tv Reel America Victory Garden - 1942 CSPAN July 31, 2021 5:35pm-6:01pm EDT
while the vice president mingled with the shipyard workers. ♪ ♪ >> mr. nixon told the crowd the soviets and the state of alaska were only 40 miles apart. he said the two nations must work together to break the ice between them, one of the most effective moments in mr. nixon's remarkable tour of russia. ♪ ♪ >> follow us on social media at c-span history for more this day in history. watch book tv now on sundays on c-span 2 or find it on-line any time at booktv.org. it's television for serious readers. up next, this 1942 u.s. department of agricultural film promotes victory gardens and provides instructions to help citizens grow their own fruits
and vegetables at home during world war ii. ♪ ♪ >> on this farm in the rolling hill country of northern maryland, rallying to the call for more food joined the growing army of victory gardeners. this is dad holder. he helps with the heavy work. mother, well, she helps with most everything. grandpa holder, he says the only honest way to get peas is to work for it. brother is in the army, but dick 14 years old takes his place. and this is jane, just 16.
grandpa and dad always kept garden plans in their heads, but victory garden plans should be on paper, along with the advice of the county home demonstration agent, they will study state and federal bulletins which have been written to serve as guides for the victory garden. now let's see on this little model of their quarter acre garden the plan may work out. here's the early garden. here's early potatoes. then two double rows of peas, early, medium, and late. one row of cabbage, double row of carrots and beets, half a
roll of each, one double row of greens, spinach, mustard. tomatoes early and late. peppers have a row. radishes, lettuce, onion, next. asparagus and rue barb beds are at the side. sweet corn along the fence, four rows. finally two rows of lima beans complete the early garden. now for the late garden, after each of the early crops is harvested, a planting of another crop is to be made so as to have a succession. for a convenience of illustration, early crops except tomatoes are removed. two rows of squash along the fence. three rows of late potatoes, late cabbage, carrots and beets,
half double row of each, three rows of turnips, a row of spinach, kale and collard, half a roll of each complete the garden. here they have a garden plan that will serve the family need this year and succeeding years they will want to rotate crops within the plan. now for the real garden. when the maples are in bloom, it's time to begin planting. when the moisture is just right, the soil won't be sticky. it holds its shape when pressed, but crumbles easily when broken. then it's right for working and planting. the garden is sunny, has good soil and drainage and is well fenced. it was manured and plowed last
fall. now after lining, it is ready to plant. grandpa knows how to cut potatoes. he makes good sized chunky pieces about the size of a hen's egg, each with at least one eye. certified seed gives best results. look for the blue tag. potato rows are three feet apart, four inches deep. a complete commercial fertilizer like 5-10-5 is spread and mixed with the soil before planting. the seed is dropped one piece to a hill, evenly spaced about one foot apart. covering may be done plow or with hoe. in running for peas, a line or stakes are used to space them in double rows three feet apart.
treatment of peas and other vegetables with disinfectant helps to provide seed rot. a level teaspoon full of powder to four pounds of seed, well mixed until each seed is coated. it helps to prevent seed rot. young cabbage and tomato plants are coming along in the cold rain. being hardy, cabbages are planted early. dick sets the roots deep and presses the soil formally around them. if the ground is dry, he pours a little water into each hole before covering. a piece of paper, two inches square, with a slit through the hole in the center will keep mag
gots away. the holders have best results with onion sets grown the previous year though they could use seedlings or seed. the corner or handle of the hoe is used to make burrows, small seeds, about a half inch deep. jane shakes the seed out evenly, but not too thickly. carrot seeds are also planted about a half inch deep. beet seeds larger are planted one inch deep, one inch apart. spinach seeds are planted like carrots. the holders have selected vegetables are grown easily, good yielders, rich in vitamins, and can be canned or stored for winter use. palm trees are in bloom.
time to plant sweet corn. this is resistant to disease. high germinating seeds are enough. almost summer now. and the garden is coming along. a garden that will give plenty of nutrition vitamin-packed vegetables for the family table. that is if they ever reach the table. the paper still keeps the maggots away from the cabbage. tomatoes are a must in every victory garden and lots of them.
plants are set out when danger of frost is over. they are protected from worms by paper colors, fastened at the top with a paper clip or a pin. at the bottom, by pulling the soil around them. a few peppers are desirable. the holders started these hot weather plants seven weeks ago in the kitchen window. lima beans are planted two to the hill, an inch and a half deep. the large seeded bush type complete the early garden
planting. some vegetables need thinning. dick uses a garden hoe for the rough part, but finishing is done by hand. the charred is being thinned to 6 to 8 inches apart. the only way to get weeds out of a row of carrots is by hand, right now when they are small. a common fast growing weed will quickly crowd out venl tables if not -- vegetables if not pulled. thinning carrots is a pain in the back, when seedling carrots are little and no mistake, but these young folks have keen eyes and nimble fingers. weeds grow fast, in this grand process, there's no tool that gets them all, but the hoe makes the job easier between the rows.
careful, not too close or too deep, you might cut the outer root. a horse cultivator may do the job much faster. this implement has attachments that will plant seeds of almost any size in rows or in hills. now the pests begin to work, worms, beetles, bugs, hoppers. who said gardening was just pleasant exercise? here's the first pest. the common cabbage worm eating holes in the newest cabbage leaves. like a good gardener, dick is on the job to protect the crop from all these pests and diseases the cabbage worm's mama, a small white butterfly lays its eggs on
the leaves. a serving of stomach poison with the cabbage should finish mr. cabbage worm. some dust has been made scarce by the war, so other dust is used. dick does a good job of it. this cabbage is sick with the yellows or wilt. once the fungus that causes wilt gets into the soil, it takes years to get rid of it. next time dick will use wilt resistant varieties like jersey queen, marion market, and grove. the easy way to control insects and diseases is to attack them before they become too numerous. these beetles eat holes in potato leaves. a mixture is the remedy for insects and leaf diseases of potatoes.
to make two and a half gallons, dick dissolves three ounces of powdered sulfate in water. then he makes a thin paste of three ounces of hydrated lime in water. this is put into the pail, stirred, and the mixture is made. this may be added two tablespoons of calcium to kill potato bugs and other leaf-eating insects. easy, isn't it? the mixture is also a good spray for grapes, tomatoes, and roses. dick sprays potatoes about once every two weeks. late potatoes need more sprayings than early ones. now the peas are ready. excellent source of vitamin c.
cabbage too is ready to eat. another excellent source of vitamin c, especially raw. it should be grown in every victory garden. a solid four pound hen, good for storing. cabbage is available in the garden over a long period. carrots are rich in vitamin a, needed for night vision and building up resistance to disease. luscious raspberries are ripening, delicious small fruits should be in every victory
garden. those pesky bugs again, this time it is the mexican bean beetle, a bad pest in the south and east. the young yellow beetles may strip a plant completely in a week or two. a complete generation occurs in 35 days. dust is the remedy. beetles feed on the underside of the leaves so dick makes sure to reach them with the dust. one of the common causes of failure of lima and green snap beans are bacterial blight. leaves are blighted. this disease is carried with the seed. western grown seed is recommended. tomatoes are troubled by wilt caused by a fungus that lives in the soil and attacks through the roots. getting into the tubes and shutting off the water supply.
the plants die. this blackened woody tissue is the sign of wilt. only resistant varieties should be grown on wilt-infested land. the fungus does not damage seriously resistant varieties. a similar disease affects eggplant. note the darkened tissue in the cut stem. the remedy is rotation of crops. the clean white appearance of this stem indicates a healthy plant. here's the pesky old worm. eggs are laid and hatched. a mixture of white mineral oil in the silk at the right time helps to control them. another corn enemy attacks all
parts of the plant. untasselled it doesn't lower yields much but on or below the ear, it is damaging. leaf blights also affect corn. sprays do not control these diseases, but resistant varieties of corn are being developed. mildew is one of several leaf diseases that interfere with successful production of cucumber and related crop. another affects both the leaves and the fruit. it reduces the quality of the fruit. dust is used for these diseases. this garden pest is easy to stop. keep the gate closed and the fence tight. no holes.
zinnias are in bloom. the crops are beginning to roll out. the last of the early. certified seed helped to make a good yield, good quality too, free from scab and uniform in shape. much of the nutritional value of beets is in the top. so it's wise to use them young when the tops are edible. perhaps the number one garden crop, they keep ripening over a long period and are an important source of vitamin c which is often deficient in our diets. when properly cooked or canned, there is not much loss of this vitamin. tomatoes are easily canned. one bushel will fill 12 quarts.
at least 20 quarts per person should be put up. corn tops against the sky. yellow varieties of corn contain vitamin a. both white and yellow contain small amounts of minerals and vitamins as well as starch and sugar. green peppers, rich in vitamin c and a. these beans to use green dried or canned. and chard can be used throughout the summer. green leafy vegetables, turnip
greens, mustard greens, all fine for fall and winter use. that just about covers the holder victory garden. just one of thousands of such farm gardens. just a sample that you can match in most any community in america. eat your vitamins from which you can take more precious than silver or gold. but remember what grandpa says, no work, no garden. get what that means. no work, no spuds. no work, no turnip. no tank, no flying fortress, no
victory. bear that in mind all you victory gardeners and work for victory. ♪ ♪ >> this week we're looking back to this date in history. ♪ ♪ >> round up on the island off the virginia coast. cast ashore in the 16th century, fiery and untamed, they run wild in great herds at the national wildlife refuge here. ♪ ♪ >> once a year, their numbers are thinned by the half century
old event. they will be driven ashore to the auction. but first, local youngsters get a chance -- [inaudible]. rumor has it if a fellow stays on, he can keep the pony, but that isn't put to the test, this time. they line the shore for the sea going stampede as the herd is driven across the shallow neck of water to the corrals. ♪ ♪ while descendants of noble and ancient lineage, they are a prized breeding stock. for this event will be a grand auction, for buyers traveling hundreds of miles for the wild horses. ♪ ♪ >> follow us on social media at c-span history for more this day
lady astronauts from the early 60s, a group of women who went rigorous training but never selected to go into space. on american history tv's oral history series, wally funk recalled the earliest days of the space program. here's a portion of that interview. >> as you came down for the first phase of testing, what were some of those tests, and at any point, did you stop and think what am i doing or anything along those lines? >> last question first, no, i had not a shadow of a doubt. i was their subject. they could do anything with me that they wanted to do. and i didn't know that you could get x-rayed from head to toe, and it would take a whole day and every single tooth and every single bone, but they wanted perfect specimens at that time. let's go back to the men, the mercury. there were 159 men selected from the armed services to go through these tests.
how many were selected? >> [inaudible]. >> 25 women were selected, and how many passed? 13. so do we have a little bit of information here on how well do women do things? how well did they come across on the may flower? terrific. how well did they go across the prairies and settle the west in their covered wagons? great. big families, didn't think anything about it. why can't we fly and go into space? the men today that think we can't as women do things, sorry, folks, we can do it. a woman and i'm sure eileen has tried extra hard to do her best because nobody wants to fail, but -- and failure is not a part of my makeup. i do the best i can do,