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tv   Lynn Hudson West of Jim Crow  CSPAN  October 2, 2021 12:45pm-2:01pm EDT

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smaller second stage took over 5000 miles an hour and carried on to the highest point reached. 500 miles out, the artificial move is misted to a speed and released. pioneering national signal transmitted by the earth circling satellite and one of the great scientific fees of the age. and follows on social media at cspan's. from our of the state in history read. >> lynn hudson is a professor of history and member in illinois at chicago. her focus studies of race and gender. she's the author of 19th century. [inaudible]. and women's historical society and she's a fellow at the library. in her new book is jim crow, the
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fighting is california's power lines, which covers the history of the white supremacy in california pretty thank you for being with us and avoid headed over to you and i will see you again in our audience at the end. >> thank you so much, i am just so happy to be here. i want to get this going. and first of all, they think used to get to the california historical society. i frankly not and they have been helping me every single step along my career. i visited mama for my first book where i did much of my research and in the old library and the librarians i just can't say enough. i just would like to spend all
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their time thinking librarians and have a special shout out for helping me tonight in setting up this program. i also want to give a shout out to deborah, to really one of my while i would not exist without her help. and also another who i worked with for years and she wore the people actually look at this book and she worked the archives for many years and really encouraged me to write the chapter on this international x solution which anyway, big thanks and a lot of appreciation for you all. all right so let's get to it. let's try to do in this book, is to give a sense of the breath and the depth of white supremacy in california rated to reveal the extent of jim crow segregation and also anti-
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black. and also i'm intending to underscore the complex system and network of the system that has existed in the state. and that involves network of african-americans and mexican americans african-americans and other allies. from sainthood to the civil rights movement. now clearly, i've not documented every instance of white supremacy in the state pretty well i did go up and down the state, and spent time in public libraries and on the riverside to montana and lesson time with the chs and at bangkok, i have try to focus on six stories that i think show something of the contours of jim crow from state code to isolate the meanings of the black movement. now many of the scholars have documented the nuanced ways jim
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crow operated in the state. scholars like josh and fleming and others. that was to name a few and to help us understand the ways that segregation and racism has operated across the state but for the most part, those in the 20th century and when i was interested in was from the beginnings, how were they established the segregation it and practices in white supremacy and how is it refined and established before but we of as maybe the 1950s and the episodes we ought recognizes being a part of the events and episodes and civil rights movement. in the boycott and so my book really charts before that era. and when i went to do today is i
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want to focus on stories that in chapter five of my book in a story about how african-americans and their allies pushed back against racially restrictive housing in the role of white supremacist and in particular the ku-klux clan in that story. now the story involves some figures that well-known scholars in california, and the longest publishing black newspaper the california eagle published out of central avenue district in los angeles. very important figure and some of you might know about her because the first black woman to run for vice president 1962 unprotected party ticket but tonight, in the story, she was one of the first to sound the alarm in california about the arrival of the ku-klux clan and
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she also became one of the clans most fundamental components. if you think about the, most of us think about usually, probably, about the origins of the clan maybe about the reconstruction era in a mark in history after the civil war. in the clan formed part of the effort to stop african-americans in the quest of freedom and this is a common you can see this published in the harvard weekly in 1974. and is showing that the clan there on your right, and on the left name of another white supremacist organization active in the south. and there are a newly freed slave and you can see the words there. and now the clan of the 19th century and very much the moment of freedom and its foundation in
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the southland the terror that is probably across the south. my concern tonight is not that clan but what we call the second plan, the second clan of the 1920s that in particular strong in the midwest and some of you might remember the 1920s the planet, the popular can ohio ohio indiana, and also strong in california. it is this clan that they passed in 191920 what it was that year that the clan arrived in downtown los angeles, setting up the office right there in town. the california eagle immediately ran these headlines showing the clan and also had another article what should we do about the arrival of the clan rated
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and talking about the dangers of the clan. in march of the clan help through downtown los angeles in 1924. and while the strength of this clan in california it did spread up and in the state so there were chapters of this clan oakland, anaheim and san bernardino county and in riverside, up and down the state the double act chapter of los angeles sound the alarm and run to the national office and requested information. it would did they know about this organization and what can we do to stop it. so soon as the clan arrived, african-americans across the state organized against it. out sometimes this clan has had
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the reputation of being sort of a more professional clan in some ways, that meetings of the members of the professional class and there have been studies that shows a lot of california clan members in the 1920s, he ran for office pretty city council and they were upstanding homeowners. and then in some ways has obscured the violence is so that i want to say one of the points in the making this chapter about the black homeowners in the clinton california's that we can't be fooled by this portrayal of the second clan or even the third clan. i will talk about that in a minute somehow less dangerous. in another kind of idea that some folks have had about the same clan is that not concerned
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with the african-americans and unlike the first clan, clearly newly freed black americans. the second clan of the 20th century, was more concerned about catholics in america and immigrants in america they were and by then in california, they were also always concerned with african-americans in the presence was a threat to the clan members in california rated and now the plan of california would be a tremendous in 1922 when it raided the homes of a mexican family in inglewood and this is a picture of clans at a funeral because clan members there when they going to read the home, they accuse the family the bootleggers read and the
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clan was then brought to the attention of the d.a. and there was a trial. so while every they might not have known about the arrival in 1920, this episode became national news. after that trial, the va was alerted and told to investigate the membership of the clan and find out if this organization was strong and who is members were and what things might represent. this led to london on the headquarters and within covered in that read, surprise even the most observant person. from the la headquarters of the
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ku-klux clan, there were over 2000 members in la county alone and over 1000 in new york city itself including three other staff. and they spoke volumes, the la chief of police in the la county sheriff are both members. the in their report, the courageous thinker, then neither can afford to rely on the authorities and when the evidence reveals the police they authorities are members of the ku-klux clan" and what would think that this episode would put an end to it. but after the trial was botched and don't have but in which all of these clan members for their tax they were to headquarters new york and they said, that the clan would continue to operate
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openly everything. and still what is this all have to do with housing and segregation. now contra contrary to assumption as i said earlier, the clan had a focus on african-americans as well as catholics and others. another assumption about the clan, and that is some believe that the clan disappears during the 30s and especially world war ii. here we have the tamping down of the second clan and many believe
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that was kind of the end of what would've been possible for the clan to be talking about their own white supremacist ideology during the war and in fact they did go underground for a while but they didn't disappear and that's really important in california history. because especially in 45 - 46 actually, and we see the resurgence of the clan in california. we might call this the third clan and then the targets particular targets, black and brown families were moving into white only areas of the state and often times aimed at war veterans. so this is the clan that i want to spend more time talking about tonight. this is an undated photograph. but i want to start now telling
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the story about this housing and one of the things the third clan hope to stop was black and brown homeowners moving into previously white only neighborhoods now at some you may be familiar with this was a prominent black attorney who later became a judge and he was a point person on the legality of restricted housing how many of you i'm sure you're familiar with the term restricted permanence, the say that this property may never be sold to them i say, a negro, and oriental, a mexican in using the language of the 1920s and 30s and 40s and 50s. in these covenants, these restricted deeds, and shorted the neighborhood this would stay white only or so segregation of
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hope rated so miller rated his business to investigate and segregated housing. and as a point person on deck this part of the law. and he would be instrumental in fighting against restrictive housing pretty he would be one of the lead attorneys of known the state for dozens and dozens of spaces where black folks moved into previously white neighborhoods rated and also some of the most high-profile cases in the nation including the case of daniel and winning the oscar. and so he would be a part of the story. now the story was told short. in his short it was a
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refrigeration engineer who had lived and worked in los angeles for five years, by 1945. not many black angelenos who had the wartime housing shortages brady was a father of children and there you see his daughter, and his son and his wife helen. they were feeling squeezed out of desirable neighborhoods in los angeles. by this restricted housing and the covenants pretty and by the way the estimated that about 80 percent of southern california housing was tied up in this restricted housing and deeds. so in short, the year the lucky break and got a job at the kaiser steel plant. ec picture of them from 1949.
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naturally kaiser permanente, kaiser was a boom for black workers and for his shipbuilding in northern california read but this still plant was east of la and fontana had promoted itself is a place of the jim crow restrictions. so a job as an engineer at this plant he felt like he won the lottery. it was a good job, and the first west coast facility these are the steel products on site. who according to one historian, turned fontana into an international benchmark.
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the job is he said, was a boom for african-americans and as an engineer the wages, and black benefited can lower paying lower status jobs. from 1945, in december, this family moved to five-acre part of land in fontana and the property was sell the baseline street and it was in an area where black families could never live. as soon as the family moved into their house, they were visited by two white churros. and he said this a vitally neighborhood and is the black and red on the other side of the street. and on december 3rd, the estate agent who had sold short, the lot told him that vigilante committee had a meeting last night and there are rough bunch
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to deal with in a fire you will begin my family off this property and now he was well aware of the vigilantes in fact the clan members. he prepared for trouble and he did three things up rated first e call this attorney. the law partner of lauren miller and second, he contacted the fbi and 30, he contacted members of the california eagle and also another los angeles fentanyl parade in fayetteville and headlights on short and recounted the threats he had received from the sheriff about the vigilantes. in ten days later, the fires that engulfed the property begin with an explosion and neighbors rushed to the scene. and they were all severely
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burned. but they did escape and then they go into the hospital and statement later the neighbor said they didn't know it was a black and her black family because they were light-skinned and they said that they thought they were white so the little girl, 15 minutes after she was committed in the boy died the next morning as the mother helen. and based on coverage from the san bernardino track. as soon as the fire subsided, conflicting reports circulated about its cause. white neighbors though agreed the responsibility for the fire they with short of according to this theory they reported to the present neighbors, mr. short was biting a lantern and exploded. now the black press is not having it the california eagle and fentanyl, they both suspected foul play and reported
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to the scene of the crime the naacp and and fontana and the la chapter, also investigated the crime. and as they began to investigate the crime, it quickly became apparent that it wouldn't have been possible for elaborate lantern to cause that kind of explosion. here's a picture of the eagle office. because the walls of the house were knocked to the ground. so this land for lantern theory, the delta on this theory. now it's a long investigation process. and i don't have time to talk about all of the steps. but as the eagle reported, there was an elaborate cover-up of evidence that would lead to
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conviction. and the corner for example in this investigation refused to admit evidence that the shorts had been threatened by vigilantes in the lantern that was still intact that reportedly blew up was not entered into the investigation. in the san bernardino district attorney, it became clear to ask the eagle fentanyl and the naacp, was in the midst of a cover-up. there was also an organization existence to the cover-up. in the effort to seek justice for the short family were also ongoing. in 1946, rice it was a leader of the los angeles socialist party, run published this pamphlet. and up and down the state across
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the country and she opened up the murder across the country. in this had been forwarded by by the sister of helen. so the sister-in-law short. in addition to the workers party, the labor movement also pressured the governor, the district attorney in san bernardino, to investigate the murders. since shore had been a refrigeration engineer. also bid a member of the labor movement and in particular cio put pressure on the officials to investigate the murder. now the attorney general investigated the murder in a of promised an independent investigation. nothing became of it too much of
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the disappointment of this organized resistance. an editorial in the liberator summed it up. would any person can now with entire certainty and work victim of jim crow and finding a home in los angeles and jim crow would the violator of community traditions. and jim crow had corrected sense of duty of deputy sheriff and enjoyed the clan to deprive the citizens of the constitutional rights. all the shorts are dead, only jim crow was alive. now the story does not point and there because in 1946, stepped up the effort to investigate the clan. and on the far right, two of his
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staff members, one is in a clan costume. 1946, the clan stepped up its effort to terrorize black homeowners. this caused him to continue the investigation of the plan. that year 1946, the clan burn crosses and homes of many black homeowners across southern california and also for the jewish fraternity and because the fraternity with the covenants trinity and in 1946, they began calling clan members into his office. but again, the result were disheartening for those seeking justice for the shorts found no evidence of so-called vigilante activity to be directed at the african-american community in fontana, or against mr. short, personal late. many people wondered if it were
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responsive to the murders which was linked to being governor that year. he was succeeded but what he did do, was the help of an la superior court judge was to revoke the ku-klux clan, therefore making it unlawful to hold meetings in the state. and also who had run plan, chino that this was largely symbolic because in 1950, plan activities began. they hear you have a picture from 1952 and the lines was new racial intimidation and we need a caption there in the recorders examining the letters of the kkk that were on the sidewalk in front of presumably a black and you can see a black family there and that the home of the negro
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was recently involved with the teacher was bailey south central la. and clan attacks continued in the 50s. now we also know the brown versus board of education in 1954, would inspire white supremacist. pushback against immigration with new inspiration. so i the clan may have a different kind of organization in 1950, had not yet. i'm just going to close here. the threat that the segregation saw was many layered and educated man with jobs the purchase of the property they can vote, they could inhabit public spaces and institutions. the challenge lauren keller and
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others mounted against the clan were fermentable. but miller never acted alone enjoyed by the naacp the socialist work communist party activists, california movement against restrictive housing but broad and deep. individual across the state risked everything to cross the county line and move into neighborhoods they were known to be watched by the kkk. in the others sounded the alarm because the clan predict the white supremacist since 1940s and a new expression in fontana after suspicion and the backlash against segregation and incontinent revival of the clan, that by 1965, lyndon johnson had ordered an investigation into
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clan activity. two years earlier in 1963 african-american and u.s. airport by the house in san bernardino only to watch it destroyed arsonists before he and his family could move in writing little had changed in the 17 years since the murders of the shorts and the golden state had long published punished african-americans who dared to challenge the segregation some in their lives predict thank you so much for listening. >> thank you so much land. i invite anybody if you and maybe while people are starting to do that predict. [inaudible]. i read a quote from the interview and you said that you learn about students and staff but you don't hear stories about
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los angeles or about the west. why, when you think that is changing pretty. >> that is a great question. therefore is my recollection, and i think that school teachers in california are doing so much to teach the children about resistance is a rights movement in the west. and so i wanted to say first and foremost i know that they are teaching about the west i personally did dollar about the civil rights movement in the west during california even in my hometown. i grew up in pasadena and a lot of what i learned about, i learned from acquaintances and teachers but not the approved curriculum. i learned from teachers like like my eighth grade teacher who taught us about black history and a program that was
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extracurricular. and i hundred heard stories from matt robinson who work my high school. full stories about the robinson family account in my book. it and so there's a lot of things that have changed the public school. in many reasons, tells about the stories there was no left out of the textbook. some of the teachers necessarily. and there's a chapter on civil rights. it is always fitting in with martin luther and king in alabama and maybe chicago maybe. so that also has to change. and with the work of these scholars that are mentioned in the beginning of my talk, i think that it is changing but we also know about the civil rights movement and the civil rights, as a national phenomenon right and the resistance against white
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supremacy is something that is national. >> very quickly, i just wanted to remind us that we will look at this as well. we'll be able to get through this in order. and the board of education with the people of color with the connection there. >> okay. so very quickly at the end, when i was reading from a book, the backlash against ground was phenomenal across the country. they segregation, though we know it didn't necessarily get implemented in that way that folks might have liked. we know that the backlash, is still living with us today read
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for those of you interested, nancy mike leaves both democracy and change. she charts the ways think tanks and scholars and politicians who are part of this backlash against brown, or against them and fighting integration. in the modern conservative movement. what you're asking is the link between the ground and housing and so what i'm suggesting is that it is not always part of the plan. the backlash against brown that the clan was part of that. broad conservative backlash against the integration and brown people. and that violence that experience in 1963, when you
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bought a house in san bernardino to see go up in flames, that is still a part of the backlash against the civil rights brown and then backlash against the civil rights movement. so the connection is the black homeowners and brown homeowners were targeted of violence and intimidation and by the policies is not long after brown. >> can you tell us about your book grade about the second clan and because of the great migration pretty. >> thank you yes i didn't talk about that thank you so much. absolutely and i mean really what i was talking about the third 1940s plan that i was talking about. that is directly linked to the
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black migrants. absolutely for those of you who read and you know about that about the history of the great migration. transform california african-americans came from the south especially from louisiana. any fans other communities part of that great migration. and then also a part of a plan thank you so much for asking that. in previously there were no white neighborhoods. in the black families they been there for generations but many of them are migrants and not sure predict he had been in los angeles for 25 years of his recent margaretville yes absolutely. this white supremacist activity
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that we see, is absolutely part of that movement so thank you rated. >> so just quickly they want to know about short, he actually passed away. >> yes read oh wow, talk about leaving often important sentence in which are, sorry you select that sentence out and thank you. a few days after his family died, he was told that the hospital and his friends and supporters were trying to not tell him pretty he was in the hospital with severe burns and then trying to not tell him that his family members have died but, when they questioned him, which now was certainly illegal, under these conditions is that i'm not in any shape to answer any of these questions they informed him and his two children and his wife had died in the passed away, i am so
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sorry. and in my excitement to get to the end and finish on time, i left that important information out, is so tragic pretty. >> it probably took me two hours and so i cover absolutely everything. but based on your research, what is the relationship between private property rights apprentice racism. as a book going forward. two questions there, the relationship between i guess, the distraction of private property which is what the plan was. what are the tactics pretty. >> so yes, so one of the things that so many angles and essay about that and thank you for the great question in one of the things that i think that is so important about the topic we are talking about tonight, is that this particularly threatening to white supremacists that african-americans man or owning the property. if you think about that plan,
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one of the things that first plan targeted were newly freed black men and women who were voting and for free and it trying to carve out a plan for them selves. so you know anything about that you know they often targeted by black entrepreneurs. if you know anything about item wells in her story about them who owned successful grocery store and they were murdered. that was one of the things that inspire her in the journalism and come to chicago. so in some ways this is not new in the fact that the clan targeted california black property owners is actually continuity there between the first and second and third plan predict we just don't associate that with california that is one
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thing i wanted to say about property it has particular resonance the black man associated with masculinity and the thing about the general of the 50s. in the 40s pretty and black men are now buying a home. making it in probably building a home without was to claim masculinity for yourself for the black men. there was also threatening. one of the things that they were concerned about was the gender role. so for the second in the third were very active in policing gender roles. anything they heard about women smoking or women in cars, voters and, best, those are all on the clan's list of people who work violators. even though but another thing is.
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>> going forward, in this book,. >> out well, thank you and that is a great question. you know writing this book, for a long time, in this chapter particular, with white supremacist and also by the perpetrators by the police department read as those memberships early as the 20s. the lapd still had clan members and causally told their leaders if do not answer the door if they come in the middle of the night. so they warned them because the police and the clans so i have been in one of the ways of my present concern obviously police violence, is been happening in
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our country in the last 18 months. with the deaths of george floyd and breonna taylor, as a historian what we are trying to understand is this kind of violence. also to understand if the history of it that kind of resistance to it. is not new. >> here today to tell us this is not new. so we need to be sharper and understanding of it and i guess that is how it informs us great is that i try to pay attention to how it has changed now it is not changed. changing the continuity. on the same in 2021 as they were in 19211945. also in 4680 but there's a lot of continuity. >> couple of questions about
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your book grade your literature included your reading list. mechanic that's a way to tell pretty. >> i don't know yet because it has not been out for a year yet. but what i do know is going to be on the reading list at some college courses pretty but i don't know. that was one of my helps whenever the book. that would be something and suffer many many years pretty and i have a lot of teachers. and be going into the classroom and i hope very much that this class this book might be taught in class the california system for teaching. >> and curious if by los angeles, talk about one
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particular chapter new book, as people look at the book but also the civil rights in 1960s between or in a bay area. >> no that is not. >> while many of the have been working on those books but i said in the beginning was the planning and many others. anna host -
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the president pro tempore: the senate will be in order. the prayer today, let us pray. give us the wisdom, the strength, and the faith to trust in you and all things above all things. in your name we pray. amen. please join me in the pledge of allegiance to the flag. i pledge allegiance to the flag of the united states of america, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under god, indivisible, with liberty
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and justice for all. the president pro tempore: under the previous order -- under the previous order, the leadership time is reserved. morning business is closed. under the previous order, the senate will proceed to executive session and resume consideration of the following nomination which the clerk will report. the clerk: nomination, united states agent for international development, pa home pa adams-allen of the district of columbia to be a deputy administrator.
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mr. wyden: mr. president? the presiding officer: the senator from oregon. mr. wyden: mr. president, i ask unanimous consent that the senate proceed to legislative session and be in a period of morning business with senators permitted to speak therein for up to ten minutes each. the presiding officer: without objection. so ordered. mr. wyden: mr. president, i ask unanimous consent that the senate proceed to the immediate consideration of h.r. 5434 which is at the desk. the presiding officer: the clerk will report. the clerk: h.r. 5434, an act to provide an extension of federal aid highway, highway safety, and transit programs and for other purposes. the president pro tempore: is there objection to proceeding to the measure?
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without objection, the senate will proceed. mr. wyden: mr. president, i ask unanimous consent that the bill be considered read a third time and passed and that the motion to reconsider be considered made and laid upon the table. the president pro tempore: without objection, so ordered. mr. wyden: mr. president, i ask unanimous consent that when the senate completes its business today, it adjourn until 3:00 p.m. monday, october 4, that following the prayer and pledge, the morning hour be deemed expired, the journal of proceedings be approved to date, the time for the two leaders be reserved for their use later in the day, and morning business be closed, that upon the conclusion of morning business, the senate resume consideration of the house message accompanying s. 1301. the president pro tempore: the request of the distinguished senior senator from oregon is agreed to. mr. wyden: if there is no further business to come before the senate, i ask that it stand
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adjourned under the previous order. the president pro tempore: the senate will stand adjourned senate will stand adjourned the link is all over the place and reconstruction of california and in the plan. we do not see dennis a kearney or cumming present her clan member we don't have records that show that. it's also a different generation. it's absolutely the linkages are such an important point between anti- immigrant sentiment and anti- black sentiment.
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>> and obviously the national history, right? and the second plan is so obvious the third plan so obvious. >> defined a similar cases of mexican american families experiencing this? >> absolutely mexican american families were victims of the clan like this it was attacked i didn't have time to explain all this they tried to kidnap the family and take them to jail and take them to a local jail but they are not admitted. and there are reports in some papers they have the woman of the couple absolutely and mexican homeowners on pool segregation groups with black
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families and asian families in the policy it's turned to international day. so absolutely that's part of my research. it did not talk very much about it tonight. >> so many questions coming in are so strong. to be honest with you and yes the book you read it in its devastating it is so informative and supposed to be important have been hidden
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first these are names we should absolutely know about white supremacy in the state today. >> that's a great question. oh well, as i said one of the things i think happened there is that we see the clan comes in and out of focus. one of the dangers and i said this earlier and i want to repeat it, who are particularly visible there are many, many other groups that have much, names like the white citizen counsel in response the civil rights movement.
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one of the things i mentioned during the civil rights movement some members of the clan or after the raid there thousands of men and women scurry around to get their name off the list because some were going to get fired. now there aren't lots of folks who became committed segregation us that is so important to recognize. that happens more and more as the 50s progressed into the 60s. folks were pushing back against the successes of the black freedom struggle were not always clan members. so i think the connection is that white supremacy morphed into something more respectable, maybe it wasn't respectable if you had in the
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1960s. or it just members of your homeowners association still trying to prevent black people from moving and in other ways it got around the law. it changes shape and we need to look for her also widespread in california i looked and looked and try to find example of one and organize a chapter around. that's another time sometimes is a word of mouth sometimes. certainly places in the state
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i knew all people of color and of it from growing up in l.a. i knew were teenagers should not be after it was dark. as a white teenager if i was a car with students of color they knew what neighborhood you do not want to be in. i did not find any towns. however the respect cap next in the state there were towns for arresting people of color, when i was growing up in glendale that reputation don't go to glendale with brown versus board of education and its enforcement in the 1960s there were certain areas of
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southern california that were known white families are moving to port whatever. that's kind of the california version. >> another question is your book talk about rumsfeld? >> and can i don't get to the 60s i love that story and everyone to learn about run through history. such an important part of california segregation. roxanne and her work examines the u.s. as a colonial nation for historical racism of white supremacy. how do you see that analysis?
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>> thank you so much for mentioning southern colonialism. write about the ways in which native americans were enslaved you should definitely check out the book about the frontier. this book is amazing. absolutely think we need to make those linkages because the sigh, imprisoned okay i think the linkages she shows there are so clear i thought
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the best book that shows you can't think about segregation white supremacy in the state not with, i can talk about chapter one absolutely an important part of the story. the way the taking land, the system gets set up for imprisoning, enslaving, and just the practice of setting up segregation which was originated before stated thanks for asking that. >> with the religion there is a world war ii, and now we are in a mixed neighborhood with
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the restrictive covenant and how it works here. maybe tell a little bit more about restrictive covenant. where it was written in specifically. you can find online, you can find examples that have that covenant in it. it just means it's a part, you buy a piece of property get a deed. the deed says though on this one i can never sell this property or even rent this property. lauren miller was famous for bragging about california. he great sense of wit and published a pamphlet in 1946 in which he says californians love to vote and i'm going to vote about restrictive covenants because no one has better ones in california. you could find restrictive covenants in the state of california say i cannot sell,
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lease, rent the property to and whatever it could say there were some said a hindu, there were some that said a jew, right? the covenant could be very expansive. but they almost always said negro. now remember, california is not the only place. this is being crafted to perfection in the city i now live in, chicago and the claimant's playwrights father against restrictive covenants in the 40s. the california businesses don't have this honor all by themselves. though lauren miller believes it was the most successful using them in california. so, you can find full deeds from your neighborhood. those students brought them over the years.
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and you can find property deeds you can find what they look like. you can find them online right now. i'm pretty sure there are some librarians out there i can help you find something. >> think somebody puts in the chat that was 1948x that's right. morn miller was part of the legal team. so one of the reasons we have set an amazing record of the fight against the specific covenant is as i said in my talk, the main point person on those lots the expert was a californian. he wasn't originally californian but he moved to the state in the 20s. he became the expert and he became a part of the legal defense fund for the naacp that fought those in the
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40s, in the 50s, in the 60s. the favorite is at the huntington library if you want to learn more about that. >> move this maybe you could answer quickly. you must encounter eugenics in your research. there's also research at the huntington. being a conceptual and cap conceptual framing lens played by so many california institutions. i'm sure you know the true line have had a chance to read the book getting that's why they're asking. >> thank you, thank you so much for that question. it's one of the ones i felt strongest about. i didn't know how much i would encounter in my research, i didn't know where it would come in the book. i cannot tell you all the ways
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it comes in but i will say this, not only popularized, and i write about it then in chapter two. as you may know, the person who asked this question the human betterment foundation was founded in pasadena my home town an office on colorado boulevard the strength, in california, i write about how it is no accident that pasadena had such a strong, organized resistance to their integrated
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pool or integrating pools. they also have a very, very strong genesis immunity. self absolutely is very important. anyone who wants to learn more about this should ask alexander stern which extensive clan activity wasn't southern california california but this is northern california. i read the papers of the western division of naacp. the papers at the library of congress in washington d.c. in their correspondence on the clan from northern california.
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it was absolutely important. it did not end up making it in the book for the purposes of storytelling in the narrative i stepped to this one area. the league allowed this one home phone option we know don't you think so groups lead to black resistance in california? and northern california. i know in your book anti-communist. >> yes. this coalition i'm talking about tonight between laborers and the workers party the
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naacp, a lot of times is followed by the wayside and we don't pay attention to those. i think it's really important as part of the coalition that was pushing for justice, one of the reasons, i absolutely think the labor movement is essential for this not only the story but in pushing for justice for people of color and pushing against white supremacy. one of the reasons we don't see those connections all the time we not talk about those coalitions is partly we focus on one group or one organization. it also has to do with the success of the anti-communist movement in california. red baiting was very successful the los angeles times helped lead that as you
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know hearings up and down the state they really successfully not only communist activity sought to be communist infiltrated. a lot of anti- rhetoric they found themselves between iraq and hard place there. really avoided any kind of coalition and in the national naacp were about to take in the case in the commons party that such a strong advocate
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for the men who were arrested in alabama there is a long story. not sure if he can get to every question before we leave. i went to put in my e-mail in the box for people confirming their questions and after the top. that we take there much we could speak about how reinforcement of jim crow in your book. very important part of it. not just black lives matter to be ranks of policing policy. i just think there is no better evidence that this has a long history than those membership lists were thousands and thousands of
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members up and down the state, every single police department members on them. i didn't even get to talk about how current county because this was not just a membership of l.a. the lpa office was a regional office. so lisa permits all across the state were revealed. some newspapers publish their names. i guess that's one of the reasons i chose that chapter tonight is because i wanted to tell that story. i think we are way past being surprised about this. we know, we know this is a history in the u.s. with the violence it's african-americans. i think we need to move as members of black lives matters have shown us we need to move
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strategy. i'm hoping you will come back speak again i think you cover so much you have a certain time range but of course in that time range i hope everyone will join us each oh eight homeowners association absolutely absolutely. homeowners association were in the forefront of enforcing segregated housing absolutely. during segregated housing is a big story it involves a bank loans it involves homeowners association, and evolves a plan.
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and only focus on a timely tiny start of the story tonight. the homeowners association is very successful in california. >> thank you so much lynn. i apologize to people whose questions we did not get too. again we will try to answer them following the program program will also be recorded as a reminder it will be on a youtube channel. also be a link happy to have that to you. it's so important i do appreciate your time, thank you so much thank you for the wonderful questions i really appreciate it. >> very critical thank you for your time everyone. >> weekends on cspan2 are an intellectual feast. every saturday american history tv documents the story in book tv and shoot the latest nonfiction books and authors, funding for cspan2
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including comcast. i need to be ready for anything. comcast lengthy television company support cspan2 as a public service. the u.s. capitol historical society's steve living good chief historian talked about the ghost stories and legends associated with the seat of congress for the second most famous in the capitol and in the concrete there you can see
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cap footprints of the demon cat. several guards were attacked by a team famous quick action of the work cats in the capitol. this is from the cafeteria building you can find this photograph on display. neither of these is the demon cat because he is all black. but there were cats in the cap fleet guards from guards on the shift that was at night when nobody was around and was often times the night watchman
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would end up in the horizontal position when they were in a vertical position. one of them was laying down but thinking he was standing up one night. one of the cat comes up and investigates what's going on. the guy thanks he is 5 feet in the air and the cat is that vague. and so lashed out at the cat quite frightened because the cat kept changing sizes and so forth. the cat retaliated by scratching the manso he had proof he been attacked by the demon cat so when his relief showed up the next morning they knew what the issue was and the advisor said we will take care of the cat. you go home and rest up for a couple of days. the supervisor knew he could not fire the senator's brother-in-law so they had to put up with this. they told him they had taken care of the demon cat.
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while history gets made because other guards discovered that if they were attacked by the demon cap they got a couple of days off. this is how history gets written. so the demon cat is the one some people tell me there is no real evidence of the demon cat. i will show you some concrete evidence because here is where he carved his initial into the concrete. this is the corner that goes into the terrorist and they are is where the demon cat carved his initials into the concrete there. >> you can watch people program online at van.org/history. >> our weekly series the presidency highlights the politics, policies and legacy of u.s. presidents and first ladies. up next christopher leahy talks about john the first vice president to succeed a president who died in office and

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