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tv   Arthur Herman The Viking Heart  CSPAN  October 10, 2021 11:00am-12:01pm EDT

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>> you are watching booktv. next, hudson institute senior fellow arthur herman discusses how the vikings and the scandinavian descendents shaped history. coming up georgetown university law professor sheryll cashin argues u.s. housing policies have created and an even residential caste system. later lizzie johnson looks at the root causes of california deadliest wildfire, the 2018 camp fire. find more information at booktv.org or consult your program guide. here's arthur herman. >> welcome everyone. my name if you don't know is max. on the direct of exhibitions and programs at norway house here in minneapolis, minnesota. it's my pleasure type to have arthur herman here, the author of the book "the viking heart: how scandinavians conquered the world." we have book talks and discussions so i'm really excited to have our thing to
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talk about his brand-new book. before we begin i want to go for a couple of housekeeping things. arthur will give a presentation, and afterwards will have a q&a session so please if you would like to submit a question the of a q&a button at the bottom of your screen. if you're on a desktop or laptop you can hover over your screen and that button should appear at the bottom of your window if you're on a mobile device you can capture screen and that button should appear as well. again thank you eglin for joining us tonight. and with that i would like to introduce our speaker for this evening arthur. arthur herman received is ba from the university of minnesota. i thought everyone would love hearing that. he actually is a fourth generation of arthur herman to graduate from university minnesota andy received an ma and phd from johns hopkins university. he sternly senior fellow at the hudson institute and author of now ten books including "new
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york times" bestseller have scots invented the modern world, and gandhi and churchill which was a finalist for the pulitzer prize. he currently lives in washington, washington, d.c. i think with that i will turn it right over to arthur to begin his presentation will take questions after the presentation. arthur, thanks so much for joining us tonight. >> thank you very much. and hello, everyone. it's good to see you if only virtually and it's good to return it only virtually to my birthplace, where i was born a number of years ago but the number is classic, the exact date. and also where i was an alumnus of the university of minnesota, as max mentioned, the three
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arthur herman who preceded me also received degrees but different kinds. my father got a phd from university of minnesota. his father got an m.d. from university of minnesota, and his grandfather, my great-grandfather -- from university minnesota which made the time during class registration time, a couple of times when i was registering for classes i received notices from the registrar saying that i'd not be allowed to register until i paid for the overdue fine for a textbook on principles of -- this required me to go down to the registrar's office and explained to them that they were
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actually -- talking to the wrong arthur herman, that they really have to get with my grandfather but, of course, he was not with us. minneapolis, the twin cities was part of my background where both my grandmothers lived, including my grandmother who came from norway to the united states just before world war i, as did her husband, and who raised three children in minnesota. this book is in many ways, "the viking heart" in many ways the most personal book i've written to this point because my family does inevitably -- in the course of my discussion which is not just about the vikings per se which is really what the first part of the book is about but also how the cultural skill set that the vikings built, and i'll
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talk about that in a minute, the cultural skill set that the vikings built in order to survive and thrive in the environment of scandinavia, the dark age era, how the cultural skill set carried over into the history of not just modern scandinavia, including today but also the united states as scandinavian american immigrants came over from the 19th century. i don't want to get too far ahead of myself. the question people always ask me is why get a write this book? in this case i can tell you that the genesis of this book came from a conversation with my uncle norman, my mothers brother, after my book have scots invented the modern world became "new york times" bestseller, eyes, to scotland to talk about the book with so much and so he said to me, in typical uncle norman
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fashion, so when are you going to write about the vikings? i didn't really have a good answer to that and i'm say probably over the next decade in half or more that question remain in the back of my mind, mostly because of a family connection of course my uncle norman was releasing when i going to write a book about us? and about the norwegian heritage and the scandinavians who came over and became part of america and part of american history. but it was also an important episode in history, in european history and really in world history as i explained in the book. so the question, how could i press both of these needs, the book the talks that scandinavian americans but also a place of
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the vikings, the proper understanding of place in history in this book is a result. what it really is about is the idea that there is this extraordinary continuity in cultural attitudes and in mindset that travels over from the viking experience, the world in which the vikings made and that made the vikings, through scandinavia during the later stages of its place in european history, and then to the experience of scandinavian immigrants when they came to america. this cultural gift, this cultural -- not just norwegians and not just swedes ordained but also icelanders, it's part of the common nordic cultural heritage that i call the viking heart, , that's my term for this cultural skill set and it's one the importance of which i don't
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think we are really understood even as scandinavian americans or as historians or as americans, , and it's one that i think needs to be explored more, and they see my book really as starting the explanation and internet into this to understand its impact and why it is so important. so it is looking hard as a color, this cultural ill set of a combination of a strong belief in community and in family, but also a recognition of the importance of individual initiative and individual freedom, really takes root you could say in the pre-viking period. it's what makes the viking age possible and it is to a large extent an adaptation of the incredible physical conditions under which the scandinavian tribes had to endure, the
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inhospitable climate, the meager resources including very little land on which to cultivate, i which to grow crops, to feed families, the livestock, that really compelled them to look elsewhere for ways in which to make their society survive and prosper. but also at the same time this idea that there's no conditions without re-survival. it's about anyone having to carry their own weight, everyone having to become part of the trusting that it will be part of that combined effort to enable to survive those incredible winters come to survive those incredible conditions, to survive venturing out into the sea in order to fish, in order to draw upon the rich is that the sea can offer for survival of the community. and then at the same time a
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recognition of how important it is that individuals feel free to venture out to go and seize opportunities to bring back the goods, the commodities that would enable the group to survive, and that's really the beginning of the viking age, and that's exactly what happened. every spring all those veins, norwegians and swedes, not just young men but also as we know as i explained in the book also women who set out on these expeditions to go out and to find new opportunity and to find new sources for wealth and resources to help communities survive and thrive. what they discover setting out each spring in their long ships is novel technology and shallow
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draft that allows them to travel from seagoing routes to river courses and to reach the places that ordinarily would be beyond the reach of an oceangoing vessel. and the use of the square sail that gives them speed and mobility of the kind that simply rowing can't provide. what they soon discover by the end of the eighth century is that their more prosperous neighbors to the south are vulnerable. that the frontiers between the scandinavian tribes and the contours of civilization have become permeable so it becomes possible to prey upon the richer supplements and sites of that more advanced civilization to the south, northern europe after
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the death of charlemagne, and to bring back the goods that enable the tribes of norway, sweden and denmark to prosper. and the result is, well, it's the transformation in europe at the hands of these viking adventurers who managed to engage in a series of incredible voyages that set them out stretching out across the north sea and the baltic, stretching down along the coastline of the british isles, the first really significant raid in 795 at the monastery in lindisfarne of english coach coast which usually the beginning of the viking age proper, but then down along the coast of northern france, spain, through the straits of gibraltar, deep into the mediterranean, as far as
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gilly, but then also swedish adventurers who were able to take their long ships across the baltic down the deep river all the way to the black sea and then to constantinople, the capital of the eastern roman empire becomes vulnerable to viking attack during its heyday, the 200 years, the heyday of the viking age. now, that's part of the viking story that we tend to run into and discuss in the history books and, of course, there's also another chapter to this, the chapter that usually ends on, which is the expansion of norwegian viking adventurers further west into the atlantic ocean. first to the islands, , then to iceland and greenland and finally by the year 1000, leif
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erickson to the shores of north america. so that's the usual picture with other viking age and the image map of the extraordinary warriors and adventurers is the one that we tend to get in our television series and in novels and other sources, and they kind of look like this. if you don't mind putting up the first slide, max, i would appreciate it. they tend to have an appearance rather like -- have you got it there up at the top? there we go. these are warriors from a chess set, a medieval chess set that was discovered on the isle of
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lewis. i will be made sometime in the 13th century, a little bit after the height of the viking age, but the figure there you see in this ivory chess set, i didn't know by the way thanks to dna evidence, ivory was made from ivory tusks from greenland, from the viking settlement there. but we see that they do their, the man, the warrior biting his shield. kind of an extraordinary, ferocious warriors who came in to come into prominence in norse legend and saga. there is no doubt the berserkers, extraordinary men who summoned out there deeper animal nature as part of their fighting skill.
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they bring to bear on the battlefield and engagement here. it's important to realize the berserker is such, these extraordinary, fearless and dominating warriors are a small part of the whole viking story. if you get the impression that every boat load of viking sailors and explorers, it's a boat full of chris hems worth, super warriors setting out on invisible campaigns. that's only part of the viking story. the real truth is that the lives of the scandinavians at this time even at the height of the viking age were as farmers, as fishman, as animal and livestock raisers and these raids were way to supplement income, came in to be to drop on income by taking
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what others had but thought they deserved better including scandinavians. the vikings were famous, the tories on attacks on their neighbors but far more on the scandinavian neighbors. the danes were attacking norwegians and then the swedes were retaliating. the image of the vikings as warriors, although it captures part of reality, is only one part of reality. the other part is the way in which very quickly and made the transition from raters to traders and eventually to settlers, , that the way in whih related way in which enrich themselves and a rich their community was not through pillage and plunder especially as other parts of europe come on to the shock and all raids that the vikings conducted and learned how to defend
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themselves. the real answer was trade and eventually the real answer to scandinavians own problems of growing population and land with meager resources and not many places to put people, that the other solution was to put them and to plant colonies and settlements outside scandinavia, especially where land was plentiful and acreage was there for the taking. so i get this extraordinary expansion not just of conducting raids but if rating communities and the search for land, , the search for trade opportunities becomes insatiable. we get to see a figure like leif erikson if you want to go to the next slide for me, max. there's the statue of leif erickson at the site excavator in newfoundland in which
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archaeologists in the 1950s discovered an actual viking encampment, putting reality, physical reality to the stories and saw this about leif erickson. we also see these extraordinary people as extraordinary peacetime as they were in wartime. also let's not forget, it's worth emphasizing as emphasized in the book that there's a lot in which women have extraordinary rights and extraordinary responsibilities given the time and place of dark age of europe. and the quality and respect was always baffling to outsiders especially busy came from mediterranean cultures where women tend to be sequestered, segregated from them. women were popping up all over the place. natalie accompanying their menfolk on expeditions and
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trading ventures and even across the north atlantic to america, but in some cases as a know from archaeological evidence, particularly the most famous, the most recent being graveyard, a viking grave, that it actually led some of these expeditions. extraordinary thing and is something that resonates all through scandinavian culture is the degree to which women were treated with respect or handed rights which would be pretty miniscule by today's standards but for the time and over time would grow and increase as they gain increased equality h their men. so there's another aspect again that cultural strength of scandinavia is that sense of solidarity, communal solidarity that also allows that freedom
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for women within of course the limits of the culture, the time and the place but this also gives a certain kind of energy and vibrancy to scandinavian culture even after the viking age. turn to the next slide. and, in fact, that's one of the reasons why i think we see by the end of, after the viking age in the history of scandinavia that it's really the women who become the most charismatic and the most powerful, the most effective rulers all through the history of scandinavia. it's something extraordinary to see, and what's amazing, too, is that although the viking age and the post viking age produce some great rulers, the vikings become the ruling class of europe,
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william the conqueror descended from the northern conquerors from norway. no one ever managed to really unite all of scandinavia, except one, and that's margaret of denmark. this is her efforts desha her effigy, she managed to unite the contents of denmark, sweden and norway into one big it's the kind of undertaking at you could see only a woman with you could see of and would pursue and only a woman like margaret of denmark would be able to achieve. here's a similar achievement and history of scandinavia and i think it's one of the things
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that makes margaret of denmark, queen margaret of denmark was one of the most extraordinary women in scandinavian history, but really the most extraordinary woman in the whole history of the european ages as really know but who competes with her in terms of her personal will and effort and since of command. the post viking age, the middle ages in scandinavia are ones in which the viking culture, that sense of strong belief, rule of solidarity, shared values and mutual trust but also creating that individual freedom had rows through enormous changes and new shapes, goes through the coming of christianity. i talk about it more in detail in the book but then also with the coming of lutheranism and the lutheran reformation. that is one of the associations we always make between the
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scandinavians come scandinavians americans and the lutheran church are all lutherans. i explained this in the book, it gives a profound impact on the shaping of cultural attitudes in scandinavia and the evolution of what i'm calling the viking mark. because one of the emphasis of losers teachings, the lutheran church, was a idea that individual effort, whatever it is we do as a person to earn a living, to feed and raise her family, what other kind of pursuit that may be, whether it's a high social status or the lowest can be a calling as long as it's one that works and benefit others here that working hard at being successful in whatever tasks you undertake,
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you carry out, is really an expression of brotherly love. it's the foundations for what i call the loose and work ethic. it's one that's going to run deep through scandinavian culture from the 16th century on, and it gives to that viking spirit of drive and entrepreneurship a new kind of all to restrict twist, just as christianity but but a new f compassion -- altruistic -- individual conscious to the scandinavian culture. so the lutheran reformation give it's this altruistic reach that what we do, what we attempt must not only benefit ourselves or our family that also must benefit the community. really touches on that kind of philanthropic impulse that we see is so important in scandinavian culture and in scandinavian american culture as well. we think about great figures
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like offered nobel, for example, a norwegian explorer or philanthropist and savior of hundreds of thousands of refugees in the shattering wake of world war i. we see that aspect of the lutheran work ethic. and also an additional sense of the importance of what they do and what they undertake as a family for others. that comes to include the lutheran faith in scandinavia undertaking to protect the rest of protestant europe against the onslaught of the catholic counter reformation in the early 17th century, in the early 1600s. this is a background to the 30 years war and involvement of
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sweden under its great king and also a great military genius of the 17th century, king adolphus. next slide, please. >> the story of king adolphus as a great commander, as a builder of the swedish army was second to none in europe is one of the most, one of the extraordinary stories in european history. it's also a typical example of scandinavians, underpopulated with few resources and which are mobilized for the conquest of europe and yet king adolphus pulls it out. a good example of scandinavians once again hitting above their weight just as the vikings did and just as king adolphus does during his wars of conquest in europe 30 years. he is an important figure in the
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history of europe, not just in history of sweden and scandinavia. after his tragic death on the battlefield, in 1632, he leaves behind his swedish military machine and his successors, the rulers of sweden find it incapable of resisting using in the wars of conquest against their neighbors. those will culminate as i explained in the book with the wars of king charles the 12th of sweden and his successive wars against his neighbors in northern europe, and army and begin a military genius of such caliber that he was able to take on and defeat the germans, the pulse, the russians and the danes all at once.
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through this capacity and in the vision of ambitious men like king adolphus and charles the 12th, sweden and scandinavia become major powers in europe and become players and power politics all through the 18th century into the holy on a course. but they pay a price -- polyphonic wars. that is the rest of scandinavia loses out on the big sweeping social and economic changes that are taking place across the rest of europe, the result is a by the mid-19th century when scandinavia starts to endure another population explosion with the populations of norway and sweden almost doubling in the matter of two or three decades, that there is no place
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to put them. there is no seas, there's no industrial sector to employees thousands of swedes and the regions and danes. and the result is they have to turn to find another place in which to make a living and feed their families. ..
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>> it was unimaginable for someone who lived in poverty in norway, finland to be able to see where the incredible riches offered by the great plain states and in wisconsin and minnesota. this is a photograph that i quired from the minnesota historical society just down the street. swedish lumber jacks and their experience along with the experience of other scandinavian americans. it's become part of the american way of life and changes america as well. that's an important theme of my book. what they bring when they cross over the atlantic to america
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isn't just their own personal backage and members of the family and others but commitment to community, commitment to trust but at the same time recognizing that individual freedom, pursuit of opportunity is necessary because it benefits the group. again, the work ethic, those who work and succeed bring that will and make it possible for the community to thrive, to thrive with that joint effort that grows from happens. that and incredible work ethic committed to taking opportunity to get things right.
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the sociologist, immigrant, the scandinavian cultural skill set. [sirens] >> way out of proportion to their numbers that do come over during the great migration period up to beginning of world war i. about 3 million or so. so the story of 20th century america becomes in part the impact on these scandinavian americans on new homeland and the way in which that cultural skill set becomes part of the american story and i can point to a couple of great examples of
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this. the danish immigrant, pioneering efforts in indoor photography highlighted the incredible depths of urban poverty in a city like new york city and really created for the first time in america an awareness of -- of the dangers of mass poverty and the need for the community, american community to change that. also culminates in the 3 figures which i describe in the book and i talk about them in the book. really epitomize america in the 1920's and during the era of the jazz age. the first one being charles lindbergh, st. cloud, minnesota. we would drive to minneapolis to
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visit my grandmother and bring her seldom flight in 1927 did a lot to recall memories of viking explorers and viking adventures across the same atlantic ocean. the second andrew holstead. congressman who was the author -- joint actor of the holstead act. the legislation that impose prohibition on america with all of the unproceeded consequences that flow from that. maybe not so much as a gift from the scandinavians and the third one -- you can go to the next slide, max. came from i learned this evening, came from the same
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hometown as max's own father's family from norway and whose career at notre dame university as football college. he was track and field coach at the same time at the university. one of the heartbreaking moments for professor was when the administrators at the university had to tell him, this is not going time be teaching chemistry and running a football who is nationally engaged as yours is. he had to step down.
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he had to turn down burners and head to field house to work full-time as football coach. but extends more than college university. not just modern sports but professional sports. fans could identify and connect emotionally to the -- to the success and failures of a sporting team and the way which it became not only a source of community pride and community solidarity. everybody is a fan of the hometown team but also success as sports had big business rugby and attributed to the development of cultural life and
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the history of american sports but also in the history of the american way of life. so there's a direct line, direct line of influence that flows from knute rockne to minnesota vibings in that sense and the tie between american professional sports and the image of sports as a driving force in american culture and, of course, american higher education that comes from knute rockne's legacy. leg.-- really it has become so h of part of american culture. max, we can go to the last one.
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the north sagus was written down, epic stories, written down by poets and authors in, well, the 13th century and 14th century in iceland that recorded the great stories, myths, including the myths who has been tradition among the vikings themselves but was now written documents to be passed on and read onto future generations. those stories would have an enormous impact on modern european life and also on the shaping of western literature and western culture.
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this seen here that aye included is a carving from one norway. the hero killing the dragon in order to -- in order to acquire the treasure reward that faulkner has been guarding. now, that story will transfer directly into the vagner and will be transferred directly into the lord of the rings trilogy and steep in history and
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really the methodology becomes foundational for the stories of colored of the rings and carried on in the hands of george lucas as well as peter jackson not just the already of the rings movies but also, of course, the star wars films. the whole atmosphere, shaping of the story is drawn from the models and paradigms laid out by smith. super heros, their whole fascination we have with the fantasy and fairy tail that the legends provide a glimpse into it and understanding and reduced to human terms. in some ways you can argue and i
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have at the end of the book the most important legacy that the vikings left to the modern world not just scandinavian world but also to the world that we -- that we inhabit today and that our children and grandchildren are going to inhabit from this point on and where we go from here. i would say it's a culture because understands that hard work is what benefits the community and not just the individual. there's a bond that bonds all together in support of the community and the shared values that hold a community together and also want that one recognizes that individuals have to be free, have to be free to
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pursue their own path and venture and risk everything if necessary and venture out and find new ways in which to benefit the community and build new life for themselves and their families and for those who depend upon them. that's the cultural skill set that the vikings exemplify. it's one that passed down to descendants in modern scandinavia today but also scandinavian americans here and has enormous relevance and resonance today and one that i think might be the skill set that may still save america and save all of us as we look forward to where we go and venturing forth into what the
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21st century has to -- has to offer and has in store for all of us. well, thank you very much. i can answer questions, comments or anything that you want to ask me about. >> i want to say thank you real quick. thank you for the lovely presentation. i have my own copy. you can't see it now but it's here. >> okay. >> the virtual screen is hiding it. there it is. i picked up myself and i think -- at least what i'm most excited about is for me i've always heard bits and pieces of our history and i didn't know how it's tied together and i'm excited to get into the book as it weaves together and especially during a time now that people are looking to
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understand more about people's history and it would be exciting for myself and my heritage kind of discover that and see where those values carry through. through people's stories and general history. with that, i'm going to turn over some questions so i can ask some here. looks like we have one here from sally. she was told by another historian that all vikings were danish vikings. if so, why and if not, why as well. >> probably one-third right because what we do now is that if we are talking about danish vikings those coming from the danish peninsula and around modern denmark one-third of the
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overall viking adventure route and exploration routes and the danish themselves -- we seem to follow year after year. the danish crossed the north sea to british islands particularly across the eastern seaboard of the british isle. centered around the capital of york. at one point in the middle ages, crusades in england were under danish rule. the reason why danish such a huge impact on the english
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language. it's part of that danish legacy. norwegians tended the venture further out going west towards iceland and greenland and then, of course, to north america but also slipping around down the west of the british aisles where norwegians vikings carve out settlements with principality or two during the height of the viking age and then into the mediterranean east ward and make their way down through the russian river courses, into the black sea and establish settlements, the most important the viking capital for hundreds of years and laying the
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foundations for the medieval kingdom of russia. russia comes from the word russ which was locals had for the swedish adventures. man who roam. a description of -- of the sea going swedes and vikings of all stripes. >> interesting. language alone you could really dive into a whole bunch of -- [laughter] >> more in detail. many words that come out of anglosax. >> why did norway respect rule
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by denmark but then came to reject by sweden? >> probably there's a major cultural shift that takes place with the rise of norwegian nationalism in the 19th century. i will say when we think about it, for a listening period of time norway was under the danish rule the rule was of individual persons and kings and you served the lord that mastered your land that you worked or had authority over the district that you went on but whatever ethnic but then
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in 19th century norwegians become aware that they are norwegians and they are, in fact, distinct from danish and norwegian is more than a dialect of danish that the scottish made about the norwegian language but a distinct language of its own and with illustrious history and vikings weren't all danish vikings but norwegians had a long independent history as great viking kings and explorers and so thanks so congress of viena at the end of the wars and the swedes give finland to the russians and in exchange norway as consolation price. norwegians aren't happy about
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this because in the quest of 19th century, damn it, we have deserve to have our own government and basis of rule. now it has to be said that the swedes gave as many concession that is they could to norwegian autonomy without relinquishing control altogether. there was a desire to respect norwegians having their own parliamentary but certainly not enough to gratify a norwegian nationalist and as the century grew up the region national movement became powerful one and at the end influential and too demanding for the swedes to ignore or to try and block. in 1905 norway gets its
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independence. remarks about swedes that they were principle but they weren't particular -- i remember as a boy once when i was looking at flash cards for national flags and flipping through, you know, flags from different countries and for romainia and sweden. my grandmother said what flag is that? flag of sweden. she said, yellow, appropriate flag for swedes. >> she says, swedish. [laughter] >> there you go.
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>> just growing up i always thought it was jokes but as i learned, i learned that they were rooted sometimes, you know, history. good. well, i'm really excited to get into the 18th century myself because curator and i've been fa fascinated and sounded and has been into civilized people. >> the effort to integrate the scandinavian countries into
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civilization. they had in the discovery of the viking roots and awareness that this is a whole other chapter unique chapter in the history of europe for scandinavians generally that gives them sense of identity, national identity for each of the faces involved but also the sense of common identity. laying the foundation, binds the countries together and binds to finland on the one side and then also to iceland on the other. >> looks like we have time for one or two more questions here. in your book, did you balance geography and i heard the sweden was part of norway? >> i didn't go into quite as
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much close detail as that. but, yes, the opening of the book is about the extraordinary geography and the geographic contrast and differences between the three main nordic countries and particularly the way in which denmark is really distinct from norway and sweden. it is fairly similar and, of course, similar to finland as well whereas denmark has more agricultural land, doesn't have the kinds of forbidding ranges that the swedes and norwegians and fans have to contend with and also to denmark's physical link, their geographic link to the rest of continent of europe mean that danish history will take a different direction. it will remain part of the scandinavian and nordic world but also more subject to
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influence fueling up from the south particularly in germany over the course of -- and that's going to do a lot to shape the history of denmark after the viking age in ways that continue down to today as well. and boundaries, you mentioned boundaries. the boundaries between germany and denmark particularly who gets and becomes a source of one of the most devastating wars in scandinavian history. the present danish war in 1864 which i talk in the book. it's kind of a forgotten chapter in scandinavian history but hugely important in the shaping of modern europe particularly the rise of germany as a unified nation and was also taught the
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danish, you don't have the resources or the demographics to support contending against countries like germany and france and russia and denmark's destiny like of of norway and sweden have a different direction namely to entanglements in european power politics and great wars if you can possibly stay out of them enhance an important step toward denmark's neutrality to the power countries unleash in the 19th century and 20th century. >> lots to take into so i'm excited. well, good, look like we are
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just about done. there was another question, are you inspired to write more about nordic history? >> about which? >> nordic history. >> it's a topic which is subject to and opens the discussion particularly the connections between the scandinavian american experience that so many of us share and also -- but also the trends and mainstream of events and culture in modern scandinavia in the same way and i see this book in a personal way is just beginning my own exploration of those kinds of issues and lacking for doing a lot more, a lot more in this area. >> i look forward to it. i'm looking forward to getting started on the book.
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for those who need a copy, we have a few left remaining here at norway house and i also have a few more in lake street as well but i wanted to thank everyone for joining this evening and thank you for joining us tonight and telling us about your new book. i look forward to hearing in the future. >> i look forward. it's been a great pleasure and thank you for listening and thank you for your questions. >> as we say in norwegian. goodnight, everybody. >> goodnight. >> a look at top nonfiction books, topping the list peril, bob woodward and robert costa. followed by maggie nelson's
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talks about how we think and think about freedom on on freedom. after that the body keeps the score and how trauma affects our brains and bodies and next is nobel prize winning economy richard sailor and cass on how to make better decisions on their revised on 2008 best-seller nudge and wrapping up a look at the strand bookstores best selling nonfiction books is michelle's himory trying and some of the authors have appeared on book tv and you with watch their programs any time at booktv.org. >> good evening virtual audience and welcome, thank you for joining us tonight, my name is hillary card and on behalf of harvard bookstore i'm pleased to introduce this book with sheryll cashin, joining conversations by

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