alex their
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officers. in virginia, where washington is from, they were appointed so was a problem with elected officers versus appointed officers. the popularity contest rather than people are often go with her friends into combat. >> so your voting on i feel like maybe it's kind of a i will do this because pretty. >> and often times who wins is like the most beard or whoever has so washington though is going to try to stack his army in early is certain types of individuals as officers and nowadays, they ramble about this, nowadays every man is a general but this met different
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in 18th century a man of honor and a man of morality and amanda very very and washington said that if you are a gentleman and a man of honor, we can translate that to military because america don't have a professional army so who are your officers in your shoulders, they're just regular people. no formalized training will some have had some more and some have dealt with these things overall so here are the british, trapped in boston. you'll notice the british forever retreat and elevated position, you have american colonial skis become a continental army the force the british out regarding certain areas and first going to evacuate.
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and the battle happened on marcs the overarching map of the campaign so 1775 - 1783, technically it was one and fewer the british, what are your tactics here and how are you going to beat the americans prayed. >> numbers pretty superior army hands down and you want to get them to like cut them off. the navy pretty. >> there you go, the coast block the coast and then the british had another tactical decision and they believed that the war had begun in massachusetts if you cut off massachusetts, what can be stopping them, cut off massachusetts. >> you like prayed like a border and cut them off from the ocean. >> you blockade the men.
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if you new york and you got the hudson and you cut them off and out this is one of the worst kept military secrets, washington back then. he said will attack their so why attack their printed. >> it is the only thing they can do pretty. >> with the british no they'll have shots in the harbor, they can use the navy in washington but the continental congress is in a loss because were the basic obligation of government, there you go. [inaudible]. and they are failing because the british had attacked and clearly left her had lessons in congress created the declaration of independence this race right before the battle of brooklyn in the battle of long island, and these are the reasons there getting some of the chief reasons for breaking away from britain. any and advocated government and
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declaring of protection in waging war against us so how do you slip, your no longer and he has done something wrong and at the same time the americans are taking issue with this more particularly the british will hire mercenaries. so there from a german state and the popular belief the mercenary findings is purely for money and there actually are rented out so they are fighting for the regular physician. in their actually cashing in on this and so, so battle of new york does not go well. in fact, retreat so here is
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washington's retreat from long island to manhattan island, an extremely difficult moving across any body of water that washington proves quite successful in the british will take new york and again, the continental army is forced to retreat. there really crossing the bluffs and traditionally, a major defeat like this would be crushing to a commander and how washington interpreted and how washington uses this to fundamentally change the way we look at military warfare. and handed we do that, while we studied, washington did complain about this defective engagement is a life and never went to formal school so how did most market officers learn to be officers. they've been trained by the british, how did they learn rated yes they can evoke an
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okay, the most successful generals and benedict arnold and others up until a certain time in the u.s., they sold books. so making it simplistic and how did he know, he read a book on it. so they were self-taught mainly; to these military areas learn how to be officers and soldiers. and the idea of this ethical basis of honor. and this was a constant practice of virtue and the duty of the soldiers in the properly performed the idea that if you were acting will and it, you're campaigning that you were doing your duty and you can receive honor and you should seek honor. and james wolf by minute british general actually died during
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this war he would say also and he doesn't want a drunken vicious but according to a statement being with the troops, are guarded against assault and execute their honor so what you want to drunken vicious army reading the intelligence and - >> he is forcing them and they can't. [inaudible]. >> the brakes on the military and the revolution is about the idea of who would you want in your side, the general certainly but who else, you're fighting for the americas. you don't want to upset the balance between potential dangers and potential neutrals. we read about him, okay so frederick the great, and the general, we focus on him before
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and during this point members on the central point, and general's reputation and takes extreme care to concerned with his troops and the idea that he is concerned with the well-being of the average soldier. so what is so shocking about this is that you think about the common soldiers prior to this weather is the british army or any army, they would dredge a society in these were the lower class you join the military, and so they were expendable. so what is frederick the great doing here pretty. >> is talking about how the numbers of the army is really important and each individual man is needed at this point like a single person could make you win or lose. >> and at the same time, what happens if the army loses too
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many. the revolution and the war is over and so there's an understanding of the soldier is something different. another british general published a book entry seriously and when is officer in the misfortunate and suffered by it, provided he does his duty and acting like a soldier. when or lose, at some point an officer will lose. and it should not be officer chasing the potential of victory song as we putting the valleys effort, they can be honorable in performing their duties in washington literally is going to relay this to lafayette, the general into a senate when he says, no rational person at would condemn me for not fighting and all will.
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[inaudible]. and is not intended for six is what is watching and getting at pretty. >> basically is okay and descended not make like the odds against it or you don't do it but give a small chance for the author with you if you just russia tour - >> yes you have an obligation to preserve it and so some of it is about maintaining the revolutionary and some of it is protecting the man. if a decedent british army when you have this and there's less sort of a difference between the gentleman officer in your soldier. >> so the tactics so this is the general and their classic defenses tactics in the first defense and the cartilage the classical era and saved in which
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we talked about long long ago, involve the defensive war. so defensive war applies the fighting want to make sense for you and forcing the enemy to act that washington is only going to fight when it make sense for him otherwise he would pretreat literally from new york and new jersey and she did the british chasing him in particular general charles wallace and ben franklin. actually returned to washington as the fox and he treats his yes it is a game and hunt literally i think washington washington's pretty inviting pretty sweet using these tactics he is using it because he wants to maintain the army and when the situation is in his favor, such as here,
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he is very elaborate difficult crossings of the rivers and the delaware and attacking hutchinson ways of the battle and preserving the war and getting the americans this big boost when the wars and work commissions were running out. in fighting this war and defenses in ways rather than being a soldier aggressive to the idea of the older attack attack attack. washington watches abuse the war differently, he gives them an opportunity to serve the country and. anyone can serve but he also expands it to the military and they could be civilians and providing food or clothing and
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literally taking of collections defeat the army and it could be even african-americans who are joining the army to serve in a variety of capacities and expanding the recommendations of who is a gentleman. really hierarchy term. but as early as 1775, at the start of the war, they were called the gentleman's soldier and is being done in germany and being used for continental armies and being used for malicious mischief fundamentally different. the national guard units like local minute and the 50 - 60 range and that is become the noble character. and the service of the country, so they become the gentleman i serving the nation rather than to obtain or to allure as we talked about an earlier talks.
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every soldier should be a gentleman, how to get there, merit and they've collected the french and american indian war, they had started to promote based on merit rather than based on status. the soldiers have to regard to become, and this is carried on two other officers general anthony wayne and another officer, john howard and the idea that honor to the soldiers, as for the officers and it's not just for the individual so how a person acts reflects her officers. how you behave will reflect your col. are general and the nation. meanwhile, we do have african-american soldiers both free and enslaved so does anyone know the first battle that african-americans spotted in the
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american revolution. trivia question. there are african-americans on the bunker hill. so they conquered bunker hill back in massachusetts, they were not segregated and african-americans who fought in which washington and the continental army and served other canceled generals and initially for bed either not just enslaved but the free african americans and ultimately going to move back in going to allow the freed and then ultimately freed and then why the change. one is the pragmatic of the british under the lord who was a royal governor. in the providing freedom for any slave who fights against the
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colonists. in washington it was shot that all other slaveholders and ultimately response and this is about, this issue is about combating hurried and when he starts to get reports like these. so a veteran and campaigns and around boston in a character of man who behaved like an experienced officer an excellent soldier so not just us, any soldier that is experienced officer so elevating the african-american soldier. general john thomas said other black men but other men, all men. in looking at sort of the conduct and the horrible nature so it could be a move that roughly about 5000
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african-americans that were underserved in some capacity in the continental army and certainly offering freedom for service to anyone read and meanwhile, things didn't go so well for washington's army in fact in the battles around philadelphia, washington leaves in the capitol is going to be occupied by the british army. so this is one of the major low point of the war and forces forces washington to retreat and meanwhile, the british have a plan. gentleman johnny, so yeah, this name because of his love of champagne and buying clothes and he's a ladies man and he was a playwright. so, they were going to come down from canada and another british
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march war from new york city, they go along the hudson and cut off - and this long march through this treacherous terrain the mountains and forests and he has an exceptionally long wagon train, a lot of stuff dedicated and also one just dedicated to his champagne and that may sound ridiculous the wired dragging your champagne through the upstate new york u.s. it's not as ridiculous in the. because the british officers and the generals high rank were expected to entertain any other officers also the officers would stop requisition and they would have a party. you can throw these parties, it's really calling into question your sort of character somebody's with these now
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entered native allies and they getting terrified, this is not a good tactic and we have to be aware and effective reading he's a no-nonsense. and ultimately, the american army continental army, led by a trained officer and also followed washington back to the french and indian war are going to cut off this other army. they will say he single-handedly won the victory but there is another man that single-handedly done and that is benedict arnold, american hero. and you also arnold, if find these orders and they have this ongoing feud. it was about command and rank and largely arnold had been loyal to general skyler you probably remember his daughter from the musical.
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is actually been ordered to leave the battle field and he single-handedly stop the potential retreat and he pushes forward and and ultimately there is a victory in saratoga and arnold was shot in the leg and he got back on his horse and his horse and fallen some of him and his men would carry him off the field. as if he were a soldier and he is asked, general, how are you and he goes, wounded in the leg and he said i would rather have been wounded in my heart. so is looking for this glorious and this romantic sort of classical death and had a director, he would probably been one of the latest american heroes of war.
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and he would become statute in the patriotic legacy and the rest of them - [laughter] and so, they're going to surrender the army that's a major turning point in the negotiations and proves to the french, that the americans could potentially lead in the were willing to get into this more some time for no other reason than they hope to gain back some of the land that they may have lost in the french and indian war. so they come in and there's no line formed in the treaty of 1778, and so the alliance between the americans and the french so the french are going to send money and supplies ultimately an army to take over and more importantly, what his friends do. the most important contribution to the american revolution.
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>> louisiana. >> the navy, they can not up to the british and the french navy is comparable in many respects and this will cut off a lot of these british advantage. so as news of saratoga spreads, washington it is at the darkest period of the war and even valley forge is in snow and shore supplies, short of clothing and meanwhile they just want to have a victory against becomes the hero of the north. and sars potentially inspiring and washington is lost and allows the cabin to fall rated any washington is not right for the honor some say. and this is going to be during this period of victory new york and is going to lead to unseat
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washington but before we come to this, a winter encampment in valley forge is crucial one of the reasons is crucial is arming the 18th century don't fight in the wintertime. you find in the spring or fall or summer. was during the winter in the army is able to train and they had a hard fight since this war began. and who helps train the army, washington. [inaudible]. the friedrich. [inaudible]. and he's going to be responsible for bringing in a european drill masters concept. the problem is he does not speak english and most americans don't speak german so how they do it, he would have one model unit
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basically yell at them and relate them in german >> them and show them what to do and one model unit within show the other units with the need to do. but the continental army was training to fight the european army and through him, actually creation of of this regulation which basically a code of contact for the continental army and they create a book as many of them had learned so there sort of creating the basis of forming this european thing. so there were advantages of this. meanwhile, conway, so with that is general conway, he was irish and he and many foreigners join the continental army. they said oh you have an accent. so they can sort of embellished
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the military record and you could rise quickly in the war. and gates and conway, there's this question to that there is potential attempts to maybe put case in command. it becomes record and washing tenant had this to be true they still trust in it that ultimately though, this is they found that in cases sort of shamed. meanwhile, charles lee comes back he had been captured and had been a prisoner of the british army where he may or may not of credit committed treason in the late 19th century adopted that he joined up unplanned to tell the british how they could defeat the americans rated the question is
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was this false information or was he literally trying to betray the americans let you be the judgment nobody knew at the time. he return he's been out of touch she's been a captive for two years the world passing by but he had been in this constant adversary washington. he is fought throughout europe and this all comes to a head again at the battle in new jersey. and lee is given command of the vanguard mission which is a prestigious position leaving the army at the front. in order to attack and he said i shall not accept that so washington avoids lafayette and lafayette accepts. now lee is upset that a junior officer is been placed in command rather than him then he demands a position in a big 70 mark is out.
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and ultimately the orders and the question is is in a direct order implied in the sense that he is supposed to attack and he retreats instead and washing tenant is actually running backn washington sort of said what are you doing. and why are you retreating in washington whence and he said to me, what are you doing sir and paraphrasing a bit here he said he calls them. [inaudible]. and he said what is a mean, you coward. and publicly in all of these languages at the sound of washington swearing in anyway, washington it relieved him of command and personally charges
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and writing a potential retreat. this basically stops any sort of challenges for washington sort of a political sign to them also and lee is going to actually demand a court-martial saying that he was or his honor has been infringed on and insulted with the court replied in washington's favor. and he publishes all source of pamphlets and challenges a woman to a dual and she said that she got the color of his pants wrong so therefore she would get on things wrong. ultimately this would be a real dual fought to defend washington in washington it is opposed to this basically is the end of charles and basically the end of any sort of pushed against washington. the french will arrive under the general rule and the admiral and this is going to be the
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continental army. the equipment and the training, and meanwhile philadelphia's going the british will evacuate philadelphia. now the question is, who is going to be placed in command there. perhaps the battlefield hero known for his gallantry and his looks. benedict arnold, he's given this really prestigious command and arnold the battlefield, he wants to fight but is not ready yet so is getting into this position and he accepts and the problem is he's full of himself and he talks about it and he talks too much and he runs his mouth and congress does not like him. and he feels that he is constantly passed over by other lesser officers. inferior officers have been promoted over him and he said
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when the charge before using government property pillaging and other charges that he talks about after the war. he is placed in charge here so they demand that he swear the oath of loyalty. and arnold said how dare you, but i do know this country so he takes to his friends and another officer had enough and arnold set up his military governor and what are his first acts as the party and he invites no members of the continental army. in his right there in the corner, a loyalist family and through heard that he may or may not admit an acquaintance of the british john andre and potentially correspondence ultimately leads to treason and
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arnold obviously has the codename of gestapo after we read earlier swedish general and then the british, go south young man. the british had to the south and the constantly chasing loyalist and if they can think of the boylston america would help turn the tide of the war and they really have faulty intelligence dating back to 1774 from governor thomas hutchinson rated and most of the colonies are so from wallace and and he will push through in south carolina with the idea the war. and who is first in command,
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during the early days with the battle. it's going to be horatio, the great war hero in the south and there's this crushing defeat at the battle of kansas that gates is going to retreat. some reports say 180 miles further than his army. how does he do that, he literally runs away he runs from british, 70 miles away. and because of his cowardly ineffective, this is just proving everything that was sort of in some ways - and alexander hamilton who is washington's famously joking that he is not shocked the gates actually did this that americans specifically that is capable of writing so
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far so that is the end. he's put in charge and said with col. wallace is the general, from road island ace: writing crater, he's a quaker and quakers are usually passive but he was very much sort of resistance fighting a defensive war and he's going to achieve general in the southern campaign in the south is particularly in the frontier can be very much bipartisan fighting and by that, i mean, versus the patriots and so not necessarily traditional regular army but different fans altogether read so this is we get the patriot war. and you know that disney movie in fighting this guerrilla style and makes it difficult oftentimes know who is who.
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and also leads to-degrees of atrocities when you have virtual patriots and in one case you have one commander, is in the sort of frontier area. ... ... proper treatment of civilians, this is something washington invented. it comes to be known by this individual, a british officer,
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you mado him, he's also in harry potter. now, jason isaacs, long hair, came. that guy. [laughter] just to show how widespread this is, as a young teen, going on to become president, literally refusing the regiment and get the favor to the side of his head and vowed to fight the british for the rest of his life. andrew jackson. all different ages fighting in combat. meanwhile, for the north, after philadelphia ready to return to
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command. the chargers while in philadelphia and found guilty, his reprimand is relatively light, public center from washington that basically boiled down to general arms conduct not having the change in the future. so is furious, last protector washington has betrayed him from america defended his honor. going to plot to make dairy change to the british. he's going to angle in washington is shocked by this, why does he want to outcoached? he agrees and west point crucial for this right here edits along
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the hudson and that's literally a chain, a big thick chain like this big across the hudson river. what you think it's meant to do? what work? what you think? anyone say yes? bottom line, no one knows. the british never tested but if west point's folding and the chain and batteries are removed, but can the british do take the hudson and therefore defy the colony which they've been trying to do. the self-portrait, a fashionable gentleman is going to arrange to
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meet with them and they do it under secret. the thing is, andrea is a british major, general plaintiff and he wants to meet with him past american lines. if a british officer is meeting with benedict arnold, amanda, that with look a little suspicious so he tells andre to take it off. what happens the moment he takes it off? he's a spy. they all responded andre's caught by a movie band, moving militiamen. this long-term, are they royal, are the questionable loyalty? but otherwise they become liberated great heroes andre
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unfortunately identifies himself as major andre. this shocking display they are not british -- so arnold is discovered, andre is to be caned as a spy but washington the use of this great moment. there had been difficulties between the army and civilian population for the army is complaining the civilian population isn't supply, where is the food? where's the clothing? if it was, it's being sent exponentially high prices. meanwhile, civilians are saying how come you haven't won this work? you let the capitol fall. but it's this moment that shocks
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all of america together, a moment like 9/11 or pearl harbor that brings everyone back. the question is why? it's a galvanizing moment so general was say if not virtually among ourselves to check mr. arnold without seeing side of the grant object, we need to rise above. if we cannot, we will lose and we should boost. he's going to say this is a great thing. it's never happened before. how dedicated are americans at this is the first instance of its kind when more are to be expected? improves the value of devotion to the cause. within a year at the end of march, a major final battle is going to move himself north of
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virginia on a peninsula we talked about this before, why don't you want to put yourself on a peninsula? only one way out so how does he do it? seeking retreat the of the navy but through a quick march, late march, french and americans jointly are going to surround at the peninsula and the french are going to come off the british so you are literally going to have a seat you could have a seat and cornwallis doesn't have a way out. he forced the surrender. the british band plays the song, this is the last major battle of the revolution and carries on for a couple more years but this is it. what if the british stop fighting? why do you think?
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they continue, prolonging new york. >> there's nobody left the country. >> you still cap broyles but you now not only have to defeat the army, you have to get the hearts and minds of americans in fact problematic. this is possibly. [inaudible] >> so now i this night, the french, spanish allred, professionally, has become the world for in many respects or at least extended european war. it's not the best interest so your account is the last major ballast battle but there is a skirmish in the thing to worry about is this lone figure carrying on and go past terms of duties like arnold, exceeding
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what they should be doing but as peace starts coming to an end, rumor starts circulating and one last fight with his own officers. the good news is, it's not far. the british army is still in new york city and they remained there until after the war. the continental army checking on them, watching over them. the problem was the officers have not been paid. why they haven't been paid -- they didn't have any money. worthless continental powers. they'd also been promised has to pay for life's a pension. problems?
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and congress doesn't have money so rumblings. especially if it comes from what you think they're going to do? >> they don't have enough money or if they were injured in the war, they can't work. >> they are not needed so will comes to be known as the newport conspiracy or affair, depending on how you want to terminate, continental officers were due secretly meet and two things to discuss, accrue on congress or two, behind the mountains, but the british marched out of the city and do what? whatever. until congress pays them. fundamentally both of these are problematic. these ideologically go against
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this revolution so what washington is going to do is show he's in charge. to call his own meeting, you are going to meet with me instead. he's going to appeal to them based on what comes to be known as the newberger address and he's going to use these words and let me conjure you the names of our common country as you value fuel own sacred to express your utmost manifestation of your pretenses, people who turn liberties of our country. march 15, that was only four days ago so what does washington say here? not just yourself, what have we fought for? what would this become? the sacred honor aside from
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dabbling, where have we seen these two words? trivia. >> like american text? >> yes. the declaration of independence. our lives and fortunes and the declaration to make this back, civilian supremacy, the ideals of the revolution over the needs of the individual for the greater good of society think it's about the country, think of what we have accomplished, it's never been done before and you've given up? what usually happens after civil war conflict, how they usually and, you think about the classical era or civil war, what usually happens? >> like a treaty or contract. >> okay and who takes control?
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maybe it came from where this new ruler came from so think about all of her on the war or later on napoleon, these military seizing power in this would not happen so ultimately this is going to appeal in washington, it's a personal thing and he has a letter he's going to read in washington loses his eyesight most people don't know this, he wore glasses but he doesn't want anyone to see them because it's not cool. he didn't want to show weakness so what he does is hold them out and he puts them on and he says, he reminds them what he's given, the office start crying and they embrace it as washington's showing humility but basically
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appeal to their ideals and the revolution is preserved and the army comes out as champion of liberty. probably the most important in american history in my opinion, certainly the last major accident. so in annapolis in 1783. so washington is going to surrender his commander-in-chief to the continental congress. what's so different, what's so shocking about this? >> because kind of where he came from -- >> okay, the sense that this is always resulted in some sort of
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king, and emperor, protector, whatever they want to call themselves in washington is literally taking up power and it's a man has become. this is where we cut the term george the third, king george the third, actually is expecting washington to name himself king. why? because that's what he understood. so he's going to be told washington but the idea of is what seals washington's mortality, he's compared to the american, we
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talk about the roman -- well, so cincinnatus had been granted powers of rome and what did he do? gave it back, returned and he said so gladiator and cincinnatus so washington surrenders his power here and this reserves the billion primacy and maintains all after, the army serves the civilian government. it would be a monarchy, it would be civilian control. embrace the ideals of the revolution and this moment in a lot of ways proves the ideal and continental army was based on actually helped and that's what's so profound, so different in the history of warfare
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looking at armies prior and after the continental army we see audiological focus and we see it in the french revolution as well but we still see in the french revolution, the rise of napoleon. we still see revolution and civil wars, these strongmen or generals. it's washington and one of the few individuals to do it at all. thanks, everyone for coming back. [applause] >> did you know you can listen to lectures and history on the go? stream it as a podcast anywhere, anytime. you're watching american history tv. washington unfiltered.

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