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tv   Nashville After the War of 1812  CSPAN  October 16, 2021 7:00pm-7:49pm EDT

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events live or on-demand anytime anywhere on our new mobile video at c-span now. access top highlights, listen to c-span radio app and discover new podcasts all for free. download c-span now today. >> american history tv is on social media. follow us at c-span history. >> on half of the foundation, i want to welcome you to jackson's home, the hermitage, and to our inaugural history and court program. tonight is the first installment of a three-part series to celebrate the bicentennial of the first version of the hermitage mansions completion in 1821. for the prior 17 years that jackson's had lived in a two story log farmhouse on this property. in november of that year they
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moved into their newly completed dream home, my term. the house is a nucleus of the mansion we treasure today. in history uncorked we want to give our participants view a sense of the early 19th century social, , economic, political and aesthetic context of the times in which the jackson's lived and when the mansion was constructed. today we are honored to have drt speaker at our history and court series. dr. bucy is a professor of history at volunteer state community college. she holds a phd in history from vanderbilt university as well as history degrees from baylor university and george peabody college. sorry. in 2011 dr. bucy was appointed davidson county historian i then
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mayor karl dean, a position she continues to hold. carol is the author of tennessee through time, the early years, and tennessee through time, the later years. these are the social study textbooks currently used in the fourth and fifth grades classrooms in the numerous schools across tennessee. she's also the author of history carved in stone, the city cemetery, women helping women, ywca of national, exercising the franchise, building the body politic, the league of women voters and public policy 1960 -- 1945-1964 and several scholarly articles. she has served as a member of the board of directors of the presbyterian historical society in philadelphia and is the vice
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president of the tennessee historical society. as a longtime advocate for local and state history she regularly conducts educated workshops on the incorporation of tennessee history into existing u.s. history courses and is a frequent speaker across the state on a variety of historical subjects. if you've ever heard someone say history is boring, clearly they have never heard dr. bucy speak. she brings to her subjects tremendous academic knowledge, deep and thorough research, a true passion for history, and a delightfully dry sense of humor. i'm also excited to report that c-span heard about our series and her presentation, and they are here filming to nights episode that will be broadcast later this fall. at the conclusion of her comments, you are invited to ask
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questions. to do so please step up to the microphone here in the center of the room. also please plan to join us for our next history and court program on october 14. so i hope you have all uncorked some wine. now sit back and here some delightful storytelling. please join with me in giving a warm hermitage welcome to dr. carole bucy. [applause] >> thank you, howard. i am really delighted to be here tonight, and it's always a pleasure to have an opportunity to talk about nationals history. now i don't know about you but in the interest of full disclosure i'm going to tell you right now, i am not a native. now, i grew up in texas. i came here to graduate school before some of you were born i'm
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sure, and i like like thish higher state ever since. and i just think this is a lovely place to be here at the hermitage i remember coming here on a vacation in the family station wagon we drove from bottom taxes all the way to washington, d.c. to two or come from parents to give my brother me the two of the nation's capital, , and we stopped here t the hermitage. and i was mesmerized. i'd never been in the house museum after that time and it was a great experience and i've enjoyed coming out here over the 47 years that i have been married to a tennessean and incoming letter to the hermitage for various events and various programs. now i want to tell you a little bit about nashville and is up to 1820 when the beginning of the hermitage as you and i know it again.
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nashville began as a dream. land speculation was abundant and the major cause of people primarily scots and irish but not exclusively crossing the appellation mountains before the revolutionary war. they cross the appellation mountains and came across over here with you were not supposed to be. it was illegal to do that but they saw opportunity, and people had come into that upper eastern corner of our state, and things go people than began to come in more numbers. now that is not the place you're going to have a big plantation with lots of cotton, right, on rocky top. though not be a lot of cotton raised on rocky top but they came not for that purpose. they came for the opportunity to
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own land and own a big plot of land, even if they were going to have to to take it from someone else, another part of this story. but they came here for the opportunity to own land because land equals independence. it equaled you are your own person. you owe no win anything. and so the population of those little settlements grew very, very slowly, but then the revolutionary war is beginning. it was decided that about half the population was going to really, i hate to say this, but take advantage of the war going on on the other side of the mountain to come all the way over here to the cumberland river. they weren't going to have that normal progression of moving just a little bit for the west and a little bit further west and then a little bit further west. they were going to do what theodore roosevelt and the former state historian walter durham called the great leap
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westward. they were going to leap over the cumberland plateau and settle here. the reason they had picked this spot was that james robertson who was a surveyor and a long hitter had been here a time or two and he had seen the abundant amount of gain, come because al of these salt licks where salt comes up out of the service of the ground were attracting animals and so you had animal trails leading all over middle tennessee where you could see what the land looked like, and then they were followed by hunters, native american hunters and, as was the long hunters come from primarily for ginny and north carolina. and so this great leap was made in the middle of the revolutionary war and it was a hotly contested effort to claim this land because the chickamauga ends, that hostile
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group of the cherokees, had tried to prevent these people from stink. they tried to push him out in the casualty rate among the early settlers was very, very high. but they began to settle down. north carolina will ultimately claim this popular settlement here. you have pocket in east tennessee and a pocket here with about 300 miles in between the two back pockets of settlement. and so you have got people here and north carolina is going to create some counties so they create sumner county, tennessee county, and davidson county. and when these counties are created of course if you're going to have county you've got to have a county judge, right? then if you're going to have a court, i think you're going to need a lawyer, right? so that the point north carolina's legislature appoints john mcnary to be the county judge, and he brings with him
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his buddy and lawyer friend, none other than andrew jackson. andrew jackson developed quite a successful legal practice here in come on the frontier area of the edge of the civilization. he did lots of contested land claims was part of his legal business because you are saying is my land and your neighbor saying no, the boundary is not that rock, it's that tree. so people were arguing about land here all the time. these were truly adventurous people, and just think about the women that had the fortitude to come on this madcap adventure. rachel donald sims parents were part of the leading effort and her father who was 51, which looks pretty young to me today, but it was, he was totally. james robertson would in -- was in his 30s.
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he saw opportunity and he was coming. he and his wife have some children that are grown, and one of his daughters got all the way to the ohio river on these flatboat that had come all the way down the tennessee river, thence up the ohio and up the cumberland to hear. they have decide when to get to the ohio river they could not go upstream and they headed for natchez, mississippi. sir andrew jackson's here and i've got to tell you nashville grows that the city, the town itself does not grow very rapidly. it's a kind of a wild place. these scots irish were highly literate, , the people assigned the cumberland compact, there were only a couple of people who could not write their name, all male of course, but they signed the cumberland compact and illiterate, so these people are
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not particularly interested in church. they're not overdue to found churches in the missionaries. what they want to do is give their children educated, and so the first that they create is a school, davidson academy, and to bring in a presbyterian minister who is to run the school and educate the children. davidson academy had a pretty hard time going. there were two back other important institutions here before and after statehood. one was a masonic lodge. the masonic lodge was sort of what i would call secular christianity. it was a male organization. it was what when some people might get a call networking. you were there with these other people. the masonic lodge actually started some schools but the masonic lodge was one of the male institutions and it was, if you were a rising person with
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ambition, you would join the masonic lodge. the other thing that every male had no choice but to be an was the state militia. and that was actually written in before the state, that was written into the cumberland compact that every young man over about 16 was going to have to be armed and ready because they knew they were going to be fighting the chickamaugans. the chickamaugans had left no doubt they're going to allow the settlers to stay here. the nashville grows rather slowly, and yet here comes this invention, the cotton gin, and once it is patented, people living here start looking for more opportunities. south, maybe down towards columbia, longer growing seasons. cotton could be raised there.
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down in alabama which is part of the mississippi territory and over into mississippi. west tennessee where the chickasaws had control of that land. treaty after treatment had been signed with the various tribes reserving this piece of land for this piece of land for these tribes. but again and again land hungry settlers came and put themselves there and state their claim in spite of the fact that it was on land reserved for the native americans. so once the cotton gin gets introduced here you are suddenly going to see land hungry people coming that intensifies when tennessee becomes a state in 1796, and people are still coming. they are pushing all the way down to the tennessee alabama border by about 1810.
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imagine this, if you go west from here you'll get to the tennessee river but one of the tributaries over there just a little bit south of where waverley is, one of the tributaries over there is the duck river, and a group of settlers had gone over there and planted themselves and were there when the creeks decided to attack. the creeks attacked the settlement and kill a lot of people, take martha crawley as a hostage and they go back down into southern alabama where they lived. now of course that word travels very fast to nashville and people in nashville are ready to go. they want to go down there and avenge the attack on this duck river settlement. so there's a lot of talk about this in nashville. our major general of our
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militia, tennessee is a state mind you, is andrew jackson, and he is defeated john severe in that contest that militia elected its own officers. he had defeated john severe. so the militia is ready to go. the older generation that had been in some way or another affected by the revolutionary war, they had experienced war. it were not so ready to go but the younger whippersnappers are here, they are ready to go avenge the deaths at duck river and then the creeks again make an attack at this time it is for men switches in alabama, almost -- fort mance, towards the coast. they have a large group of settlers there and the creeks attacked them at fort mims and pretty much kill everybody. women and children.
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so our governor is ready to call up the militia and he finally gets permission from president madison to go do this. so we have got to get our militia down there to avenge all of these killings of settlers. well, , if there's one small problem with our militia, it seems that our major general has been an little bit of a our room brawl with the bitten brothers, and he has a little affliction. he is taken a bullet summer. in her chest force shoulder and he can really get on his horse with only one arm. so we have to wait until a major general is ready to ride before the militia can go off that into alabama. and not so many years ago the militia reconnoitered with the militia coming from east tennessee in fayetteville tennessee which is south of
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nashville almost to the alabama border. they reconnoitered there and the people of fayetteville had a gun for this occasion and it was some anniversary, and they've got jackson on his horse with his arm in a sling. but he was ready to go and these young men were ready to go as well. what takes place, , you got notable people there at what is called the battle of horseshoe bend. i've been to that river. what takes place as pretty much a bloodbath. the creeks thought they had a really good defensive position in the band of the river, but here comes the tennessee militia. they have two of those short cannons and they start lobbying cannonballs over the embankment that the creeks have put up, and the creeks are really, really badly defeated, and very few survived the battle.
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so now the tennessee militia is reading everything that people had said about the people who lived over here in the cumberland settlement. now let me read what one writer wrote about what the settlement, national settlements were. she called it a male preserve, a brawling hard drinking town on the surface at least, hardly even a community. there were taverns here, there and everywhere run by all sorts of people and the people who really were where the resie really mostly lived out in the country where the land was. they weren't living down there at the public square, market street on the riverfront, and that was a hard drinking place. but here we have become heroes overnight ansa president madison within a point and are jackson to be the major general of the
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u.s. army and sends our boys down to new orleans. now you know what's going to happen in new orleans. unfortunately, the news did not travel very fast, and the war had been kind of a disaster from the point of view of the united states. after the city of washington, d.c. was burned and dolley madison had to race out from the dinner table without even getting to eat your dinner as the british burned the presidency mansion, so president madison had only decided to send negotiators to europe to negotiate a peace treaty with great britain. the treaty of ghent ending this war was signed on december 24 in belgium but, of course, what did not get to new orleans that this was happening, and general jackson had his men in in a d defensive position waiting for the british navy and the british soldiers to come.
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shelnutt plantation just down the river close to the mouth of the mississippi river in new orleans. the british to come and it is the thing that myths are made of, the battle of new orleans. i can still there tennessee ernie ford sings about the battle of new orleans. so the tennessee volunteers, it was a ragtag army, had some kentucky sharpshooters, you've got some enslaved people, you've got some various other folks from new orleans in the army, but they held the day. and now the war is over, hooray hooray. we have defeated the british not once but twice. and the first george washington defeated them in the revolutionary war. the second george washington is andrew jackson. and people here are enthusiastic to know him.
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he is a national name all of a sudden. and it is this, the winning of the war of 1812 and the timing simultaneously with the coming of the steamboat that is a major turning point in nashville and tennessee history before the civil war. because here we are the frontier outpost, hardly a town, and william carroll could been in the tennessee militia and that fought with jackson, he now invests in a steamboat. we've had some coming down the mississippi river from pittsburgh all the way to new orleans 1811-1812 and so we invests in a steamboat that would come up the cumberland river. now you think of a steamboat as what the general jackson looks like today, multi-decks, but these are very low boats with a side battle and there was a
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steam engine on them. they were very dangerous because the engines often exploded. but he invests in this steamboat that general jackson, and it comes to national. now it is going to change nashville's future because nashville center writer in the middle of what is going to become this big center of commerce and nationals going to have banks, the trade business is going to be absolutely phenomenal. and when the war ends, the creeks are pushed out of alabama, the chickasaws are pushed out of what is mississippi and west tennessee. so guess what? land, land, land. get over here quickly and by some. it is going to go fast. answer big investors such as james winchester from sumner county, andrew jackson from davidson county and john
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christmas macklin more from davidson county manage to invest in a great deal of acreage in west tennessee. and they start selling it with the cotton gin, and now this, you are going to see people, land speculation frenzy. and, of course, if you're going to raise cotton, you know what else that's going to bring to nashville and the rest of these areas, larger numbers of enslaved people than ever had been expected. indeed, the market for slavery suddenly went up, a surplus of slaves in the virginia area. now there's a demand for slaves here and slaves will be brought through middle tennessee on their way west to be sold at a higher price. slavery was a business in nashville as well. and so here we have got all of this people buying land, and
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then we have our first national depression. the panic of 1893. the citizens who have invested in land but they didn't have the money to come in other words, they borrowed it from the banks, they go to the state legislatures, the general a silly and safe help us. what we need you to do is get the banks to postpone foreclosing on our land. and, of course, in some cases some of the land owners have more or less done personal financing and they were owed money as well. the legislature voted to do that. it was considered unconstitutional. the court decided unconstitutional, but mercifully we recovered from the depression, and from that point forward nashville was a city we will soon attract a first rate
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educator from princeton, new jersey, to come to nashville, philip linsley, to open a new college, the university of national which will become a leading institution across the south. educationally it has a medical school and dimensioning school, has many, many courses. you will see banking thrived or qac riverboats come up and down the river. you'll see all sorts of people wanting to come and visit with andrew jackson. one of the people who have dinner out here finally getting around to found some churches in nashville. they didn't have any churches for a while and so one of the people who's in and out quite a lot is a man who is actually ordained as a presbyterian minister alexander campbell. he was the founder of this restoration movement, let's restore the new testament church. and he comes in quite a lot and become such a the hermitage to have dinner with general jackson.
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general lafayette makes kind of a big grand tour of the united states. there is a parade. there is a beautiful ball. he is here to visit with the general as well. so this puts nashville on the map, and we are still on the map today. nashville changed almost overnight from this hard drinking town of drunks on the street -- and i know what you all are thinking about, but now i'm not going to talk about those, some not going to bring that subject up. but we have changed into rather cosmopolitan place. i must say, 200 years later it is a great pleasure for me to live here. it is also always a pleasure for me to see any historic house remaining upright and thriving and beautifully cared for as
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this one is. because we have loved a good bit of our historical fabric in many of the houses that we did not preserve. thank you very much. now, i'm ready to take questions if you will come to this microphone over here. i would love to hear some questions from you, whether i can answer them or not remains to be seen but i but i woo some questions from you. there are people here who probably know a lot more about andrew jackson fan i do that i will get some help from then if i need it. anybody have a question? okay, please. please come up to the mic. >> so can you talk about what the infrastructure and nationals like at the time? what with the roadways like? how hard was travel at the time when jackson was here?
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>> travel was pretty hard. we were not much on spending money. we've always been kind of low taxes over here. i think it's a scotch irish folks who were the founders here but we had some roads, the state of north carolina actually sent some soldiers over here before statehood and built a road to connect the east tennessee settlements with the cumberland settlement, and it ran more or less from knoxville sort of two gallatin and that was called the avery trace in north carolina built that road but there were not a lot of roads and it's not really until about this time when the hermitage is being built that nashville decides it really needs a waterworks. they will have a big sister and downtown. they have a in the cumberland river -- cistern it's between,
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if you are going from here to downtown nashville to the nissan stadium you will see this place, this kind of brick things, chimney i guess i would call her, in the middle of the cumberland river which is what it took the water out. they had a system. they have, can you imagine this quacks they had wooden pipes, water pipes. they had wooden water pipes, here and in knoxville, very sophisticated those wooden water pipes. they had a way of getting them hollowed out. i can imagine the tools that it to get those things hollowed out to hold water. but nonetheless, they had volunteer fire department. they did have a plat laid out drawn by thomas molloy, a survey, very early, 1784. it had the city lots and have the names of all the streets. the streets running by the river
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was called front street or water street. that's first avenue now if you know nashville. that is first avenue. so you had that street and then the second one was market and so on and so forth, and they had about ten blocks. the hills where our state capital is today was called the cedar knob. alexander -- not alexander campbell but another campbell bought the hill, and it was given to the state in the 1840s when it took, can you believe it took tennessee intel 1843 to decide on where they're going to have a permanent capital? that if you lived in tennessee long you know exactly why. memphis didn't want it in nashville but they certainly didn't want to go to knoxville. knoxville didn't want it in memphis. they didn't want it in nashville either. it's these regional rivalries. at one point believe it or not
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one of, west tennessee legislators suggested west tennessee would just secede from tennessee, and this is in the te 1840s, and create their own state called, just what? jacksonian honor. catchy name. they would create jacksonian honor here there's another state rep from east picky junk. his name is andrew johnson. he's going places. his future is i guess bright but nonetheless he says if you're going to secede than were going to secede and go back to that name of the state of franklin. so what do the legislators from national do? they start appropriating money to build roads in west tennessee and east tennessee. but in spite of this granted, the streets were pretty much nonexistent, and you would have some boardwalks for sidewalks
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and you would have some transportation. but over all, living in the city was really kind of a a dirty e to live because you've got chickens running loose and you've got all manner, you don't have a good sewage system. so living in the city was in some ways kind of unhealthy. so that's why people built these houses, if they had any wealth they would build the houses out like all of these houses out in this area that the donald sends built and travelers rest like the overtones built, glenn levin, the thompson's house, eventually -- that's close to the civil war when that house gets built but they are going to want to stick out as opposed to being in town. a lot of people, men, kept town houses in the city and work in the city but they had a house
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out in the countryside somewhere to keep the kids healthy. because epidemics did come through. one of the big epidemics that did come through a lot was cholera we do know cholera was caused by drinking contaminated drinking water. the way this happened with no sewage system in the spring when it would rain very hard the water table under the ground would rise and then people would be drinking contaminated water. one of the people who died of cholera in 1849 in a big epidemic was president james k polk who matches come home from his term in the white house. colorado was a very deadly disease. it wasn't contagious however. it was from drinking bad water. and yet doctors here, some doctors refused to believe it was bad water.
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some would say, dr. boling said it was diet and you eating the wrong foods. some said it was contagious. of course we know measles, diphtheria, yellow fever all those things are far more contagious than cholera because you got it from drinking the water. that's a roundabout way to answer your question. we didn't have many roads. however, that makes me to an interesting point about 1820. 1820s like i said this place is on the map and so the board, they propose and initiate two make major capitol building projects. not building exactly but big capital projects. one is to build a bridge across the cumberland river. and so indeed they get the plans drawn for this bridge. there's not enough labor here to build it, and so they entice irish workers from the northeast
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to come to nashville to build a bridge over the cumberland river. it's where the victory memorial bridge is today right at the foot of the metro courthouse, going across the river there. this was a covered bridge. it wasn't very far off of the surface of the water. so you can see with steamboats, the first steamboats are very low, but as they get higher and higher that bridge is going to be obsolete and will ultimately be destroyed. salai get this, this a bridge construction going, and the board of aldermen promised that if these irish workers will come, they will fund building a catholic church for these workers. and so the first st. mary's is on the hill where the capital is today, and then they built the
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proper st. mary's of the seven sorrows where it is today on about i guess maybe six and charlotte, and it's a very lovely church. that's one thing we got. and then the people in nashville decided we need a proper place to bury and honor our dead. now up to this point there was a public graveyard downtown. the churches did not have graveyards. churches were not really that strong at this point to have graveyard, but there was a public burial ground downtown and that's what it was called, the public graveyard. this cemetery movement, the rural cemetery movement, had taken off starting i suppose in cambridge, massachusetts, with mount auburn cemetery very lovely parklike place. we are going to call it a cemetery where we remember the dead and honor the dead is not just a graveyard.
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it's going to be parklike where you can visit. the folks in nashville decide they're going to appropriate land for it. they buy four acres, this is in the board of aldermen minutes, on the plane south of nashville. i don't know whether you've ever been to the city cemetery or not, but it's not really my idea of a plane but nonetheless it was sort of flat. and i guess that's what they were thinking about. so the cemetery will get organized and running, and it will open some people's bodies will be brought from the public graveyard which was approximate way although the above with the metro courthouse is today. they were brought to the city cemetery there and buried. if you have never been to the city cemetery, you really ought to go. it is absolutely the easiest dels of a history lesson you will ever get.
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it is nashville history from the beginning -- dose -- up to the civil war. the city cemetery was laid out and it filled up very quickly. they decided to do a find ray's reply this time selling lots, family plots and so they sell family plots and it expands and expands. it's one of the very few early before the civil war cemeteries in the south that was integrated not only for racial integration, but religious immigration. we don't really see religion as something that was segregated, but believe me in nashville before the civil war the catholics did not associate with the protestants. the catholics and jews, christians is not associate with the jews. they were strict lines, and so with the city cemetery we had catholics buried today. we have jews buried today. with african-americans buried
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there as well. the city cemetery is quite remarkable place and that is another sign that we're becoming civilized. we are not just this frontier outpost in the middle of nowhere. we are really indeed kind of the gateway to the west. any of the questions ask -- any other questions? >> could you elaborate more on what the cotton business did for nashville? was it kept here? was it shipped north, south, east, west, downriver, was it sold in europe? >> the cotton business did benefit nashville. the cotton business really made memphis. memphis would not have really become such a big city had it not been for cotton. but people very close by raised cotton from time to time. they certainly were raising a
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good bit and rutherford county and in williamson county and the county south of williamson county. there was a lot of cotton raised and was brought up here to nashville to be shipped out to market on the steamboats. so cotton really had an effect,, and we have need here because we have got people coming in. we also have need for things to buy. and so you will see market streets having all manner of implements and leather shops and will shops at all sorts of things for people who are coming in. now another important crop year, also labor-intensive, also required a good number of enslave people, was the tobacco business. and particularly robertson county, , sumner county, those counties along the kentucky border really began raising a
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lot of tobacco. and there is one plantation, the blessing ten plantation where they owned i think over 200 slaves and it was a lovely book about that plantation and the enslave people who lived there. but one thing that is brought to nashville was a market for enslaved people. so a lot of people are advertising in the newspapers that they are selling slaves, and there was a slave pen down on the hill where the college is, and there is a slave pen and a market where the bus transit building is very close to the state capital. slavery becomes a business, and one of the most wealthy man in the united states was a man from sumner county named isaac franklin, who became very
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wealthy buying slaves in alexandria, virginia, and transporting them initially he made them walk by land right through here and then they put them on boats. later he put them on boats and took them around florida to new orleans and up the river. but he became one of the wealthiest men in the country in the slave business, and there's a new book out called the ledger and the chain in which the historian has taken all the financial records. this would be such tedious work, and really combed through their and drawn some conclusions about isaac franklin's lucrative business in slaves. cotton was inches cotton. cotton knit enslave people -- wasn't just cotton. that's what made the cotton of -- that's what made west
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tennessee rose rapidly. let's move forward really fast to secession and the civil war. east tennessee, mom and pop farms, no need for cotton. no need for enslaved people. they can't raise cotton over there. the weather is not right. the land is not right. it's hard hardscrabble sube farming. west tennessee, agricultural abundance, lots and lots of cotton being raised over there. and here in middle tennessee we are sort of the pivot of the seesaw if you will. because are we going to vote with west tennessee and issues are with east tennessee and issues? they have different economic goals. and so when talk of secession began after abraham lincoln is elected president and south carolina jumps to raise out of the union, tennessee's legislature is going to convene to talk about whether or not
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tennessee should secede. so you can understand who's going to be most pro-secession, west tennessee legislators. east tennessee not so much so it's up to middle tennessee. the legislature did not want to take a vote and be responsible for this. so what they did was we will have a referendum of the citizenry. and, of course, again that means a man are going to get to vote. so we're going to have a referendum of the people on whether or not they want the state of tennessee to call a convention for the purpose of discussing secession. east tennessee, how are you going to vote? no, we don't want to secede. west tennessee? yes, yes let's go let's go let's go. middle tennessee? votes with east tennessee, not to have convention to talk about secession.
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now that's not the story you heard, is a? you heard that tennessee join the confederacy, didn't you? and that's exactly what happens for months later. four months later after the attack on fort sumter and president lincoln calling for truce to put down the southern insurrection, this time the tennessee legislature always unique always individual are not just going to vote to secede. they're going to write a document called the tennessee declaration of independence. we're the only state that did that. and then referendum of the people is going to beat you want to leave -- to support the declaration of independence? east tennessee? no. west tennessee? yes, we told you that four months ago. and middle tennessee tilts the other way. and issue here in middle tennessee was defending the homeland when it became apparent
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that abraham lincoln after the attack at fort sumter was going to go to war to save the union, these people in middle tennessee recognized that they were going to fight for the confederacy. that's a whole nother story for a whole nother day. i think we have time for one more question. anybody have a question? well, i would say we've had a great conversation tonight. it's always a pleasure to be at the hermitage. and i hope for our viewers that you will take the opportunity to come into work this beautiful site. it is really magnificent this time of year and audit is
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coming. the leaves will be turning and things will be glorious all over middle tennessee. thank thank you very much, a good evening. [applause] >> i think it ranks right up with washington's mount vernon or jefferson's monticello. in terms of impressiveness, it speaks of him of significant wealth. jackson is still considered to be one of our wealthiest presidents. it's an 8000 square foot house. if you were coming here, very impressed by a house of this magnitude. andrew jackson and

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