Skip to main content

tv   Lynn Hudson West of Jim Crow  CSPAN  October 11, 2021 6:45pm-8:01pm EDT

6:45 pm
conclude by saying the roadmap is inspired by faith in the american people and their ability to think for themselves. >> freight wonderful is so much danielle and mark. spas spirited debate and also a >> and civil one modeling but like this out there in our schools we are asking difficult questions. again thank you so much for doing this today. ♪ ♪ c-span is your unfiltered view of government we are funded by these television companies and more including comcast. >> you think this is this a community think the word then that comcast is parting with a thousand committee centers to create wi-fi enabled so students from low-income families can get the tools they need to be ready for anything. comcast support c-span as a public service along with these other television providers giving you a front row seat to democracy.
6:46 pm
american history tv is on social media. follow us at c-span history. >> hudson is a professor of history and a member of black of the university of illinois at chicago. the study of race and the u.s. west. which from women historians in 2019 to fight against california that covers the history of discrimination and white supremacy in the ability i'm going to hand it over to you and i'll see you again for q&a with the audience at the end but. >> thank you so much. i am just so happy to be
6:47 pm
here. let me just get this going. first of all i have big thank you's a gift to the california historical society. i frankly would not of had a career as a historian without them. they have been helping me i have visited them for my first book where i did my research about mary allen andwh the old library. and the librarians, the curators, i cannot say enough. i'd spent all my time thinking all the librarians. i want to give a special shout out for helping me tonight and setting this program up and doing the publicity. i also had to give a shout out to deborah kaufman the photo archivist one of my chapters would not exist without her help. allison moore who i've worked with for years she was one of
6:48 pm
the people gave me the idea for this book. she worked the archives for many years and really encouraged me too write the chapter on this exhibition which launch the book. and thanks and a lot appreciation for you all. alright so let's get to it. in thisried to do book is try to give a sense of the breadth and the depth of white supremacy in california. to reveal the expense of jim crow segregation practices and also anti- black practices. i'm also attempting to underscore the complex system and network of resistance that has existed in the state. that involves networks of african americans, mexican americans african-americans and their other allies from statehood civil rights movement. now clearly one book cannot
6:49 pm
document every instance of segregation or white supremacy in the state. while i did get up and down the state and spent time in public libraries from riverside to montana give time with chs in bangkok. i have tried to focus on six stories that show something of the contours of jim crow. from the beginnings of the black freedom movement. other scholars have documented the nuanced ways that jim crow is in the state. scholars like josh douglas fleming, kelly lionel hernandez name. they help with understand the way racism and segregation have operated across the state. but for the most part those
6:50 pm
required under 20 very it was charting the beginnings of the system. how is it established, segregation antiblack practices they've established what we think of is that 1950s. and the episodes we all recognize as being a part of the vents and episodes part of the civil rights movement like the montgomery bus boy or the sit in movement. what i want to do today as i want to focus on a story that isn't chapter five of my book. a story about half african americans and their allies pushed back against racially restricted housing and the role of white premises and in particular the ku klux klan in that story. now it's a story that involves
6:51 pm
some figures that are well known to scholars of california history. bass was the owner of the longest publishing a black newspaper the california eagle was published as the central evident district in los angeles. she is alo very important figure some of you might know about her because she was the first blackk woman to run for vice president in 1952 on the progressive party ticket. but my interest in bassett tonight, and this story is that she was one of the first to sound the alarm and california about the arrival of the ku klux klan. she also became one of the clans most formidable opponent. now when you think about the ku klux klan most of us think about usually, probably about the origins of the clan. maybe about reconstruction era in american history after the civil war.
6:52 pm
the clan formed as part of the effort to stop african americans in their quest for freedom. it was published in harper's weekly in 1874 showing this clan on your right. on the left is the name of another white supremacist organization. and there as a newly freed slave. you can see the words there, worse than slavery. the clan of the 19th century we associate very much with the moment of freedom. and with its foundations in the south that promulgated across the south. my concern tonight is not that plan but will be called the second plan. it's the second plan of the 1920s that became particularly strong in the
6:53 pm
west and the 1 midwest. some of you might remember in the 1920s the klan was popular in ohio, and any anna it was also strong in california. it's this clan in 1921. it was that year, the clan arrived in downtownn los angeles setting up an office right downtown. the california eagle immediately ran a front-page headline showing entertaining of the clan it also had another article what should we do about the arrival of the clan and talked about the leaders of the clan you can see that march in los angeles in 19204. and while the strengths of this clan in california the main southern california it did spread up and down the
6:54 pm
state. there were chapters of this clan oakland, anaheim and san bernardino county, riverside, up and down the state. now the fledgling naacp chapter of los angeles also sounded the alarm and wrote to the national office and requested information, what do we know about this organization? what can we do to stop it? so as soon as the clan arrived african-americans acrosss the state organized against it. now, sometimes this clan has had the reputation of being a more professional clan in some ways. meaning members of the professional class. and there have been studies that show a lot of the california clan members of the 1920s ran for office, sat on
6:55 pm
city council, were middle-class upstanding homeowners. that in some ways has obscured the violence this clan also practiced. one of the points i make in my book in this chapter about black homeowners and the clan in california as we cannot be fooled by this betrayal of this second clan or third clan i'm going to talk about in a minute. to talk about it somehow as being less dangerous. another idea that some folks have had about the second clan is they were not as concerned with african-americans unlike the first plan that was clearly targeting newly freed black americans. the second clan of the 20th century was more concerned about catholics in america and immigrants in america. they were but again in california they were also always concerned with
6:56 pm
african-american and their presence was a threat to clan members in california. i'd wanted to just say that. now the clan of california received tremendous publicity in 19202 when it raided the home of a mexican family in inglewood. this is a picture of clans at a funeral because clan members at a funeral in inglewood, when the clan attempted to raid this home the two accused the family being bootleggers and a constable was shot. the clan was then everyone might not have known about the arrival of the clan in california in the 1920s this episode became national news.
6:57 pm
after that trial the d.a. was alerted and told to investigate the clan and find out if in fact this organization was strong and who its members were and what danger it might represent to the state. now this led to a raid on clan headquarters. what it uncovered in that raid surprised even the most cynical observer. the confiscated list of the l.a. headquarters of the ku klux klan revealed their over 3000 clan members in l.a. county alone including three on the das staff. two names on those lists spoke volumes to the l.a. chief of police and the l.a. county sheriff were both members. as they put in their report on the raid that negroes can
6:58 pm
afford to rely on police and the authority when the evidence revealed that members of the ku klux klan".ul now one would think this episode would have put an end to the california plan. but after the trial was botched that's a long story i do not time to go into but you can readl about in chapter five in which all of these clan members were acquitted for their attack, the naacp wrote to the headquarters in new york and said if the clan continued to operate openly ever since the trial. contrary to popular assumptions, as i said earlier,
6:59 pm
this clan had a focus on americans as well as immigrants, catholics and others. but i wanted to talk to a anothers assumption and that is that some have believed the clan disappeared during the 30s and especially world war ii and erased ideology. so here we have kind of the tamping down the second clan. many believe that was kind of the end of it. i would not have been possible for the clan to be spouting their own white supremacist ideologies one believes during the war. and in fact they did go underground for a while. looking for someone was really important in california
7:00 pm
history. especially and 45 and 46 actually you see the resurgence of the clan in california. we might call this the third clan. and then they have particular targets are black and brown families who are moving into white only areas of the state. their rage is often aimed at war veterans. this is the clan i want to spend more time talking about tonight. i'm sorry this is an undated photograph one of the things the third clan hope to stop was black and brown homeowners moving into previously white only neighborhoods. now some of you may be familiar with this man. as a prominent black attorney and later a judge.
7:01 pm
he was the naacp point person on the legality of restricted housing. now many of you are familiar with the term restricted covenant that say this house, this property may never be sold to might say a negro, and oriental, a mexican using the language of the 1920s, 30s, 40s, 50s. : : >> went back to the restrictions and segregated housing and to expose them and again miller was the point person on this part of the wall and will be instrumental in fighting against restrictive housing and it woulf
7:02 pm
another state for dozens and dozens of cases where the box moved into previously white neighborhood. because the defendant some of the most high-profile cases in the nation putting faith for maddie mcdaniel, the accuracy won the oscar for gone with the wind. so he would be a part of the story as well. and now oj's short, oj short was the refrigeration engineer who allegedly work in los angeles for 25 years by 1945 pretty like many black angelenos, was frustrated by the wartime housing shortages. there you see his daughter, and a son and his wife helen.
7:03 pm
they were feeling squeezed out desirable neighborhoods in los angeles what is restrictive housing it in the covenants. and by the way they estimated that about 80 percent of southern california housing it was restricted housing and covenants and so short, that your cataloging reckoning on a job at the plant. this is from 49 a picture of the plant many of you have heard kaiser, kaiser permanente. the clinic. kaiser, was a boom for black workers and for the shipbuilding guard in northern california. with this plant was inside of or
7:04 pm
east of la and fontana had promoted itself is a place free of jim crow restrictions telling oj sure got a job as an engineer here, he felt like he won the lottery. was a good job, and kaiser plant was the first facility to jerusalem products on the size and open according to one as turney fontana into an international benchmark of advanced steelmaking. and thee job, was a boom for african-americans and as an engineer, his wages were higher than most workers and also in the lower paying jobs. so 1945, in december, oj short, and his family moved to a 5-acre
7:05 pm
plot of land and fontana in the property was south of baseline street in an area were no black families can ever live. ased soon as the family moved io the house however, they were visited by two flight people told him that he was out of bounds he should leave the white holy neighborhood and moved to the black neighborhood on the other side of baseline street and on december 3rd, the real estate agent who had sold short the lot, told him vigilante committee had a meeting on your case outside and there were a rough bunch to deal with and if i really begin my family out at once. so oj short was with the vigilantes but they were in fact client members and he prepared for trouble and 83 thanks. first he told attorney, ivan johnson is the law partner and
7:06 pm
second, and contacted the fbi,e and third he contacted members of the black press. california eagle also another black paper sentinel, read headlines on it and recounted the threat that he t received fm the sheriff about the vigilantes in ten days later, the four south verse in the flames of the fire that began with an explosion and neighbors rushed to the scene family managed to escape the house but not before they were all severely burned in next her neighbors drove them to the hospital and they said they didn't know was a black family is a light-skinned, they sing their white breathe a little girl died 60 minutes after she was and was admitted the void. died the next morning after their motherhe helen.
7:07 pm
there's coverage from the san bernardino press. as soon as the fire subsided, reports circulated about his cause. why neighbors -left-curly-bracket that the responsibility for the fire played with the chores and according to the story, they reported to the press, many neighbor said that mr. short had a lamp and it exploded and the black press was not having it in california eagle and an eagle ie central both suspected felt liky said the reporters to the scene of the crime and the naacp but the local branch and fontana in the la chapter, also investigated the crime. as i began to investigate the crime, and quickly became apparent it would not have been possible for him lamp lantern to cause that kind of explosion. here's a picture of the eagle
7:08 pm
office. because of all of the house work knocked into the ground. so this lambert lantern theory, they said that her shed doubts on this theory. now it's a long investigation process, many months of investigation which i don't have time to detail all of this. but a master class of the murder, there is an elaborate cover-up. and it was evidence that would lead to criminal convictions. the corner for example in his investigation refused to admit evidence that the source had been threatened by vigilantes. the lantern itself, i'm still intact that blew up was not entered into the investigation. in the san bernardino attorney became clear, the eagle and the
7:09 pm
sentinel the naacp was in the midst of leading this cover-up. but there was also an organized resistance to the cover-up. in the effort for the for the short family were also ongoing. in 1946, there was a leader of los angeles socialist party, published his pamphlet. she distributed it this pamphlet up and down the state and across the country in fact and she spoke about the short smarter across the country. and they had forwarded by the sister by helen so oj short sister-in-law and in addition to the socialist worker party, the movement also pressured
7:10 pm
the governor, district attorney on san bernardino to investigate the murder and since oj short had been refrigeration engineerf is also a member of the labor movement and in particular, low-pressure on the officials to investigate this t murder. state attorney general did begin to investigate the murder and the plan he promised an independent investigation but nothing came of it much to the disappointmento of this organizd resistance predict an editorial in the liberator summed it up. but any person can know, was within sire and an entire city when they were the victims of jim crow predict jim crow and
7:11 pm
role of a violator of community traditions that he built his house and the plot he purchased and jim crow had a duty of's deputy sheriff to the extent that they themselves have joined and planned to deprive an american citizen of the constitutional right. all the shortsre are, only jim crow was alive. the story doesn't quite in their in 1946 step of his effort to address it clan and then on the far right, two of his staff members, what is in a clan question prayed in 1946, the clan stepped up an effort to terrorize black homeowners and this prompted kenny to continue his investigation with clan. that year 1946, the clan burned homes of many black homeowners
7:12 pm
and in california and also burn crosses out of the jewish attorney in usa because the fraternity had supported it in evangelistic covenants predict and in 1946, he began calling clan members into his office pretty but again the rate and the results were disheartening for those seeking justice for the shorts. no evidence was found on vigilante activity to be directed at the african community and fontana, or against mr. short personally. many people wondered they had response to the murders was linked to him running for governor that year and he went up against earl warren and he succeeded. but what kenny did do, with the help of an alley court judge, was to revoke the ku klux klan, thereby making an awful for the organization told meetings in thehe state.
7:13 pm
in the own confrontation with clan largely symbolic because 1950s hunting and clans activities resume to hear me, picture and timelines of the photo and the examiner was no intimidation, you can read the caption or of the recorder examining their party and on the sidewalk in front of presumably a black as you see a black family. at the home of a negro teacher in the vicinity but bombed pretty and the clan attacked into the 50s. we also know the brown versus board of education 1954 would
7:14 pm
inspire white supremacist. the pushback against integration of new inspirations. so while the clan may have morphed into a different kind of organization, it had not disappeared. so, i'm just going to close awdear. the threat the segregation soft and then with oj for as many layers of their educated men who contrived they could purchase probably they can vote. and lauren miller and california able and mounted begins housing discrimination in the cloud. they were joined by the naacp in the social workers party the communist party activists, coburn's movements against usrestrictive housing was brougt
7:15 pm
in individuals across the state level members risk everything to across the county line moved into neighborhoods that were known to be part by the ku klux klan paraded oj short his family, and arteries and others sound the alarm against the clan noise k supremacist biden since 1940, a new expression in fontana after the brown board decision pretty backlash against the revival of the clan, became so successful that by 1965, pret lyndon johnson had investigations into the plan activity. in 1963 african-american n-uppercase-letter u.s. air force, but house in san bernardino only to watch a destroyed arsonist before he and his family could move in. little had changed it in 17 year since the murders of the shorts predict the golden state of unpublished or punished african americans in general to challengeo segregation.
7:16 pm
some made with their lives. thank you so much for listening. >> thank you so much plan. so ifn you have them in the q&a box. while people are starting to do that, i can begin with my question.- heretical by you and you said a physical you learned about citizens in the south and might know about chicago be joe here sorry about los angeles about the west. anything that is changing. >> that is a great question of course my recollection undated anything that golddiggers in weston california, doing so much to teach children about resistance and civil rights movements in the west.
7:17 pm
so wanted to say i know school teachers are teaching about the lesson i personally do not learn about the civil rights movements in california or even in my hometown. i grew up in pasadena a lot of i learned about, i learned from quentin and susan teachers but not approved curriculum. i learned from teachers like, stokes was my eighth grade teacher who taught us about factors. the program that is kind of extracurricular. enter stories from matt robinson who works at my high school. so think a lot of things of change. but one of the reasons that felt left out of the textbook, so the
7:18 pm
fall of teachers necessarily, symbol of the textbooks printed it's always been in with martin luther king in alabama maybe chicago, maybe. so that also has to change. with the work of the scholars that i mentioned in the beginning of my talk i think that it is changing that we also have the civil rights movement and by supremacy is a national phenomenon. in resistance against white supremacy and something that is national. not just southern pretty. >> i have another question. look at the chat box as well, if you could put them in the q&a we will be able to get them in order for unit so how would the
7:19 pm
board of education restricted eopeople of color and the connection there pretty. >> okay, so very quickly at the end there, when i was reading for my book, the backlash against brown was phenomenal across the country. an unanimous decision the segregation was medical, so that we know is in a necessarily get implemented in the ways that folks might like we know that the backlash against brown was phenomenal and it was something were still living with today. those of you interested in, look at mexican maclean's book book democracy and change, where she charts the way i think tanks and scholars and politicians who will part of the backlash against brown who were againstin brown people and fighting integration in the way that they
7:20 pm
so of the seeds the modern conservative movement. so what you are asking is the link between ground and the restrictive housing to what i am suggesting is that is not only the clans the backlash against the clan wasas a part of that broad conservative backlash against brown people and that violence that experience in 1963, we buy the house in san bernardino, so go up in flames. is still part of the flesh against the civil rights brown and civil rights movements of the connection is just that black homeowners brown homeowners were targets of violence and intimidation and jim crow policies, long after
7:21 pm
brown obviously are not long after. >> i'm going to jump to the next one, kennedy tied to the great migration pretty. >> oh yes, think if i can't believe i forgot that one. and i didn't say the great migration and thank you so much, .absolutely. i was talking about the clan that 1940s clan i was talking about when the murder happened and that is directly related to theux influx of black migration and for those of you who read aboutw that new know the history of the great migration, it is transformingat california. as a standing committee african-americans came from the south especially from louisiana
7:22 pm
and texas. you know that are the great migration so yes, absolutely that is also part of glenn's anxiety. they're targeting those homeowners because those are the folks who begin to live in the white neighborhoods rated: black families have been there for generations but many of them are migrants. not oj sure he'd ra clinton los angeles for 25 years so he was on a recent migrant that absolutely, white supremacy the activity that we see is absolutely linked to the great migration. >> they wanted to know about oj short and he actually - >> talk about leaving out important things in my talk of us are sentence out and thank
7:23 pm
you and yes, a few days after his family died, he was told the hospital and his friends who supported were trying to not tell him and he was the hospital with severe burns. they're trying to tell him that his family had died. but, the staff went into question him which now it is certainly been illegal under his condition and he said, i'm not any shape to answer any of your questions and they informed him that his two children and his wife had died and then he soon passed away and i am so sorry. my excitement to get to the end and finish on time, left off that important information but yes, that it was really tragic pretty. >> we probably talk for two hours and somewhat cover absolutely everything but my questionbl is based on your research about what is the relationship between private supremacist white and domestic terrorism in how
7:24 pm
about the personal resistance goingrt forward. i guess the relationship and the destruction of private property which is what they did. one of their tactics. >> so many angles and silly things to say about that and thank you for the question one of the things that is soon important about the property we are talking about tonight, is that it was particularly threatening to the whiteit supremacist that african-americans men or owning property. if you think about that certain clan, one of the things that this clan targeted was newly freed black men and women in your voting, and who are free than trying to carve out a piece of land for themselves. so you know anything about that
7:25 pm
coming out and targeted black entrepreneurs. so if you know anything about ivy wells and her story about the mark brothers who owned a successful grocery store and plans murdered them and that was one of the things that inspired her to continue with journalism and come to chicago. the fact that the clan was in california, black property owners they targeted them, that is a continuity between the first and the second and the third clans and we just on associate with that we california so that is one thing that i wanted you say about property and in particular, residents that black men because the same thing with the masculinity and you think about the general of the 50s and 40s for a man, it's his counsel in black man b are no buying a home and buying property and building home.
7:26 pm
that was to claim masculinity for yourself or black men and that was also threatening in one of the things the clan as we learn about was a had a gender role so the second in the third clans were very active in policing gender role, anything they heard about women smoking or limiting cars. feminists, those were all on the clans list of people. so that was one thing and the other thing is, going forward and the book this work. >> think you and that is a great question writing writing this book, he lived for a long time in this chapter particular with white supremacist violence and also violent perpetrators from
7:27 pm
the police department as those memberships showed as early as the 20s, the lapd still have clan members and constantly told the readers. if the police join in the middle of the night do not answer your doors something one of them rated because they could be the same the police in the clan so i have been saying this in one of the ways that informs my cause with police violence and what's been happening in our country in the last 18 months fighting for the death of george floyd and breonna taylor and as historians we are trying to understand this kind of violence. and also to understand the history of it in the resistance to it can mean one of the things, it is not new.
7:28 pm
a lot of attitude here today, this is not new. we need to be sharper in our understanding of it and i guess that is how it informed me i guess that i try to pay attention to how it has changed it and has not. and the change in the continuity of things aren't the same in 2021 as they were in 1921 or 1945. and also in 46 but there's a lot of continuity. >> there's a couple of questions about your book in particular, literature included in schools are reading this because again is a way to tell your stories writing. >> i don't know yet because it has been out for a year yet. but i do know is going to be in the reading list of some college courses but i don't know and
7:29 pm
that was one of my hopes when i wrote the book. i hope very much that it would be something that is taught for many many years. i told a lot of teachers rated who would be going into the classroom and i hope very much that this book might be taught in class for the teachers. >> another question. in northern california and los angeles, one particular chapter in your book and as people, and also does a talk about the civil rights in the 1960's especially in san francisco and the bay area. >> know it does not what many other folks have been working on this book sork what i said in te beginning is the work of the planning.
7:30 pm
and there were many others they have really written about the civil rights movement and that was not what i set out to do. what i wanted to know was because i think that a lot of my students, they know about the civil rights. ... ... where did these jim crow and segregation come from? they did not come out of nowhere, right? so i do not cover those important protests in san francisco and all of those protests of course the black
7:31 pm
panther party all the ways california was a part of the civil rights movement and the black freedom struggle. >> somebody pointed out regarding educating students many u.s. textbooks are published in texas are not focusing on california. >> for the question about the state as a whole we do have a whole chapter about san francisco and the bay avenue the first two chapters are about the bay area. so again i certainly cannot cover the instance of the jim crow up and down the state. >> thank you so much for asking all of these questions. many realize of continued
7:32 pm
segregation. what hope do you have for zoning changes that might mitigate segregation? >> i do not know about that. i wish i knew more about that. i do not live there anymore i'm in chicago i do not know how that is going to go for you all. i will say thank you for that question. how has this research changed my current thinking? i guess i encourage my students we need to get better about anti- how it morphs and changes. it's not legal thanks for the work of lord miller and the naacp. we have it because of tax
7:33 pm
codes, right? property taxes, segregation works in different ways now. public transportation there are no jobs. how does it work now and if we want to n fight it what kind of things do we need to fight against? obviously it does not look the same. we can see it all aroundut us. >> there are connections like the anti- chinese sentiment and california was also very strong from the 1850s on. one a person ask did they go out of the same roots visit anti- movement in california. >> that is a great question.
7:34 pm
that would be a great question on ann exam. start at the anti- chinese movement or help freedom claim i talk about reconstruction in the ways sentiment coalesce. there is a lot of overlap there. it's a very much linked to the fear of chinese immigrants california historical society do you want a china man and a negro to be voting on your ticket outrageous cartoons and memorabilia reconstruction california. the roots of the clan i do not see a direct line there. there are very many there are
7:35 pm
so many ideological connections the link between anti- imminent immigrant sentiment is all over the place and reconstruction california and in the clan. so absolutely, we don't record to show that the different generations between anti- immigrant sentiment and anti- black. second clan is so obvious and the third so obvious. >> you find similar cases of mexican families experiencing this brutality? >> obsolete they were part of
7:36 pm
the klan like the inglewood clan attacked and tried to kidnap i did not have time to explain that as they try to kidnap the family and take them to a local jail but they are not admitted. and there are reports in some papers they had the woman of the couple threatened. to those african mexican are terrorized by the klan in my story tonight. mexican homeowners and in the last chapter i c talk about segregation and grouped with the black families and asian families in the segregation policy first i was called negro day then it was changed to international day. but in talk about it much
7:37 pm
motivates to hate people different than we are it's difficult to >>. the book you read it it's devastating it's informative but the public domain these are names that we should actually know about. >> how to think this legacy of the clan informs white supremacy in the state today? >> that is a great question. one of the things i think happens there we see the klan
7:38 pm
comes in and out of focus. one of the focuses on a klan i said earlier want to repeatat it is that there's one group of white supremacists who arepa particularly visible. the costumes and the rate in l.a. who have names like the white citizen counsel and response of the civils rights movement. so one of the things i mentioned in hisil drink brown and m the civil rights movement some folks were members of the klan or even after the rate and their membership list were revealed many thousands of clansmen and women hurried around to get their names off those list because i thought there going to get fired. there are lots of folks who were committed segregationist
7:39 pm
who might not have been klan members that's important to recognize. that has happened more and more as the 50s it progressed and into the 60s. the folks that were pushing back against the successes of the black freedom struggle were not always klan members. i think the connection t is that white supremacy morphed in his asian spirit or just members of your homeowners association though still trying to prevent black people from moving in other ways it got around the law. i guess that is one of the connections. it changes shape and we need to look for these other ways that white supremacy operates. not always someone in a white
7:40 pm
hood. >> widespread in california? >> i looked and looked for sundown towns. try to find an example of one might organize a chapter around. that is a nether thing. sometimes it's a word of mouth of some of these towns. do not always documented new can c be dangerous i knew were teenagers should not be after it got dark, right? as a white teenager's or if was in a car with students of color they know what neighborhoods you do not want to be in.
7:41 pm
i did not write about any sundown towns i did not find any towns. however the success of restrictive covenant in the state and there were towns that were known for arresting people of color who drove there. when i was growing up glendale had that reputation don't go to glendale. with the brown versus board of education and its enforcement in the 1960s, that meant there was a white flight. there were certain areas of southern california that were known, white families are moving to. so they won't be bus there or whatever. that is kind of the california version. >> another question is your book talk about byron rumsfeld housing act of 64?
7:42 pm
>> again i don't get to the 60s. i love that story i want everyone to learn about rims for it on the history. i read some of the papers with the bancroft and that law is such an important part of the story of california segregation. the white how do you see that analysis right about that first chapter right about native americans were enslaved should definitely check out
7:43 pm
all when you make the linkages enslaved the way that land away mexican landowners were just an entrance of their property. when she shows there are so clear between settler colonialism, the mission and how we get to human caging in l.a. in the 2000's. i think it is one of the best books that show you cannot think about segregation like supremacy in the state if you do not start, so thank you so much. i can talk about chapter one it's absolute and important part of the story. the ways in the system they
7:44 pm
get set up for taking the land, the system they get set up for caging, imprisoning, enslaving. unjustly practice of setting up segregation. it was of course originated before statehood obviously. but especially in the native american era but thanks for asking that. >> a point about the side was a white neighborhood in world war ii and we have the white flag now or in a mixed neighborhood i wonder if the speaker knows maybe a little bit more about restrictive covenants where it was written in specifically. >> you can find online you can find examples of these that have that covenant in it. as i tell my students that just means as part of a deed.
7:45 pm
see by a piece of property you get a deed. the deed says though on this one, i can never sell this property or even rent this property to and lauren miller was famous for bragging about california. had a great sense of wit and he published eight pamphlet about restrictive covenants in which he said californians love to vote and i'm going to vote in about restrictive covenants because no one has better once in california. you can find restrictive covenants in the state of california that say i cannot sell or lease this property or rent thisnt property to and it could say there are some that said a hindu, and oriental, there were some that said a jew, right? restricted covenants could be very expansive.
7:46 pm
but they almost always said negros. now remember, california is not the onlyhe place. this is it with perfection to the city i live in, chicago. in the playwright took his case against tran in the 1940s. they don't get to have the owner all by. themselves. though lauren miller believed it was the most successful at using them, the state of california. so if you can find old deeds from your neighborhood. my students have brought some to me over the years. if you can find its sovereignty deeds you can find what they look like. but you can find them online now. i'm pretty sure there are simple i bring to the california historical society that can help you find them. >> i think somebody put into the chapter the q&a that was
7:47 pm
1948. >> yes that was -- mike lauren miller was part of the legal team that took that to the supreme court. so one of the reasons we have such amazing records of the fight against those restricted covenants is as i said in my talk was a californian was not originally california but he moved to the state in the 20s. he became a part of this to the legal defense under the naacp in the 40s. in the 50s and the 60s. papers are at the huntington library if you want to learn more about that. >> may be answered quickly the chapter you must have new gen
7:48 pm
x include important conceptual framing lens plate in light of california institutions. i have not had the chance to read the book yet. i know it they're asking i know you're going to read the book after this. >> thank you so much for that question yes it is. it's one of the ones i felt strongest about. i did not know how i would encounter it in my research. i didno not know where it would come in the book. it ended up. i will say this not only was it popularized and i write about it then in chapter two. as you may know the person who asked this question the human betterment foundation was
7:49 pm
founded in pasadena at my town and had an office on boulevard where the rose parade it goes. the strength of new gen x in the state absolutely ties into the strength of the white supremacist so for example on books i pool and others in california, i write how it is no accident pasadena has such a strong, organized resistance to integrating pools because they also had a very, very strong community. so absolutely i now people
7:50 pm
were also asking for your recommendations there. these questions can be combined the time on how extensive it was in california but in northern california. >> yes absolute thank you for that. i read the papers of the western division at the white house. i also read and for a while in this chapter i did have stories about planned violence against black homeowners all across the bay area because it was absolutely important. and did not end up making it in the book for the purposes of storytelling and the narrative i stuck with i this
7:51 pm
one area but absolutely black homeowners especially during the world warld ii. >> is a very interesting question the intrinsic to black resistance in california to that between southern california and northern california? you talk about also anti- black anti-communist. >> this coalition i was talking about tonight between labor the social workers party the naacp a lot of times those followed by the wayside and we do not pay attention to those. i think it is really important i absolutely think the labor
7:52 pm
movement was essential not only for this story but in pushing for justice. don't talk about those coalition the anti-communist movement and california and red baiting was very successful. the los angeles times help lead that brigade. and few actuaries up and down the state, really successfully not only communist activity but also the naacp of the west coast was thought to be
7:53 pm
communists infiltrated. that led to a lot of anti-communist rhetoric coming out of the local naacp. they finally found themselves between iraq and a hard place, right? it was different from chapter to chapter. the l.a. chapter and you can readr. about this amazing book bound for freedom. they were successfully read dated and avoided they were worried about taking up their case since the communist party been such a strong advocate for the nine men who were arrested in alabama. that is a long story. >> i'm not sure forgetting to every question and i need to put my e-mail in the chat box people can always send me their questions and lynn will be able to ask answer them after this talk.
7:54 pm
there is so much you could speak about, how law enforcement reinforcero jim crow in your book it's a very important part of it. black lives matter i just think there is no better piece of evidence that this has a long history than those membership lists were thousands, and thousands and thousands of klan members up and down the state and almost every single police department has members on thebe list. i did not even get to talk about how kern county this was not just the membership of l.a. the l.a. office was a regionalfi office. so t police departments all
7:55 pm
across the state were revealed. some publish their name. one of the reasons i picked the chapter tonight. wanted to tell that story the surprise were way past being surprised about this. we know, we know this is a history in the u.s. of police practices and violence because african americans. as members of the black lives matter have shown us we need to move to new strategy. i look forward to joining all of you and thinking about those new strategies. >> i'm hoping you will come back and speak again because we can cover it so much even though you have a certain time arrangement within that time range there is so much.
7:56 pm
i do hope everyone will join us will end on the last question. would you consider homeowners association as covenants? absolutely absolutely. i did not say homeowners association but for any of you familiar with how this works homeowners associations were in the forefront of enforcing segregated housing absolutely. it's a big story involves bank loans homeowners associations it i focus on the tiny part of the story tonight so absently homeowners association very successful in california. >> thank you so much lynn i apologize to the peoples whose questions we did not get too. again we will try to answer them. this program will also be recorded as a reminder it will be under youtube channel and
7:57 pm
also injury happen to have it right here. thank you so much we hope to have you here to talk again. we really appreciate your time y in coming tonight too. >> thank you so much everywhere thanks for the wonderful questions i really appreciate it. >> yes incredible thank you for your time everyone. ♪ ♪ >> download c-span's new mobile app and stay up-to-date with live video coverage of the days events from live stream at the house and senate floor and key congressional hearings to white house events and supreme court arguments are live interactive morning program "washington journal" or we hear your voices every day. c-span now has you covered download the app for free today. >> this week we are looking back to this date in history. ♪ ♪ a man who became a legend in
7:58 pm
his own lifetime is dead sgt york came out of the tennessee hills of world war i and went out into the army came outta hear! hear! was to remain a modest man until the end of his 76 years when the war broke out was swinging a pick on a road gang inducted in the center the 82nd division quickly made a name for himself with his marksmanship. sgt york shot his way into history when it captured or killed an entire german machine gun battalion of 160 men and he did it single-handedly. sgt york was a first soldier to become a national hero he refused to be exploited and turned down offers of lecture tours and books to devote himself to his beloved mountain people. he said this uniform ain't for sale honor upon honor honor was bestowed who married his childhood sweetheart ♪ ♪ always welcomed to the white
7:59 pm
house with his family sgt york received more than 50 high honors from his own nation and foreign governments but he continued to farm and hunt and teach sunday school to the hilt children. one of his last public appearances received a citation from the goldstar mothers he was immodest as always. >> certainly is an honor to receive this presentation goldstar mothers world war who we love so dearly and i accept this not only for myself but for all of my brothers who were in the world war. >> follow us on social media c-span history for more of this date in history post. >> c-span issue unfiltered view of government funded by these television companies and more including cox. rex cox is permitted for affordable internet bridging
8:00 pm
the digital divide one connected and engaged at a time. cox bringing us closer. >> cox supports c-span as a public service along with these other television providers. giving it a front row seat to democracy. >> up next on american history tv mike duncan talks about the marquis de la fayette and his role in the american and french revolutions. then it's a look at new york's all-female barbizon hotel where young women in the mid 20h century afforded an opportunity to pursue independent lives. and later historians the impact of the 1944 g.i. bill which allocated money to world war ii veterans for education. find more schedule information at here is mike duncan. >> good evening everybody and


info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on