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tv   Deputy Defense Sec. Discusses Innovation in the Military  CSPAN  October 4, 2021 2:02pm-3:01pm EDT

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kathleen hicks discusses the challenges facing the military. strategic international studies, this is an hour. >> hello and a warm welcome to visitors, viewers here in the united states and around the world. thank you for joining us, smart power of at this morning. i'm director of the smart tower initiative international security program here. we are pleased to welcome back kathleen hicks, deputy secretary of defense, former senior vice president here and former director of the international security program. she previously served at the pentagon is the undersecretary of defense for policy and deputy under secretary of defense for strategy plans. this morning's conversation
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moderated by senior associate. our speaker here thanks to the gracious funding of our founding partner and we are grateful for the continueded support entering its seventh year. it's my pleasure to introduce candy. >> thank you for joining us online the smart women, smart powers theories series. we are proud to call ourselves meeting rabobank as we are present in more than 100 countries. we talk about advantage, our global footprint brings and we unique facts perspective on economic and political climates around the world. supporting this for six years, going on seventh to bring together women's leaders for
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policy and national security and business community, the most pressing issues facing our world and we celebrated homecoming of sorts with our distinguished guests. there are many conversations the audience has hurt in the past six years we've been doing and they've been attributed to the efficient doctor hicks has had and has been supported and we want to thank her for her vision. she is the first deputy secretary ofsm defense at the defense department but i'd also like to know, she's a proud alarmist and for those of you who don't know, and all women's college located in western massachusetts in the middle of nowhere but a fabulous tribute to serving and supporting roman. today i am looking forward to your perspective on these issues.
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i know she's busier than ever and thank her for her time today. now i will pass it over to get it started. >> thank you so much for your support over these years. i've had the honor of knowing doctor hicks for many years as an intellect of national security so thank you so much for taking the time. i can imagine when he walked into the pentagon this year, talk about homecoming, it must have felt like a homecoming, i started adding up the number of years you spent inside the pentagon in the beginning of your professional career undersecretary off defense and top ranking women as a defense department. clearly this is a much higher role, big time in so many ways
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including uncertainty and difficult decisions coming your way and i think back, i realize dissertation at a mit and natiol security policy and i was wondering if you could begin the conversation on these last many months you've been there on how to make an impact in such a large institution in perspective for our audience aside from being the home of the world's most powerful military in 1.3 active duty military people, it's 732 thousand civilian employees and $720 billion, the scope of thought is breathtaking. any takeaways how to make an impact in that world? >> thank you for hosting me.
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a great shot out to her in the other alumni, yesterday was matching day so glad she gave a shout out today and it's thrilling to be back with this community of men and women who are very supportive of womenin d national security and international affairs. it is humbling to be here in this position, it's an incredible honor and i reflect on the every day of those eight months or so i've been here. i think my strategy has always been and continues to this day to ensure i make my time allocation, the most precious resource to anyone reflects this in thehe priorities have to reflect vision and objective
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from secretary of defense so for me, what i try to do is make sure i keep coming back to that of what we are seeking to achieve as an administration entering i, as coo in that set up and connecting objectives to what we are able to concretely move forward on could execute so that is three major areas. of course like any executive i do things, i focus first and foremost, one of the military capabilities we need? platform and conductivity in order to achieve national security objective to the country? that comes through a lot in development and budget strategy informingg especially i am focused on concepts and pick
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capabilities which we never have enough money. you can't get through the challenge of defense simply by applying resources, you have to bite intellect and be more savvy than potential adversary so that's a lot how we rapidly field the best and most capable loser in the world -- sorry, go ahead. >> i'm sorry. >> the second area, what is the work worth we have to execute on those objectives? that's an area that's less focused on, it's more important throughout history and military leaders spoke a lot on their people but we have not just members in uniform, we have a
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major civilian workforce and barger contract base and conductivity and innovation based so how do we make it an attractive place for people to come work directly in dod and working with dot? the third area, business operations, how do we make sure we are as effective as possible soth that taxpayer dollars are well spent and when we go up to capitol hill for into the small towns in america, we can confidently incredibly say the dollars are being invested for good purpose connect so much to dig into this next hour will be and we will get into that in a minute. we have to ask you about things that are more of a surprise and less coming out of expected plans and afghanistan, we can
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agree fair surprises along the way in the last few months and i want your personal perspective on a couple things. the first is the melting away of the afghan forces so quickly. you've heard a lot from your superiors, i thought yours personal perspective on why that happened. >> who addict for some time on the why. it's been a 20 year war, it will take some time to understand what has occurred the last several months. what we have seen in this are the taliban pre-focus for some time their contacts and working to sideline key leaders in the
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community overall but of course security forces specifically in the doha agreement from there on, there was a shift in how we think has security forces looked at the u.s. commitment and then if you factor in president connie's surprising's departure literally overnight after having assured u.s. officials he wasn't it for the long haul, that was sort of theoi last part. you have to recheck further to understand the dynamics that led to where we are today. >> the other question on the minds of a lot of americans, why was so much u.s. military equipment from communication to armoredpm equipment left behind. what was the thinking behind
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that? >> i think that's an easy explanationsy. u.s. military equipment for the u.s. we removed or demilitarized, made it inoperable.ad equipment the afghan nationals to get a forces equipment provided by the united states you might be thinking emission or guns or low level security force assistance was provided to the afghan military and m secury forces that was the property of government of afghanistan so that is a separate category. i dod empathize there's not advanceded equipment in the latr category. what americans think as advanced equipment is on the side of what the united states either removed or demilitarized it we've been asked by congress for a full accounting of all that and we
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are prepared to provide that. they came up just earlier this week in the hearings and we are moving forward to provide that information. >> you are not worried about sensitive secret technology falling into the hands of terrorists or china or russia? >> i'm not worried -- the united states u.s. military forces and others have done a very good job securing material and communications and information coming out of afghan. we are going to learn more, we don't know everything today about the course of those 20 years so there could be things i don't know today but i am confident how we have left the situation with regard to our material and nonmaterial support. >> early on decision to hand over the air base, could you
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perspective on the thinking behind that? >> there are two points in time under discussion fekete inflated so if you think about the withdrawal of u.s. military forces, withdrawal from barbara as part of a sensible approach to get to the full withdrawal from of the idea by the end of september this year end barbara had to be part of a withdrawal long-term would have been the opposite of u.s. withdrawing forces. then there's a second issueed raised by those concerned about noncombatant evacuation eroperation done in august and whether united states should have come back in and secured barbara as an exit for u.s.
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citizens and afghans. again, the issue is pretty self expiratory, barbara is far removed relatively thinking from kabul. the vast majority of u.s. citizens and embassy personnel who needed to come up, probably 70% plus were in that area. it's right there in the city, harder to secure for sure but logistically much easier to get folks out. we are planning did have the backdrop, not the only consideration but it would be afghan national security forces present for that withdrawal and that's one pieces that changed overnight but barbara is an alternative lots of opportunity for folks to look at that. i am not concerned that there
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will be momentum that was a viable alternative. >> let's move forward, a lot of questions about the u.s. military over the horizon campaignit against al qaeda and other terrorist threats from afghanistan. for your average american, military employees to protect us from terrorist attacks, what is that strategy? >> first of all, there is misconception the united states has a specific approach to afghanistan in over the horizon than elsewhere in the world most americans know we don't have military personnel on the ground, most places in the world
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worried about terrorism yemen areas and northth africa where e know al qaeda and other groups operate from isis and we are nor reliant on u.s. military personnel to execute counterterrorism operations there so what we are really talking about is normalizing how the u.s. uses counterterrorism mission so think about an extreme of what over the horizon might look like, what the u.s. was able to execute which all americans are quite familiar with. that's an over the horizon operation so that is one level. the other reality is most of what the united states does is not at theot end of the spear,
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it's about our collection capability most of which is not necessarily airborne assets, space aspects and human intelligence networks particularly looking atn isis r al qaeda in their attempts in global movements, a lot is happening across computer networks, it'sac not sales meetg just on the ground and the last thing i think i will take, the president's goal here from a very well stated to the public, we are not in a place trying to stop everything that happens in afghanistan, we donated over the horizon capability. what we are focused on is preventing terrorist attacks focused on u.s. citizens whether there or at home and protecting ourselves from those kinds of attacks in the narrower subset
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of the counterterrorism threat. >> we will follow up on that, concerned that we don't c have e partnership, significant intelligence infrastructure we had even in places like syria and iraq and libya and even yemen, a successful strategy so you would say to that -- >> first, they have to be able to get south of afghanistan in order to affect death so i will leave out there. the united states has partners throughout the world, a variety of approaches we use as a national government to develop out, so human network. i found the focus affect criticism is on the human network, it's not the only human network not necessarily in many cases primary a tool when we lok
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at preventing threats to approach here at home so we will work on all of those and i don't think there's an attempt to take the eye off the ball looking at violent extremist organizations and their ability to affect americans. >> it sounds like you're pretty competent and we've all heard from general milley concerning al qaeda and isis to anreconstitute afghanistan in 22 next year but you feel confident in our capabilities about that? >> am confident isis will not have any interest or capability to have a physically manifested threat united states so biggeste tools against computer networks and operations at home and local
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law enforcement working closely with federal authorities, that is the nicest challenge. al qaeda, legacy focus on ensuring they cannot undertake efforts protect u.s. citizens and responsible for their agreement was made to or not allow an organization to reconstitute that would be focused against our interest and that is important howan we procd with afghanistan. >> that's a good explanation so i think the complications of afghanistan withdrawal heightens your focused on data collected using a.i.in technologies which you are at the forefront, could you talk about the effort?
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>> afghanistan i think was a good example having interconnectivity on data and shared data being able to in real-time, action onme data was well displayed. we've been focused on this challenge for some time and the way i would explain what i hope is most translatable is massive amounts of information, everyone looking at the phone, more than anyone could take him reasonably. what a.i. can help us do and ensuring data we can share is dropped the information in an allow quality approaches, pattern recognition, understanding what you see
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coming, cannot friend or foe, the thomas to access the data a.i. and learning being able to analyze that so it's decision advantageio so we are very focud on but on the way in which the u.s. military can contribute to create stability and as i use friend or foe example prevent escalation also to demonstrate to that we are prepared to respond we do see threats. >> it's interesting in corporate america, a lot of focus on visionary companies, a lot of focus on the future versus versus the past using a.i. and is sounds like you are doing thatat and what are the five daa
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degrees you choose? >> in sum, the idea is hour -- has to be certain standards, we have to beif transparent with hm that it again, if you take a i from a sense of building out just the foundation on which we will build capability to ensure data that comes in, it structured in a way and understand what the data is trying to understand translatable and think mechanically across systems and the data can flow through it on the a.i. side is responsible approaches the leader which i think we are ahead of industry
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in terms of the approach to thinking about applying a.i. in machine learning and ethical ways so we can take the data use it for the security of the united states. >> cor afghanistan and then wil move on but how concerned are you about u.s. trained afghan pilots and aircraft being held there? what steps are taken to ensure going to happen an audience member question, how is the dod continuing to work with partners and allies to evacuate people from afghanistan?
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doctor gail asks, what's the status and plans for rescuing high-risk afghans including ministry and general staff officials from public? what is the status of special immigrant visas? >> let me pick pieces of this, there's a lot in there. the ongoing evacuation of american citizens, that is the case even since we've departed from u.s. military, you've seen a number of u.s. citizens and green card holders documentation and at risk, that is through the good work of the u.s. state department led efforts. they use u.s. military in the middle east and europe to help facilitate the flow but dod is in support and that and what you
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are seeing is an ability to bring folks through the state department process for providing documentation, ensuring documentation is accurate, a dhs process review to ensure the r right people are coming out and dod is providing some of the backdrop, we are not the ones lifting out. the other major thing i would like is standing up of the commercial side of the airport and it's an effort underway third countries are working on with the state department to get that airport up and operational it if you combined the ability for commercial aircraft to come through and without coming to u.s. military, just going through commercial air traffic and the ability of the state department to provide continuing support for the visa process and
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validation, that all becomes -- you can see the ability of the process to work with the u.s. boots on the ground or being involved in that process. >> okay, we will leave afghanistan now. let's talk broadly, what is your personal role in nuclear modernization? >> as i said before, as the coo connecting the objective to the resources and nuclear modernization, it takes the form of nuclear command and control enterprise, cyber and space relatedat security of strategic nuclear detergent deterrence and what aren, the programs we have
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for nuclear deterrence? in that regard, i am assisting secretary at the president having a nuclear review underwy now the white house level so i am assisting secretary looking at particularly that back and peace with nuclear policy made from the white house, what are the implications of that policy for how we bring forward capabilities in support? i look at that through a number of different mechanisms, the budget is the one most people are used to but there's no shortage in which we talked through many nuclear modernization challenges we face and the key take away strategic nuclear deterrence for the u.s. is fundamental to our ability to secure and has been since the dawn of the nuclear age at the end of the second world war.
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it's a cornerstone how we secure americans here at home. the president stated the same he's looking for ways to reduce the role of nuclear weapon and u.s. security so we are working in support of those goals. >> what about space defense. can you give us an overview of where efforts are going on but realm moving into 2022 and beyond? >> i'm sure folks will be familiar we stood up spaceports, it was set up under the last administration is often affiliated, or people think of it as aligned to an administration but it's important for people to know there was a strong congressional bipartisan view to bring forth the spaceports so that bipartisan view continues so we are continuing to build shaping
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of that spaceports and capabilities again like i said on clear issues, and overall presidentially driven perspective on how we think about space and civil uses of space they are engaged in this for that and for other military contributions, what we call space resiliency so we have commercial capability here in the u.s. and innovators in the space sector at an advantage over competitors, russia and china of the- world and a lot of we are trying to go into space defense is working closely with those partners on the civilian and commercial side while maintaining unique specific and
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high quality capability within the u.s. government focus on keeping our edge there to defend united states. >> let's come back to earth and focus on specifics now. president biden announced australia uk u.s. steel that included cherry u.s. nuclear powered submarines technology, can you the overall military strategy china strategy? >> the agreement you are referencing uk and australia includes the effort on nuclear propulsionon not to provide the capability to launch your weapons which is not the interest of australia, it's
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helping them consider what the approach would be and what efforts they have to undertake in order to establish nuclear capability inside australia so the u.s. and the uk cooperate closely on that, it brings australians into that mechanism to start working through what it might lookon like so 18 months consultation. and there are some other areas the president announced that will work in this trilateral format of august to look how we can advance capabilities together so there are a lot of in terms of defense, it allows them how they stay undersea last detectablee by is efficacious o
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us in the context of china which is how you raised the question but the chinese are advancing the capabilities from the cap borders. include those capabilities but even beyond what they are doing in the undersea is a clear pattern expanding out geographic capability, the range of their capability to deny other interested parties whether it's around japan or the united states, warm for hawaii and australia including standing out closer to australia, the ability for their interest so the fact the united states and the uk and australia are coming together omaround us that demonstrates hw openings in the region, western pacific are shifting and in europe how positions are
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shifting in regard to how serious the chinese challenge is and the rhetoric of president xi jinping is aggressive for his capabilities. in past years we've seen their growth and not sure their intentions. now they are clear about their intention and we are seeing capability growth and i think the lights are going on in many places and i think one is australia. >> how worried are you and what you mean by china as a pacing competitor? >> i am worried, china and the globe have significant interest maintaining peace andn stability in the western pacific and throughout the world and it takes a very careful approach given what i've described as the rhetoric the capabilities to make clear we can credibly deter any such efforts against our
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interests. i've mentioned japan and u.s. territory in the united states of america including hawaii so we have reason for concern ourselves, let alone the commitments we have. what i mean by a pacing threat? they are developing capabilities in certain areas beginning to compete effectively with what the u.s. could bring to defend the interests so we look increasing where china is going and capability areas as the mark on the wall we need to ensure we could credibly deter, that doesn't necessarily mean we're doing arms race in any particular area, it just means the mark on the wall is something we have to be able to credibly overcome with our own capabilities and by the way, the u.s. has hewed advantage, they
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are not just our respect jarvis, they are about what the u.s. can bring as a global power and with a lot of other countries increasingly concerned about what china is trying tohi do no. our goal is not to have any conflict with china, it's to reduce tension and demonstrate credible deterrence so they are not tempted with this rhetoric and capability to over reach. >> on the same program a few weeks ago i interviewed senatord duckworth and encourage audience, she went into this military and intelligence strategy and exactly what we are talking about and one thing she raised concerns about was a potential invasion of taiwan given the technology there. how concerned are you? >> something we watch very carefully, if you are at the end
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up pacific command in hawaii and watching day-to-day, to camp down any such potential, we have good relations with taiwan and commitment to taiwan and during since the 1970s. central is helping taiwanese defense capabilities, that's important, the taiwanese and their ability to defend t themselveses is a game changer n terms of that calculus for china so that is an area we want a lot of focus on as well as our own and with allies and partners, our own credible demonstration of interest and advanced economic and about the trip, semiconductor industry, that is
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sort of business but also taiwanese people have demonstrated the ability to have democracy and we have an interest in ensuring democracies can flourish. primarily through the self-defense of taiwan for the united states works quote lease closely with partners on back. >> we have a whole rash of audience questions and we haven't even talked about you. your dad, tell us about him, his work and his influence on you. >> that's so nice, no one has ever asked me that. my dad was a submariner and spent more than three years in the u.s. navy, i grew up across the u.s. on the coast in hawaii and never expected myself to
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work in the defense department but of course if you take along you, you can see how it all played out a tremendous influence and incredible focus on him and my mother, focus on military families as a psychologist and a ton of work as aan counselor and psychologit with military families and we have one of those dinner tables, i have a very large family and seven children so we had a dinner table for the conversations was always around current events, news of the day and strong focus on education and service to others and thus an enduring influence i hope to pass on not just my own children but those i work with. >> what drew you to the pentagon? you went through your phd but you started early on at the pentagon. >> i did, i went back for my
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phd, i went to the pentagon after my masters degree and coming out of college, i was trying to decide between, did i want to be a history professor or do something more in the public realm? i have strong mentors and college who helped me think through that challenge that i decided to go on the public policy route and i think i was drawn to foreign policy and foreign affairs overall throughout my college years. i came out of college at the time the berlin wall came down from of the soviet union dissolved, it was fascinating, this hope of a new approach for the united states, a new generation so it's natural for me to look at getting drunk in public service for all the reasons i just described. the defense
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department then and now had a particular compelling program that was called presidential management intern, now a fellows program. dod was well known to have one of the best programs and i hope that's still true today. people view it that way today, you had opportunity to move around and try different things, especially two-year trainingg programs to be able to civil service and be used really well no matter what level you were, for reputation was few could be brought in and just do great work and that's how i in and as a career years, it found even though i was young and female and did not come myself with the operational background, i have not served in theal military, there's a lot to overcome, i will whitewash that but if you
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could demonstrate your merit so you could do good work on the changes work, they need to work so you could do really interesting things and that's what brought me to you and cap me here for so long. >> so it wasn't easy being a civilian -- >> no. >> could you describe in a couple of sentences? >> most of the uniform members here in the building are coming either at the cap stump very late, when w they come here to work on these issues, they are coming here as a colonel or navy captain level or just slightly under that. if you start heree, as i did at3 with no operational background if you are coming into the office of secretary of defense into are there to hold forth and provide guidance, my first job was developing guidance to sign a variety of different operational areas, you can
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imagine that's offputting for people and what i found, i had my challenges over the years but what i found work best was being clear you respect operational insight at those in uniform were bringing but you brought something to the table and were brought on as a civilian, in my case with a very specific set of expertise and knowledge and over the years, that knowledge base grows only relative to those rotating in-and-out of the pentagon, youou have that understanding how washington works and inner agency and how to work with congress and develop in the case like the office of secretary of defense. what are the incentives organizationally, those in thehe field have tremendous knowledge sets that i will not have but i have some think they need and when you come forward about that, barry professional basis,
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most of the time with most of the people, that will work relatively well. >> those are wise words, especially to young people up the ladder. you like smart women, smart power, champions and supporters of women in national security, the same way you were shaped by the fall of the berlin wall and optimism, do see women today are international security shaped by somethingg different? obviously something different but what are they shaped by more? >> i think we had a significant influx of young professionals after 9/11, it was on the national security civilian side so that not a full generation, 20 years later. >> going into the army.
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>> now i think what we see are people looking at globalized but i see young people coming in looking at national security time much to how we think about security here at home and by thatha i mean they are thinking about how does the united states strengthen itself from within? they look very much how what the work is for what the u.s. needs to do and freedom in the way we would have thought of it in 1989 or 1990, they are focused on how to leave the story of america at home and abroad together. that's what i see and they are much more diverse. i think we have a long way to go but much more diverse than we used to seek it is true we see many more women than we used to. >> i loved that imagery, the american story around the world
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to national security, that is powerful. we are going to go to audience questions, i apologize, there are a lot of them so i will try to get to as many as i can. how does dod see overcoming part domestic political climate todo obtain the next generation of war fighters not only technologically savvy to meet future needs of war fighting but also larger diversity equity and inclusion? that is a lot. >> that ties very much to what we were just talking about, this is straight up business issue, there's a lot in washington and on cable news. my job is the business case which is this, any organization, corporation, university that wants toio compete in the 21st century has got to get the
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formula right tapping into the immense count base here in the united states a huge advantagege over china's of the world, if the innovation that we can bring forward -- and i don't just mean technology, i mean creative thinking that goes after practical problems and brings new ideas, that requires to tap that count base and that's increasingly diverse in all measures so that means not only can we recruit effectively against that full talent base but can you retain, attract and retain? you are workplace people want to come to? can you make a m compelling case for mission? in many generations in the past was enough, it was clear what the united states military offered in terms ofed ability to defend the united states itself is ait recognized goal to pursu.
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now i think we have a lot of work to do to make a case such credible, military is a place where you can be safe from sexual harassment or assault, there is a social contract through your veteran years in regard to your mental health and physical w health, to your famiy that we are bringing in most innovative and technologically advanced and we are not going to completelysu consume you or brig you down with bureaucracy, these are major challenges to attracting the kind of talent we need for the future and they are at the heart of when we talk about diversity, equity and inclusion, it's more than anything else making sure we bring the right people in and let them advance through our system, we demonstrate you can make it to the top of our system and throughout the ranks, not just in a utopian way but enduring way so we are a place
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people want to come to give their best while they are here and we take care of them on the other hand. >> how is the department measuring risk climate change places on operations particularly.impacts on operations and long-term resiliency readiness? >> i always like to start this thousand eight, an issue that's been over politicized recently.ea national intelligence council putte out an agreed icy intelligence community assessment, climate change of national security risk, intelligence community and department of defense on the uniform side has never wavered, there's no question over more than a decade wesk have a natiol
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security risk from climate change. it comes about in a number of waysys because back to dollars, installations and facilities are operations so you'll and ability to maintain equipment using capabilities not only do they happen to be climate challenged but they are decreasingly use of commercial sector so it takes more money and a lot of dollars invested where we are because when we don't take into account climate implications, the readiness issue similarly we have day she can't fly aircraft because there increasing wildfires, the numbers are going up. w you can look at wildfires and drought,, sea level rise, all these aspects that affect readiness and the fact that military forces, especially
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national guardrd forces to callp more and more frequently to del with climate related instances of at adverse weather, hurricane, wildfires, international crises, the tsunami for instance in asia where they are . all these away climate change manifests as increased demand on dollars from tod so we have a big interest going after it. what are we doing? first, a better approach around budgeting process to account for what we are already doing on climate. there is not a good accounting, is my expectation that 23 budget we put forward in spring textures, a much better handle of what dod says in regard to climate today. second, we are focused on making
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sure we take advantage of green technology, most of it is not exotic, it will used in the commercial sector, think about electric vehicles, we rent a lot of cars in the u.s. department of defense, a lot of them are not electric and we have charging stations if we buy vehicles for your typical run around the base operations should they be electric, that's an example that's small but most people can connect with a defensible way to spend our dollars and i'll finish with best, i could talk climate all day, i'll finish by saying we have climate risk assessment tool now are using we've deployed across the department for all installations so we can have data and analysis to show us where we have the greatest
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climate change, sea level rise is a e great example and how we prioritize our dollars to mitigate the challenges. >> a follow-up to your answer on what we left behind militarily in afghanistan, we didn't sensitive high end military equipment and he said clarify your equipment specifically, the taliban or could you please clarify your statement, specifically the taliban for u.s. black hawk helicopters drink victory in kabul, if you consider the helicopters to be high-end or low-end in military equipment? how many other aircraft are provided for otherwise left behind in afghanistan? >> i've never heard the taliban flew black hawk, i could be
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wrong, i've not heard that before. >> catherine asks -- >> can add one thing toar that? you also need to fuel and maintain a blackck hawk even if you flew it once, you need to be able to maintain over time so i'll just leave it at that. >> okay -- but seeing all, japan's liberal democratic party president was selected, how do you plan to promote your policy toward china to shooter japan together? >> i think i'll answer that with his having a positive
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relationship including the quark which is the united states, india and australia but also bilaterally and other venues with the japanese so we feel confident in that. >> we've got four minutes left and this is a perfect note to and on. broken a lot of last ceilings with dod and national security basis, congratulations to you. it will be critical revolt solving future challenges. his dod doing enough to promote female leaders? what is yourfo peace effort adve to women who want to follow in your footpath? >> my advice is, expect challenges and be passionate about the work want to do, is the passion you will need when you have the challenges and you
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have to step forward confidently and be ready to demonstrate that you bring value if you're confident, you bring valueyo and you present that forward to the world. there's always going to be challenges but with a passion to do what you want to do, you can go pretty far. >> any final thoughts? >> no, thanks learned a lot. as too your patient analysis and your great intellect, we appreciate it. thank you so much, thank you. ♪♪ >> you spent on the girl's on demand anytime, anywhere on our mobile app. c-span now, access highlights, discover new podcasts all for
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free. download today. ♪♪ >> today's senate lawmakers resume debate on the house passed bills to suspend the debt ceiling through december 16, 2022. later this afternoon, they expect to hold a confirmation vote for jonathan meyer to be general counsel of the department of homeland security. ... the senate will come to order. the chaplain, dr. barry black, will lead the senate in prayer. the chaplain: let us pray. king of the earth, we worship you. your majesty and might sustain us, as we meditate upon your grace and mercy. increase our

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