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tv   History of the 1944 GI Bill  CSPAN  September 26, 2021 1:00am-2:01am EDT

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on mobs to disperse. this morning the mob again gathered in front of the central high school of little rock obviously for the purpose of again preventing the carrying out of the court's order relating to the admission of negro children at school. whenever normal agencies prove inadequate to the task and it becomes necessary for the executive branch of the federal government to use its powers and authority to uphold federal courts the president's responsibility is inescapable. in accordance with that responsibility, i have today issued an executive order directing the use of troops under federal authority to aid in the execution of federal law in little rock, arkansas. >> reporter: follow us on
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social media, c-span history for more this date in history coverage. >> reporter: my name is maggie hartley and i'm assistant director of public engagement, thank you for joining us for tonight's from soldiers to civilians, reflections on how the va assisted veterans returning home, this program is part of our 75 tube anniversary of the end of world war ii commemoration. you may not think of the va as a significant part of the end of world war ii but its rapid expansion started 1944 with the g.i. bill would impact 12 million servicemembers returning home starting in 1945. the biggest question would be how would the us hear from these veterans do that? the question at the forefront,
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and fdr sign in 1943-1944, how to reintroduce servicemembers to the workforce, later signed the g.i. bill on june 20 second 1944 to support housing and education benefits along with unemployment. immediately following the end of the war, literally the day after the japanese surrendered president harry truman would.general omar bradley on august 15th, 1945, two days before the 76 anniversary of that to oversee the veterans administration. he was instrumental in expanding the health and medical access for veterans 10 year, to what we know today is the largest integrated healthcare system in the united states, providing care over 1200 healthcare facilities with 170 medical centers and over 1000 outpatient sites. the sheer to hear more about
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the significant improvement to veterans and benefits immediately following world war ii we are joined today by historians from the veterans benefits. >> hello. >> hi. >> we are so glad to have you guys. we have doctor jeffery seiken, historian at the veteran center who will discuss the origins and impact of legacy of the 1944 g.i. bill, one of the most transformative pieces of social legislation in us history. providing education and housing benefits to millions of returning veterans to integrate into civilian life. we also have katie delacenserie, historian for the
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better until that ministration who will provide insight into the unprecedented changes the va made after the war and how it revolutionized medical care for veterans and she will reflect on the enduring legacy of the 75 tube anniversary of va medicine and the programs which remain very much alive and present in this year of our nation's veterans so thank you for joining us today. >> a pleasure to be there with you tonight, to be present. >> thank you to the world war ii museum for having us. >> we are very excited to talk about it means so much to a lot of americans, and world war ii helped accelerate what we know today was veterans benefits before we jump into the questions i have for you today i would like to remind our
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audience that there will be time for questions and answers at the end of this program so if you have questions for our panelists put yourself in the q and a section on zoom or a comment on the facebook video stream. we want to remind our audience this program is designed to look at the rapid growth and impact of the veterans affairs system at the end of world war ii. if you have any questions related to your eligibility and benefits please contact your local va. for the first question i will toss it to you, jeff, what benefit to the government offer veterans of wars that came before world war ii? >> by way of general introduction i am the historian for the veterans benefits administration, three administrations that formed the va in charge of different benefits programs given to veterans and these are compensation, pension, veterans
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readiness and employment which is offered to disabled veterans, help them get job training and placement, insurance and the two we will be talking about today are education and loan guarantees. compensation and pension programs are the two earliest benefits offered to veterans and those date back to the revolutionary war era and compensation was offered to servicemembers who were injured during the war and was designed to compensate them for their loss of earning ability and pensions were offered more generally to anyone who served during the american revolution who was in need of financial support from the government and the pension program came after the war like 30 or so years after the war when veterans
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were aging, the competition was offered during the war and those with the two oldest programs and those remain the main benefit programs the government offered to veterans through the nineteenth century. world war i introduced several new programs. for the first time the government offered subsidized insurance in case of death or permanent disability and after the war had the option to convert that to term insurance, they were disabled during the war, not training them to return to the workforce and resume productive lives and offer extended medical care through a system of government owned hospitals run by health services and veterans bureau and the veterans administration, that is the main benefit in place at the time of world war ii.
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world war i veterans felt they got a raw deal. in addition to the programs i mentioned, they were given $60 mustering out payment upon discharge like pocket money to make the adjustment during the war demand for labor, wages were really high and soldiers by comparison missed out on that, they did not make nearly enough so they felt they didn't get the same benefit those who did not have to serve during the war - the american legion, one of the largest veterans organizations that had it hundred thousand members really pushed congress to make additional payment for veterans and the bill was passed that offered them up to $600 depending on whether they served overseas or not but
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there's a catch, a certificate that cannot be redeemed for another 20 years like 1945 and when the great depression many veterans were thrown out of work, they pressed congress and the government to allow them to redeem those certificates immediately and when congress and the president said no about 20,000 veterans marched on washington, some people, 15,000 family members to make their case several thousand remained at an incumbent in washington, to put pressure on congress and after the clash between veterans resulted in a few deaths, president decided to send an army to evict these veterans and it was a complete disaster, it burned to the ground in the army was using teargas, dispersed the veterans so it was a huge calamity in the memories of that debacle are fresh in people's mind when
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world war ii came around, they took the mobilization of manpower on a scale never before seen so people worried what was going to happen after the war, would it be more kinds of social unrest and higher rates of veteran unemployment and also in germany and westward, toppling the government, they were fearful of that going into the war. >> absolutely. really fascinating to see the background for the benefits and how they evolved before world war ii and they posed the question on the medical side, what are the origins of veteran healthcare in this country, what did veteran hospitals look like before world war ii, what met the world war ii veterans
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that helped inspire what we know today? >> the origins of healthcare can be traced back to the end of the civil war, in 1865 with the establishment of the national home for disabled soldiers, the first time the nation provided healthcare to its veterans, were not enlisted officers for regular volunteer soldiers at this time and the tools were located in rural areas of the country and kind of scattered out, there's one in milwaukee, when in dayton, when in maine and they provided medical and holistic care to the nation's veterans in different settings. they had clerics, parade grounds, hospital, recreational
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buildings, things like that and it really was the sort of lifelong care of veterans and they were located in rural areas because they were on larger tract of land where land was cheap and they had plenty of fresh air but also to keep the men away from temptations as a sort of alcohol and gambling that could be found in larger cities like that so those are the origins of veterans healthcare in our country and it continues so after world war i you see the model change in some ways, you don't have the lifelong care aspect, a more rehabilitative model where you seek to return veterans to society after their
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wounds are treated but also still have that kind of full component as well. remember this is during the time of tuberculosis, spanish flu has happened, a lot of respiratory diseases happen with world war i so you have a sort of broad spread out campuses the second generation of veterans hospitals after the second world war and by the time world war ii comes around this is a warlock unlike any other scale in our history so you have 50 million veterans returning home from this war and half 1 million of whom would need immediate medical care not just due to advances in battlefield medicine being able to treat soldiers on the spot, soldiers were able to survive wounds that were previously not survivable so you have an influx on a level
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you've never seen before. so there needed to be a new system in place to handle this greater influx of veterans. >> i never considered the fact that medicine devolved so much by world war ii that it did require a different approach to how we care for vets. going back to jeff, looking at benefits why did american leaders decide the g.i. bill was necessary and who authored it and what did you do for americans? >> american leaders, the deployment they saw after world war i, they were worried about so many service members leaving with unemployment rates, plunging the country back into a great depression and
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tremendous social unrest and chaos on the streets so to prevent this from happening, it began in 1940 and by 1942, the demobilization, the same committee that was studying the problem and establish the second committee to consider postwar educational opportunities for service personnel and he presented what it was like in the same fireside chats, must we now pay for veterans. time for the educational system. leaders in both political parties in the veterans organization like the american legion trying to craft their own solutions to handle 60 million people.
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it was the american legion with the legislative committee in front of members of the committee, world war ii veteran and lawyer famously drafted a sketch of the g.i. bill and initially a member of the american legion dubbed the bill of rights for g.i. joe and g.i. jane which is catchy and the american legion drumming up support for their bills, the bills presented to roosevelt and congress and a lot of changes molded to what became the g.i. bill we know today, service men adjustment act and that goes to you all and what the bill is designed to do and are four main conditions to the bill, half $1 million to
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hospitals and other facilities for veterans which katie delacenserie can talk about. they were able to receive $20 a week up to 52 weeks and could draw on the services of the us employment service and job placement, they are provided with educational training up to four years the government would pay to handle tuition a $500 a year and a monthly stipend to veterans who were receiving educational program and quite a loan guarantee for purposes of home, farm or businesses, the government would guarantee 50% of the loan and the interest rate of 4% which was a very good rate. homeownership was much more affordable and attainable for a big swath of returning veterans. those are the main components of the g.i. bill. >> fascinating to hear about
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how it started that way on napkins formed the basis of major legislation that impacted so many servicemembers. back to haiti looking at august of 1945 general omar bradley's place was at the va, what challenges does he face where he takes on the new position, was he eager to take on this role going to the administration particularly medical, did he decide to partner with to make this happen? >> let me back up a little bit, half 1 million need immediate medical care, 16 million veterans to coming out of world war ii and what they are facing
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at va is 100 hospitals spread across the country, mostly rural areas like i was talking about and you also have a depleted medical workforce, because the war had a lot of doctors from the va who had gone on to the war and served there and they were a little bit hampered by civil service regulations so the situation is bad in 1945 and the press is in the backwaters of medicine. there needs to be some sort of change, you have veterans coming back meeting healthcare and services. what president truman does is call upon general lamar bradley, who sent them into battle and his personal to ensure their way home.
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he's hesitant to take on the job that fdr called the hardest job in washington. you can tell he has trepidation about it but has such loyalty to the men he served with that he takes his role on, install the fda administrator august 15th, and that it is free over japan day and he has no time to waste in taking this on so you brings on immediately doctor paul hawley which is chief surgeon in the european theater in one of my favorite figures in this, very blunt medical administrator who had no time to deal with any of these washington bureaucracies, to hell with scenery, i need to find a hospital and you can tell he needs it now so bradley, holly and another va physician, doctor paul magnuson
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start to take this challenge on even though they know it will be a difficult one. >> definitely. funny how some things never change in washington. going back to the g.i. bill does it have trouble going through congress and would you label it controversial with congress's approval and even americans? >> that's a good question. it did encounter some impediments. the critical landscape of congress during the war was tricky for fdr. republicans gained a huge number of seats in the 1942 midterm elections and common cause with a group of conservative democrats in the south concerned about blocking in the extension of the new deal but was felt in thes
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backers were able to through the needle by presenting it as this is my new entitlement program but designed specifically for returning veterans from world war ii, they have to use these benefits innocent. go time and then expired and go away. it was a 1-time special program to help millions of returning veterans and also a reward for their services and sacrifices. the fun part is the one position of the bill that is largely forgotten today, the unemployment benefits proved the most controversial aspect and the fear was a lot of veterans which is not to look for a job, would just live off the government, that was particularly a concern of some of the southern congressman we had a large number of african-american veterans in their state and that was a concern for them and that almost derailed the bill at the
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last minute but they ended up getting it passed and once it came out of committee passed unanimously in both houses and it garnered widespread public support but what exactly was this bill going to do, that didn't become clear until a several year. go where different positions went into effect. >> definitely. going back to haiti you have general omar bradley in place, holly in place, what about the change became out of them taking the medical side of the va? >> they have three major proposals but they work through and fall of 1945, first they want to uncouple hiring practices from the civil
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service system which allows them to hire younger, more innovative workforce that is more in touch with current medicine and medical practices, more quickly. i believe there were before when only allowed to hire from within this full-service system given a list of doctors that were over 6 years old today want to uncouple that. also they want to force partnerships with the nation's radical school. this would allow the va to take advantage of the research and teaching capabilities of these institutions while also gaining more for medical workforce that could assist veteran patients and then lastly there are other big proposal was hiring a new generation of hospitals. i talked before about the civil war hospitals that were more rural and the ones following the first world war but really in planning the third
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generation of new va hospitals we needed ones that were closer to major population centers because that is a barrier and access to care previously for veterans so they need ones that are closer to major towns but also major medical schools they are looking to partner with. so you have a whole new generation of hospitals being built and a large sum set aside to build this hospital program and it would be the largest proposed construction project in american history at the time and what it would look like as they are in cities now, they would be larger, more skyscraper type buildings, i urge everybody to do some research on their own to see what the hospitals look like from each generation but those are the three may large proposals for handling health
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care for veterans after the second world war. >> absolutely. thinking about the return home the g.i. bill is passed so what are the short-term effects of the g.i. bill and how did it help veterans back into civilian life? >> one, the unemployment benefits did provide a safety net for them and even though there was concern that large numbers would use it and avoid having to work only 60% of veterans - they use it for 20 weeks so it was very successful. education benefits were generally attended by americans on the upper middle to hire end of the economic spectrum and the g.i. bill changed that overnight opening the door for
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higher education for much broader swaths of the population. when a returning veterans use the g.i. bill to attend college or graduate school, $500 was sufficient to afford tuition at the most expensive practice like harvard and the college population surged by 1947 veterans made up 50% of the 2.3 million people enrolled in colleges, universities and 2.3 million number is 1 million more than prewar levels so you can see how the influx of veterans affected the access to higher education but also important to remember veterans could use these benefits for some college education, vocational training schools, on-the-job training programs and many more veterans use this education benefits then use it
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for college, 3 million use it to obtain vocational or technical training, 1.4 million use it to receive various kinds of on-the-job training. the net result, better educated workforce and better trained workforce the paved the way to higher paying jobs as blue-collar professionals to underwrite the prosperity and productivity of postwar america. and engine of social mobility and the climbing economic ladder. in terms of loan guarantee, it made homeownership possible for much greater proportion of americans who before it was out of reach and the va did not learn veterans money, instead just guaranteed alone which made it easier for them to secure mortgages from private
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lenders and by 1956, $33 billion and been made and had tremendous impact and fueled the growth of homeownership and also to find for veterans there was a real housing shortage before the war and during the war, with expansion into the suburbs, enterprising developers learned landed outside the city that wasn't being used that was pretty cheap and they started building communities outside these urban areas, the first and most famous was leavitttown new york, where there were thousand acres of farmland in the community was home to 70,000 people in such a success that the developer for leavitttown, one in
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pennsylvania and another in new jersey, they were mass-produced and turned out quickly and made homeownership available to larger numbers. home ownership as you've seen in the news is an important engine critical to the growth of the middle class in the united states. >> so interesting to think about how this impacted what we know as housing today. one of my favorite sayings related to the g.i. bill is even though the oral histories about college graduates, how to fly that, one of the coolest stories i heard that. you have educational training, new psychology as well so going back to the medical side of
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things you talked about proposals looking at location increasing the supply, was everyone on board with this plan and i asked jeff what was the american public's opinion about these changes with the va, the medical side? >> most everybody is on board with these changes. the press absolutely loved bradley, his wife's work in the media and the public as well and congress in addition to all that but where they run into problems is that bureaucracy with civil service that doesn't want to see the changes happen so there's a dramatic moment on new year's eve in 1945, the department of medicine and surgery's bill, all the changes to get through and the civil
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service put the brakes on it a little bit and you have bradley and holly going to truman saying we are going to resign if this doesn't come through. that took care of it and after that on january 3rd, 1936, formally creating the department of medicine and mentioning those changes they had proposed. >> an exciting way for sure. looking back to the g.i. bill we did talk about the short-term benefits of the g.i. bill but a fair question to ask that all service members enjoy equal access to these benefits particularly our female service members and black servicemembers?
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>> that is important and today more relevant question than ever. the 60 million americans who served in the war, 1 million african americans, 300,000 women and for women, certain types of barriers, some female veterans who applied for home loans, opened up to consideration if they are married or their husband's salary, their income is not necessarily going to be permanent. in terms of using vocation benefited has to be used within a few years of discharge and they expired 7 years, just kind of went away so many of them when they got out of the service wanted to get married and have children and support their husbands who are enrolled in education program so they
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didn't necessarily have the opportunity for those benefits and unintended consequences, the huge demand, some college to study to establish the number of women they would admit just so they could complicate -- accommodate all the, they started to admit male veterans from the overflow so the net result is relatively few educational games compared to the male population. there was great hope, great service to them but in practice this was the jim crow south, segregation, separate but equal was the rule of the land and
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the majority of african-american veterans did reside in the south and faced all sorts of barriers. in terms of education a few thousand, even those colleges in the north establish limits in the number of african-americans they would accept and in the south, they were barred from most white institutions so had no choice but to go to black colleges and the enrollments soared as a result of the g.i. bill, went from 30,000 to 74,000 in late 1940s but those schools were underfunded, underresourced and even with the expansion of the numbers they didn't take enough to keep up with the demand so many black veterans who did qualify who had gone to college
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turned away because they were not able to take them and tens of thousands more dissuaded from trying and in terms of the other kind of education benefits on-the-job training programs many were for whites always so limited opportunities and they shunted to semiskilled training programs or lower skilled training programs as opposed to white veterans. the loan guarantee as i said the va did not actually loan them money. 2, certificate of eligibility, the veterans who find a private lender to make the loan, in the home loan industry african-americans faced systematic discrimination throughout the country so they had trouble obtaining loans. many housing communities had agreements that would not sell
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to black homeowners so the results needs more thorough research but a few african-american soldiers were able to take advantage of loan benefits to purchase a home. i don't know if there's any hard numbers that i have seen. the lender side more than the va in terms of considering them eligible for a loan but that subject requires more research but the big take away, being denied access to home ownership as i said earlier is a major source of wealth accumulation for americans in the postwar era so african-americans have a huge disadvantage we see the effects today through income inequality and even with the fair housing act, didn't allow those practices african
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american families were too far behind to catch up. they didn't have the equity built up to make the down payment to acquire homes so that is one of the legacies that we do live with today. >> an important thing to discuss related to benefits. turning back to the medical side, as a veteran what does this change? how did hospitals change during the postwar period and if you are able to talk as well about the experience of servicemembers it would be very interesting to see the other side. >> if you are a veteran what this means for you is once the legislation has passed, once
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the front of surgery established the va, you're able to access care more quickly than had any other generation of veterans in the past and different varieties of care as well. after the civil war and world war i it has taken a while to build hospitals and get that care going but in 1946, on passage of that you see 5000 doctors, nurses and other medical personnel being brought on to va to survive medical care to veterans but by the end of the decade you have over 80 through construction or transfer and within those hospitals you see greater specialization unlike ever before, prosthetics, heart,
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lungs, more specialization of care provided world tour - world war veterans and you see virtually every medical school starts partner with hospital in the university giving that academic link as well which leads to those hospitals. the michigan plan or boomtown plan which allows trends to get veterans care from local private hospitals as well in that period. and at the va starting at the
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second war. for medical care before, you start to see a kickoff after world war ii when the 10 female physicians hired during last time you see a lot of specialization begin and origins of that in the post-world war ii period. for african-americans after the first world war exclusively african american hospital set up in alabama and the va left the issue of segregation at the local level. a lot of northern hospitals were integrated while hospitals in the south and west were segregated, and after world war ii, you see calls for another segregated hospital to be built and this is strongly opposed by
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the naacp for integration, and something that doesn't happen until 1954. the status for african-americans. >> interesting to hear how they were integrated for the armed forces that were not. >> some were integrated and some are segregated, they left it at local control, there is not a national policy for that. they were integrated in the north and were not integrated and they were fully integrated in 1954. >> to close this out, what was the long-term legacy of the
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g.i. bill and how does it apply to veterans as well? >> it was a terminal bill applied to world war ii and all the staff that expired after being modified a bit. something that was hard to take away and when the korean war broke out there was not much interest in it but as the war intensified there was support to pass the g.i. bill for servicemembers soaring during the korean war, so it passed in 1952 considered the korean conflict, the g.i. bill, in 1966 during the vietnam war another g.i. bill passed, in
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the vietnam war era, in the end of the korean war, the first time the g.i. bill even during the time insulate 50s, by 1944 bill, offering similar benefits to veterans of later wars, the g.i. bill, the benefits of 1934 g.i. bill underlay to build is impossible for most veteran support, for financial resources to do so and not pay for their attendance. and after vietnam when they transition to an all volunteer force another g.i. bill was passed in 1976 designed for the force and the focus of the bill
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shifted from helping veterans to reintegrate to being a recruitment to get people to join the military knowing they would qualify for educational benefits and for the first time benefits were not free and pay into the system to qualify when they got out. the loan aspect of the g.i. bill were attached to lifetime benefits for all. that established the program. several more g.i. bills passed since then. one of the most important was the 9/11 g.i. bill, one of the most generous g.i. bills that made possible for most veterans to go to any public school they
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wanted so over the lifespan of these different g.i. bills and the loan guarantee program, the va suspends $400 billion in benefits, 25 million people and guaranteed 25 million loans worth $26 million so the g.i. bill had a huge impact on successive generations and one of the most popular benefits the va offers, the most signature benefit programs. >> the legacy, we know the medical system, for their successive veterans.
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>> while you have the origins of va medical care coming out of the civil war, the department of surgery is the modern foundation of the healthcare system we know today. so many programs can be traced to the post-world war ii period, from that first academic - nearly every medical school, 70% of all doctors being trained in some form. not only has that impacted the care of veterans but chances are the doctor or another medical person you encountered in your life trained as well.
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by deciding to fund and expand the academic partnerships, we see so many innovations that helps not only veterans but the entire world as well. the ct scan, several nobel prizes have come out of that. the foundation allowed these things to take off, a system that could care for 9 million veterans which the va cares for today. the va voluntary service comes out of that in the hospital system, that is another legacy, the department of medicine is here to react. quite a lot of things came out of hallmark care today. >> so interesting, looking back on our discussion of how much
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world war ii shaped what we know today with a veteran so at this point we are going to turn it over to the audience for their question. if you have any questions please place them in the q and a section on zoom or if you are watching to facebook live place and never comment in the video stream and as a reminder, your eligibility your current benefits please contact your local va. for you, katie delacenserie, what was the criteria for va hospitals outside rural versus urban post-world war ii medical care? >> really good question. following the civil war a lot
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were placed not nearly large population centers but rural areas that could be accessed by train or other transportation as well, and post-world war i period you had hospital space in areas near hot springs kind of like the discussion of the time, areas of the country populated with hostiles that way but you also see political patronage happening with hospitals with congressional interference that might not been accessible for veterans but a win for congressman so that changes after the second
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world war with emphasis on larger population centers in larger medical schools you see hospitals in ann arbor and all over where the medical schools are. >> question for both of you. we talked a little bit about the experience of black servicemembers, do you have information related to asian americans whether or not they face discrimination immediately after the war and medical care? >> good question. the va didn't classify as whites so i don't know if there are statistics for that.
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more likely they faced informal types of discrimination versus statutory discrimination. being dissuaded, in terms of asian i don't think they did because you have japanese americans, returning veterans, record of achievement during the war, they were able to use the g.i. bill without much hindrance. >> i would go along with what jeff said on the medical side. you have discrimination against african-americans but not so much asian americans.
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it might have been on a different level or more subtle level but not quite on the level. >> encourage audience members to tune in for future programming and back to our previous programs with the experience of asian americans prolifically the past spring and have upcoming webinar looking at the experience, post world war ii coming up in september. for the next question does the g.i. bill pay for family members education? didn't pay for family members or exclusively for the use -
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>> that is a good question. the original g.i. bill, goldstar widows allow them to draw benefits and they were turned down initially. eventually the law was changed to widows and dependent family members could use the g.i. bill, that came later on and the laws were changed for servicemembers on active duty to use the loan guarantee benefits and education benefits. that came in the 70s and 80s. >> katie delacenserie, can you address mental health care in the post-world war ii era, where their signals related to mental health? was it not really addressed?
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>> great question. the mental health as an issue that evolved from the civil war onward in terms of va medical care, something that existed the entire time there has been war but only more recently has it been addressed in a medical capacity. you have these holistic approaches following the end of the civil war and very nature of the structures, element to addressing that kind of mental health, they do not want to be part of society to be in one of these homes with other soldiers who understood what they were going through and put that together and at the end of the first world war you had shellshocked and you had at least sort of that kind of
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identify as more of an issue and so then after the end of the second world war mental health is something that paul holly is passionate about so you have ecology and other mental health programs coming out of the second world war as well and that is not a stigmatized anymore and definitely grows into a profession and field within the va at that time. >> this one is for you. what efforts make a benefit available to them? >> since the g.i. bill passed in june of 1944, the war in europe ended and the war against japan continued so the va had plenty of time to spread
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the word of benefit so they printed up all sorts of pamphlets to servicemembers and counseling sessions to inform service members of different benefits programs. a great effort was made to get the word out, to educate military personnel about these benefits when they got out of the service. promotional posters and things like that plastered all over the wall. a different way to inform people. >> i agree that did help. with the end of the more a year out. so katie delacenserie, are there any resources you would recommend for folks to learn more about the programs for veterans? >> there is a great
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congressional publication called medical care for veterans that came out in the 70s or 80s. it is an informative source but dry, more "in depth" but i remember men's the greatest generation comes home, how to readjust after the end of the second world war and also omar bradley's memoir is a great resource that i highly recommend. >> any resources or explanations? >> a book i recommend is the g.i. bill, a new deal for veterans that came out two years ago, a really good idea to incorporate the latest, the g.i. bill and the way it is implemented. if you are interested in
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learning more about the legacy of the g.i. bill there is a good book, the vietnam generation that talks about the shortcomings of 1966 g.i. bill and why vietnam veterans felt they didn't get the same do as world war ii veterans. >> thank you, katie delacenserie and jeffery seiken, for joining us. i thoroughly enjoyed this discussion and i believe our audience did as well. >> a pleasure to be here, thank you for hosting us. >> absolutely. >> differently. if you enjoyed today's program stay up-to-date with upcoming programs by liking our facebook page and visiting our website and as always we thank you for tuning in and we look forward to seeing you next time at the
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