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tv   Stephen Browne The First Inauguration  CSPAN  August 17, 2021 6:50pm-7:51pm EDT

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history tv. on sunday, book tv brings you the latest in nonfiction books and authors. it is television for serious readers. learn, discover, explore, weekends on cspan2. >> good evening everyone. my name is kevin butterfield i'm the executive director of the fred w smith library for the study of george washington at mount vernon. welcome to our third evening book talk with the month of april 2021. we are thrilled to have you here and excited about our conversation on the first inauguration of george washington and the invention of the republic with steven brown. one notes, coming up in may is our third and final miss michelle smith lecture we've had two wonderfulat conversations thus far.
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several tickets are available for the final conversation. remember that ticket if you select the ticket i am thinking up will include an autographed copy of the book shipped to you directly at home. theed noted author and great scholar of the founding era has a new book called the education of john adams. i am excited to talk with him about it. aplease donors for final third segment of the lecture series. we'll introduce a little bit about her speaker tonight's. of course we will learn more as we join the conversation. steven brown's liberal arts professor of the sciences at penn estate. he is a rhetorical critic particularly interested in helping public memory in fact his most recent book before the book will be talking about tonight was the ides of work, george washington and the new crisis. he's written many books. we are mostly excited about this one as we near the anniversary of the first
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inaugural address ever given by the president of the united states. were going to talk withur him tonight about the first inauguration of george washington and the invention of thehe republic. he is an award-winning scholar he's national association. please join me in welcoming steven howard brown. steven welcome. >> it is so good to be here. for anyone who is interested in washington this is the gold standard. i felt very grateful to you and the staff, the library and of course the ladies so thank you. >> thank you. on behalf of the mount vernon association and the company's been funding these talks for years. thank you for the weight they support this work and the other things would at mount vernon. i am thrilled to have a conversation with you. i will remind everyone else please be submitting your questions. i want to give you an
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opportunity tonight and learn about the first inaugural address. also learn about the first inaugural but more specifically. tell me about the election of the president for the first election of the president was unlike any other. how did george washington become elected g president in 1788/89? >> thank you. maybe i want to honor the question but maybe one way of getting at it is to ask how would it be possible not to have elected as you now and it's familiar to our listeners and viewers. he was in some ways almost a pure composite of precisely those kinds of values. not only that people embraced but needed to embrace at that moment. and people knew it.
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from vermont to georgia is very clear of course this was precisely the person, not only in body device but right here, right now on the precipice when things are very unclear. even especially in 89. it is interesting to note a day after the inaugural address, of course thees states general convene in paris. in a couple of months we will have that off and running it is very uncertain, it is a scary world out there in washington is balance of this sale. >> me at mount vernon we talk about but you can talk about washington is waiting for the news. >> he has been elected president. we knew he was going to be elected president. and so there is something of a
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ritualistic character with some of this given what you just said that people knew it and here it comes. it is a certainty. and indeed eight charles thompson is set on his way to make a long ride down to mount vernon. indeed he shows up on the 16th he routs his way h to the door and washington is ready. something of a two-step dance of files were thompson reads him sort of an official statement from congress of congratulations plan washington of course turns right aroundro and reads eight statements back at him. there is something with that. at the same time, washington, i will put it this way.
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the great historian joe ellis as disputable said beautiful observation about washingtoner as a virtual exits. and really knew how to takexi his leave. absolutely. that is true and it reminds us of this stagecraft that washington was so good at. fair enough. he was also really good at making an entrance. thatel is an art unto itself. something of theater i think is going on here. not to trivialize or empty it, quite the opposite. i think washington. [inaudible] , eating cheese, nuts and wine over the campfire, the mad head and acute developed sense
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of the theater of politics. he understood that under these circumstances he needed to do this right every d step literally along the way. so when thompson knocks on the door, that his act one scene one, let's go. >> is there a part of seeming presumptuous? is that part of what is going on here? what are his concerns? >> very suggestive question. as evidence about to say, i certainly e encourage everyone who is listening or watching who has access to the washington papers, which is one of the most amazing works of scholarship, i square.
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it indicates that we have is a really nice paper trail to answer your question of the impending news comes. it is sprinkled with these kinds of things. famously he writes to general knox before hand very quickly and says i feel not unlike those -- my feelings are not unlike those of equal fruits who's going to the place of his own execution. [laughter] is that kind of talk. and that diminishing of expectations, i am not worthy and that kind of thing. but again i don't think it trivializes and says that's part of the stagecraft. it is important for a soon to be chief executive of a
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republic -- make a republican government to play that down. to play the power down. to play up, the appeal of home, of mount vernon. so it is part of that choreography of power that i think he was so good at. >> once he makes this decision and he announces it to charles thompson he will journey to become the first president. was he, of course he's leaving from mount vernon turns out to be a very short-lived capitol. let's talk about it and go into some detail. your book has some great detail on the travel of george washington. but more t importantly what happens along the way in terms of how people are receiving.
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set the stage for us. what did the journey entail? two to go with a large entourage or small entourage? >> thank you. i will, remind myself to restrain myself. in some way this is what compelled me into the project and generally everybody loves a road trip. so how does this work? he is a military man. so he just got a couple of fellows, thompson and humphreys, they will keep that pretty lean. so off they go, right? they don't get far. for your listeners and viewers who are familiar with alexandria, i think it is 12 miles or something like that give or take.
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that is as far as is been getting before. the first of many occasions in which washington is on his way. i promise not to do this every step or anything. if you don't mind, i would like to convey something of what goes down in alexandria. as a sort of a representative of what is to transpire for the next week or so. of course alexandria is not any old stop alongan the way as we all know. it is close to his heart. this is just a paragraph if you don't mind. they have some speeches in as you might guess they are quite
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good. and then washington. here is how he concludes his comments. all that remains for me is to commit myself and you to the protection of that magnificent being, who on a formal occasion happily brought us together after a long and distressing separation. perhaps the same providence will again and dolch us with the same heartfelt. but words, my fellow citizens, fail me. another sensation must then be left to more expressive silence. well from an aching heart, i bid you all my affectionate friends, and kind neighbors farewell. >> that is good. >> that is really good. [laughter] >> i wish i could tell from
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the evidence on what occasions he actually stood up and delivered these himself, it is unclear to me sometimes the careful searchers amongst us here this evening, i'd is unclear whether sometimes he is delivering these as one might a speech or delivered in written form and that kind of thing. either way, that the cynics regiment. it is quite a journey. it's actually not all that long. easy for me too say. but as you know and as your exhibits out mount vernon of these great sort of trails along the way. this is first alexandria and then with stops along the way. he will hit baltimore where
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there is the celebrations and the rituals of power that i had mentioned into delaware, wilmington, and then into philly. that is crazy as far as that goes. i look at the commentary from the day and even some scholarly coverage of the. sometimes estimates are around 10,000 people turning out. will philly at the most had give or take 30,000 which should mean a third of the entire city turned out. it seems like a lot. it's what we have on the visual there what would be -- there were several of these, sort of what would you call them, these sort of architecturere of celebration
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were you have the arch, then the bridge and the music and sometimes he would say a detachment or something like that. so this is a depiction of washingtonon okay this would be characteristic. that is theater in the best sense i would think of. we can talk about that later. what is going on here,n it seems to me, this occasion as to the whole trip itself -- it seems to me it's interpretive on my part for sure. it is notar altogether clear because nothing is. what exactly all of this should look like. we fast-forward for instance 12 years or so to jefferson's
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first inaugural and he is living in a boardinghouse off the capitol. he gets up with a cup of tea, ties his hair back in a ponytail, brushes himself off and walks. okay that's bad. but here in april of 89, before there is a president afterft all, if i am clear with the power it looks like. should be like a real procession? like the brits might do or the french lord knows. or just over-the-top? you can't really do that. on the other handon you don't to downplay it too much. this is after all will very soon become a nationstate and is very aggressive and competitive world out there. you do not want to downplay
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yourself. this seems to me too be a modulation between european access and poor mouthing it. [laughter] is somewhere in between. so they stay in philly, philadelphia for a stretch. everybody wants a piece of the action. you can have the trustees of the university of pennsylvania. and cincinnati and alderman and various parties want and on the deal. they want to hear and they want to listen to it. so we get a rehearsal of what we saw in alexandria. it's more complicated and less intimate perhaps. but still the same sort of offering up of language befitting a republican city.
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it is philadelphia after all, you've got to play this right. this is philadelphia. and after words, the second part of the dance is then washington will deliver a statement of his own. so, philadelphia is big. it is just a big party. if you have ever been to philadelphia they do love a party. we've got to get going he is a military man and he's getting a little restless here. off you go. well of course you just can't it be like that. they've got to send the militia and everybody piled around him. after a few miles sis you guys just go home, take care of the household i am okay. it is all good. we have got it. so off he goes, right?
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now he's in philadelphia, i'm sorry into new jersey. what is coming up across the river but trenton. maybe if we could see that, this is perhaps the most well widely circulated 19th century print of washington's entry into trenton. for a variety of reasons you will notice if you squint at that thing, it is primarily almost entirely women and girls. these are the women of trenton and their daughters who have been ready for this moment for weeks and weeks. they have been getting together their outfits and songs. they areit rehearsing the songs and thend flowers and garland and so on. up above you see the flag
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stuff. there are these of placards and one to the effect, his excellency saved us the first time, the battle of trenton. and he saved the women and the daughters of trenton. and now they are returning the favor. so washington crosses that bridge. it is just a little bridge into trenton. but it is a big bridge in the national imagination, right? i don't know if national is the right word just yet but almost. that is a big bridge a lot depended on that thing. in any case washington then raises his hat. he crosses the bridge. he alights from the horse and delivers a few words to the mothers and daughters of trenton. and then on the weight
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needless to say with all this is music, firecrackers, hullabaloo's and so on. now he is on his way up to what was then called elizabethtown. and eventually onto the water were of course now new york city particularly really wants a piece of that action. for obvious reasons. they have got votes of every kindto out to escort him along. of course he goes onto the barge. and some of the contemporary writers, i don't if i believe a word of it, dolphins jumping in. [laughter] but there is fireworks, both with people singing like courses and so on. they then usher him up into
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the upper harder. were heading towards the battery. and then eventually into new york city itself. here you see something like that. now, the image that i think is entitled something like washington's entry into new york, well was that him coming home or back from newburgh on his way to mount vernon? it is hard to tell. but i wanted to have it suggest something of what i call thehe urban culture. i don't know if it is street culture necessarily but there they are. new york city would have been the 17 and 90 census this first one puts the population of new york city right around ou30,000.
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it is just about ready to move past or has moved past philadelphia. it'sec hard to tell because new york is a port city. the numbers get pretty flexible. but this much is clearly the case if you dip into the census records and texture of city life into which it's now arriving. so the city would have been right around 30,000. brooklyn of course was counted in a sense. but that manhattan area right around 30,000. about 15% of that would have been a combination of enslaved and black. there would also be, as you know, being new york it would
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have had extraordinary diversity of languages ranging from, of course because of the dutch, the african influence. there is going to be indigenous peoples. you have doc culture goingav on there which is always a rich and crazy going on all the way to the high end. and then it is party time for that day into the next day. then they put him up in a house on cherry street which is on the m manhattan side by the brooklyn bridge to put you in that area the upper east side. >> let me ask an ordinary question coming into the audience. you mentioned a couple of times d what do we know about washington as an or rater? it something study even before this book.
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>> washington order before the inaugural address. >> okay before yes. >> up until this moment is washington a great order? >> right. that is the spot on question for real. it identifies one of the things that work in this. if you will forgive the self referencing but my first book was on edmundir burke. and then angelina and jefferson and so on. okay, there is that kind of torture or oratory of the full daniel webster sort of thing. okay, clearly washington is not. and he would never pretend to be.
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now, at the same time and i will try not to go on about this, it occurred to me too address that. for all the mythology of washington being a strong silent type an eight man of action there is some of that for sure. i was talking to kevin earlier , you get to the library and look at the washington papers and the correspondence and so on. it is incredible. this man lived his life awash in language. he was highly in a tune. did he compose all of his addresses alone? no, no, we can talk about that later if you wish. so no, he was not an orator in the ordinary sense of the word.
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but he followed up briefly along these lines. secondly, you got to remember, not that you need me too remind you about washington is ani virginia general partner is not altogether clear that a virginia gentleman had to be in oratory what about patrick henry or something? you can talk about the gentleman rules maybe is the exception that proves the rule i don't to overplay it necessarily. but virginia politics all we know of it does not operate to the oratory. get things done. all of that saying maybe we to expand our sense of what constitutes what defines eloquence or oratory. i can tellra you this on march
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15 of 83 when things are getting really weird and he has virtually the entire officer and that room at newburgh arguably conspiracy on your mind. i don't know about that is cleaning up down south. if that's not oratory that i don't know what d is. there is indeed first-hand reports of officers. these are hard guys in tears at the end of the address. i would suggest that we ought to perhaps expand not just because i'm trying to cheerlead washington but to
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recognize there is an eloquence of character. [laughter] there is an eloquence of the person that speaks sometimes speaks with with massive power. >> i was not expecting that question. but as you were describing the journey and kept coming to mind. it may bee unanswerable. were people welcoming washington and philadelphia or even in new york, where they welcoming the new president? or were they welcoming washington? by that i mean when they have welcomed george washington in the same way in 1786? >> thank you for the question. you know, i could be speculative in a sense. >> of course. >> and i hope i'm not the
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question by suggesting that one, sure, he is the man. no question, there is noio more famous american more than franklin. >> ates this point yes. >> yes at this point of course. wherever he went would have been an occasion, yes. but, they worked welcoming, this cuts very deep for me is that they were not speak you asleep were not welcoming a military figure. for his contributions to put it mildly acknowledged, of course. but you look at the letters,
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the speeches, the toasts t even. that was fun to look at the various toasts. very, very much oriented towards what we would call the presidency. and he plays that pretty smart. there are these anxieties there is ath cromwell problem at work here. there is the man on horseback so to speak. to get the back record on these things is not real good at. you can win the war, but it's winning the peace that is tough. if you aree t not careful you ae going to have napoleon writing over the horizon to playri this. that insistence on civil authority seems embodied in the person as well as the reception of that person. >> iec like that answer a lot.
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let me ask everyone out there you can ask questions you can type them in and submit your questions i want to come to as many as i can sub be asking them. we are in new york it is late april. and of course he's about to be inaugurated. once he arrives in new york as her bit of a waiting period before it's ready to be inaugurated? what is that look like? take a sense b of the day of the inauguration. >> this whole project is to see if you could transplant yourself and imagination back, it some point though you've got to settleav down, have a cup of tea into new quarters and say now what? absolutely no one's surprise, there is a lineup all the way to the battery for people who want to talk to him. so there's that kind kind of
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housekeeping business that's going to gobu on. but i want to mention one important, he writes to again this is in the letters of the correspondence. he rates to madison and hamilton and several others asking them about certain protocols. should i have people -- should i invite people over here to my place? or should i wait? should i go to somebody else's place for dinner? again, at the risk of rehearsing this, what is at stake here is what a republican government ought to look like. what are the protocols? it's not like he is not should go with here as he looks across the landscape. has he said famously
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everything i do is impressive. while he is right. so he asks, mr. madison what do you think about, which fort do you use? that kind of thing. there is that housekeeping and figuring out the rules of engagement so to speak. i do want to mention though, it seems to me a very, very important dimension to all of this. it is at peace with the matter of what should a republic look like? as we get to the speech itself, what should a republic sound like? but for the moment of course this goes on since time out of mind assumes someone is inn the chair or is going to be the first thing you want to do is hit them up for a job, right? they contain all of these
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hundreds and hundreds of people who said hey, i thought and trenton or something. can you see yourself to a job for me for a position? these come in as the bagful from as near as i can tell. washington has what turns into not really boilerplate, he seems to adapt it or secretary does, in any case i promise not to read it or anything but the upshot of these responses, they are very polite. very pointed and which he specifies why he can't help. he says first of all to put it casually, it is not going to happen, sorry. flat out this is never going to happen for you. i'm sorry, i appreciate yourre
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service. but it can't happen. and he explains why. in my situation he says this is tough i have to turn away friend sometimes. but it is absolutely crucial to the fortunes of the republican government that this administration beheaded by those who are competent to the task. and for that reasonn alone. that underlies it time and time again. the days are crowded, he was not a bigu partier but he will have some people over and sometimes talk about the old days for a lot of the days themselves are i'm sure interminable interviews. member we would recognize as such. he is trying to figure this out as he goes along. >> we will spend a little bit of time you and made them go
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to some audience questions on the speech itself. the inaugural address this is now a fixture, i will not say famerican political calendar the >> calendar the inaugural address. tell me about the speech, tell me how washington put it together. most importantly i'm interested in hearing your take on the speech has the first inaugural address. [inaudible] absolutely. what are we talking about here after all? president biden i think is a 59h such speech delivered. you might askd and i promise to be responsive to your question, whatfi we might ask is a first order of business of why? why do newly installed
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presidents give oath of office? they do not have too. as you know there's nothing in the constitution. there's nothing i could find in the constitutional debates or the ratification debates. i could not find a word about any of that. did washington and then to the inaugural address? he certainly did not. variations go back in the anglo experience. in the colonies or providences themselves of governors for instance. delivers assumption of office addresses, that kind of thing. so why did presidents ever after? i know why because washingtonft did. he speech it self, it is seven
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paragraphs long about 1400 words give or take depending which version you are using. it's not particularly long. it is written in that characteristic 18th century english with some tactical structures and so on. it is not particularly reader friendly text for most people these days. i love it of course but i am used to it. now more specifically for this address comes from? it is not a peculiar route, but washington seems to have asked david humphreys and eight of his for a long time going back a long time. it was pretty good, but pretty good with a pen to help them out a little bit. humphreys 70 plus page beast of a manuscript read what about this?
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washington says i will get back to you. it's 870 page speech at any case around christmas time prior to the inauguration itself in april of 89, james mattis stops by the house. they spend some time together. it is pretty clear that washington and effect said y. madison what you think of this? madison seems to have take one look at it said that is not going to happen. : : : you familiar with madison or madisons, you can see it there in several ways. manuscript gets tucked into a
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washington that get stuffed into his hpocket. he takes them out on the second floor out on the balcony livingston delivers it. huzzah, there we go. look at all the people down below. president of the united states of america and spent boxing to a joint session and then delivers the address. several people in attendance at washington teams, several noticed a bead of sweat or two on the brow, a quiver of the voice and shaking of the hand.
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i don't think he ever felt particularly comfortable, that was not his soul for sure but he did it. one of the legacies why because i think he thought it was essential to the republican government that power shows itself, speaksow itself, that it let itself be known this isn't a european deal, it's a french kind of thingd or some sort of ritual in the house of commons or something. he stands up and with manuscript in hand, maybe shakes a little bit but this is an intense moment and delivers the address and it goes into seven paragraphs, so not particularly
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long but it very, very pointed. one of the reasons i entered into the project, i was struck by the relative accent serious scholarly work on the inauguration much less the inaugural address so that's my contribution to that. why? i don't know. no sense drawing on that but even if it was a dreadful speech, it was still the first. in any case -- >> there's no policy initiative although there is one thing i think we talk about, he's not advocating for a series of bills directed by this wrong that wrong, you might see it in some
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inaugural addresses, have an agenda or plan of action so what is in this address? >> okay, very good. it president setting but i think in the main without getting into the weeds, allow me -- >> of course. >> by my icons, 1400, 1419 in seven paragraphs characteristically that first paragraph, what they call and got real, you initiate yourself. or washington is careful as it were self will become a commonplace and inaugural
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address convincing first but as a standard go to this is beyond my abilities but i'll do my best kind of thing. i wish i was back at mount vernon bouncing kids on my knees but here i am, that's what you've got to do. there's been an appeal, it's conspicuously not a christian language but for better or worse we tend to call sort of this appeal and third, there's not much to talk about policy, it's unclear what that would mean under the circumstances but that
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statementof so we know that, the word inauguration, seeing and predicting, seeing the way the land looks like when you're just starting. we then talk about article five in the u.s. constitution perhaps where we see madison stand being played which washington reminds his audience, if things aren't going the way you want, we can deal with this in that way with the amendment process. he then says toward the end, i don't want any salary for this and concludes with an appeal.
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>> you are right, it's a short speech, i think you're still short today. the inaugural address 202012024 and we would think a speech like that would be short. >> they were short, not as short as you all know but washington's second inaugural address was all of what, three sentences? one paragraph was all it was. [laughter] >> i've got an audience question, it's a great question that i don't want the answer to. martha washington, washington's wife and family any part of the inaugural ceremony or beginning of the president's ceremony? >> thank you, megan.pr okay, here's how that turns out. martha and the gang did not
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accompany george washington on that journey but they will come later. they've got to take care of the situation at the house, figure things out washington himself has to find, get people for him, no doubt staff and so on. so to answer your question, there is no immediate present there. if i may, may be a little freshness to but it would really be unclear given the gender dynamics at play, what it meant for a female to be publicly sentenced like that. it was kind of unclear. it is not appropriate? or is it not? in any case, after the
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inauguration ceremonies, everybody wants to have a big party and there is no inoperable we would recognize but the spanish ambassador and everybody wants some of us so they will have that but washington is insistent that it waits until martha comes up. >> including enslaved and staff and kids of various -- and so on. that would be in a couple of months. i have another question, keep it up, everyone, i am a drinker question. another question we have is military uniform. as indicated by these as
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mentioned, some of these are 19th century but did he travel by carriage or mount a big white horse before arriving? this is something we know he did on occasion, i don't know on this trip. >> for all of the stern washington, all that, the man liked a nice jacket. we know this in part because there are letters, exchange where inauguration is coming up on the horizon, he writes to knox and says hey, can you help me find, there is this taylor up there, i think in connecticut who does nice work, can you get him? is a big guy obviously with a
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nice brown wall thing going on here and he's always attentive to that. now so actually given what we are talking about in terms of thee theater, the choreography f republican government, one has to pay attention to one's clothes as jefferson finds out later date, it's not altogether appropriate for the president of united states of america to open the door in slippers, like what the heck? washington much more formal along those lines. specifically, did he want to know while don is military uniform? i don't know. i have not come across commentary or observations to that effect. frankly the imagery aside, i would be surprised maybe by some this matter but i think my sense
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is that he would have thought it inappropriate for president-elect of united states of america to go to the ball dressed in military g uniform. >> this is helpful. questions are coming in, this is something i think is a lot of answers to. where did washington learn? i'll just throw up part of it, i know he loved going to the theater. he enjoyed watching place. >> and indeed, no reason not to believe it but sort of the
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staging at valley forge, i am stumbling here. at cato and so on. you virginians out there, you will understand to have come of age under circumstances coming-of-age in a time of exquisite protocols, and we know from that book and someone it can be overplayed a little bit but one did have to know really early on the art of how to navigate a powerful company. sometimes that might include taking, he got to know how to move your body especially if you
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are a big guy like washington was, it was important to develop an athleticism in terms of even how you sat down, how you danced that kind of thing, there was this sense. but the military experience especially his formative military experience before the american revolution was a war of independence, meaning what? well, he was taught early on that yourself before others, that really matters. one lamented or celebrated but he understood that, the art of appearance in washington understood the power of appearance not in an abstract theoretical term but it's how
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you get things done properly so this is what sort of mortified him when he i showed up in bostn to take over what could be called the army, the american army in boston. he was mortified looking like superior officers giving inferior the men in the ranks, he put a stop to that in a hurry. i don't think because he had an obsessive authoritarian thing going on, just it looks that because the time for calm and the guy give you a haircut, he might be sending you into the front line so we better get this straightened out. it is the art of appearance.
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>> there's one more question, coming into the audience but one i was hoping to touch on briefly with your skill evaluating rhetoric and the performance side of things, the relationship, a great question, is relating to this inaugural address even more famous i know for a fact schoolchildren were learning this with the farewell address after the inaugural address maybe but how you compared the two? two they have common themes, either big differences? >> is question deserves a positive you don't mind. >> that's great. >> in my view aside from the obvious differences content and
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context, what impresses me is the distinction between the fundamental optimism that i see embedded in every word of the first inaugural address, i really see the farewell address not made perhaps as pessimistic but an address by someone who's operatively delivered orally by someone who's had a very rough stretch. maybe not so much in terms of failure or anything like that, all of that is arguable but i'll put it this way, you will notice the first inaugural address, there's not one single word what we call foreign policy.
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opened that door to his office and it never stopped. he looked east, you have all that going on. you look west, you have indigenous tensions at worst, north and south. everywhere. second, there is a hard run, i wish i had a better word than pessimism because he wasn't possessed almost a kind of mothering where everything he hoped for, factions and all, the reason i'm stumbling here is because i don't know but washington in some sense, he's
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older, wiser, he's got a few scars on him now and i think he might've been feeling very 18th century. he saw a world that had already been coming on i was deeply inscribed by consideration of faction power, personal interest and that kind of thing. it was a rough couple of administrations. >> this has been a great conversation. the first inauguration george washington and republic that came out last year, excited about this existing because we need tomorrow know more abouto this address. too little has been written about the subject and it sets the stage for so much of what
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comes later. thank you for writing the book and thank you for sitting down with us. i'd like to welcome you to mount vernon someday soon. >> thank you so much to you and everyone who walked on, really appreciate it. >> thank you to everyone joining us tonight. i hope to see you in may, we have an exciting program coming up and we will see you again soon. have a wonderful evening. ♪♪ ♪♪

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