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tv   Former NASA Administrator Bridenstine Others Discuss the Space Force  CSPAN  May 11, 2021 6:51am-7:38am EDT

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>> good afternoon ladies and gentlemen. it is my pleasure to welcome you to the space force. i'm senior research fellow at the heritage foundation. and i have a great program lined up ahead. we will start off as an overview and then have a brief opening remarks followed by jim biden stein.
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and then followed by q&a so go ahead and start typing in questions on your webex first we will take on biden stein and then the panel. after opening remarks with the gym and did him for well then we'll introduce the panel to bring them onboard with the initial round of questions and then follow up with your questions from the audience. so with that let me start with ee introduction the honorable jim biden stein is a pilot with the navy with more than 333 landings on aircraft carriers. followed his career in the service by serving as a congressman from oklahoma's first congressional district
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before being nominated by president trump as the administrator of nasa they launched this new human winner exploration mission called artemis putting them on track for a 2024 lunar landing. next doctor everest began his career as an intelligence analyst for the national security agency then moving on to a space command. received his phd from university of pennsylvania in 1995 and now a professor military studies at the air command. and finally doctor coyote a philosopher in the united states air force and a graduate of the inaugural class are he went on to become an instructor and then retired
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from the air force in 2016 and serves as a professor at the university of air command. ladies and gentlemen, before i introduce the honorable jim biden stein like you to answer to pull questions. i will give you a minute how will it defend against a concerted attack iap or competitor? take a minute to pick one of those three responses and now
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the second question. in relation to china and russia just select one of these. so mr. biden stein the floor is yours that is my pleasure to give you to our audience
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for your remarks. >> thank you so much it's great to be with you in the heritage foundation and of course the professors that are with us from the air command. great place to do a lot of learning. and i would like to start with the things that i learned when i was at the air command and how nasa plays a big role in space bar our national power in general. so we have elements of national power often times referring to the acronym dime information power military power and economic power in the question for every agency and the federal government how does that particular agency play into those elements of national power to deliver benefits for the american
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taxpayer and american citizen? the answer is unique to each individual agency. some would say why is the nasa administrator here talking about the space force? that there is a partnership between all of us involved in when we think about that entire acronym nasa plays a unique role at some level. on the diplomatic side. ostp operate the iss which is operated by 15 different countries and astronauts from 18 different countries and experiments from 103 different countries and of course when we think about robotics exploration of other planets in the solar system and astrophysics and studying the sin on - - the sun, we have agreements with nations
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all over the world. 700 agreements right now with these diplomatic efforts. nasa really is a great tool of diplomacy. one of the areas it is strongest is where some people would scratch their heads. the relationship between united states of america with russia when it comes to space exploration even to the most challenging times. we go back to the apollo program and then apollo so use. in the seventies american astronauts and cosmonauts living in working together in space at the height of the cold war. than the shuttle mere program then the iss. they have been living and working on the iss now for over 20 years if you can imagine that. this is a tool of diplomacy that is unique.
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that's important when we think about how we deter aggression in space. nothing deters aggression that is a unique perspective. that said diplomatic side then we have the information side think of the elements of national power when neil armstrong and buzz aldrin landed on the moon every single person saw or heard that event. it is amazing just 13 years later ronald reagan announced the strategic defense initiative. people said the opposition said it cannot be done not technologically achievable we will never accomplish that objective of a missile defense shield of those capabilities required. while here in the united states there was a debate raging they call it star wars to belittle the program but
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the biggest competitor the soviet union steps up to the plate and says we believe we can do it and capabilities that were able to counteract the initiative it was a small piece it wasn't piece of what led to the collapse of the soviet union. they believe we could do it because just a decade earlier they saw american astronauts walking on the surface of the moon. is a tool of information power. as nasa administrator we had a lander on mars called insight. >> perseverance it was same way but unique about insight it was
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in tehran and subtext of the newspaper was -- the hardline publication of the islamic revolutionary guard core. now there aren't a lot of stories that come out from the islamic revolutionary guard corps. that was positive about the united states of america. the last, the last paragraph in that article it talked about all of the international partners that were with us on the insight landing on mars. now, we think about, you know, why does that matter? well the idea is -- nasa has an ability through this ertool of information power to help change the thought of people all over the world towards the united states of america especially young people. and in this case we're talking about young people in tehran. where they don't get good messages about the united states of america so we need people to look at the united states of america say how is it they're able to accomplish these things not only do these things but do
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them with international partners that are, in fact, you know, all over the world and how come we're not a part of that? that's the question that we want people asking. because that's what american leadership is all about. now, that's diplomatic power and information power and get to m which is military power nasa is not involved in the military apparatus itself we were intentionally created by dwight d. eisenhower to be separate because we were to be a tool of diplomacy aar tool of science, exploration, discovery. it is a tool where -- where nations around the world want to partner with nasa. and so we're kept separate from the department of defense intentionally, however, there is a lot of overlap when you start thinking about the technology it is that we develop, the capabilities that we develop and ultimately how they flow into the smecial sector and in fact commercial capabilities are lemplegged even right now by the
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department of defense in unique ways that i think are important for the national security apparatus of the country. finally the e is -- you know, the economic power. aiflt people don't realize how dependent we are in space right now i'm looking at a camera in my commuters that wasas developd if after mars lander in the 1990s. and, of course, it was disiendz to be sufficiently small to reduce the mask to reduce the volume ultimately to be effective for intermannation mission. now not only available tosser's laptop computer it is et cetera, the way we communicate think about this --o connecting directv xm radio we
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think about the timing ?al from gps being necessarying to regulate the flows of data on the tres cial wireless network if we don't have that gps signal we d don't have cell phone the e way we produce food, energy and do disaster relief an the way we understand weather and way not just under but predict weather an save lives the way we understand climate and way we do national security and defense we think about that timing signal from gps it is fundamentally necessary to regulate theen flos of electricity on the power grid. we lose that gps signal the power grid is then at risk. as well as the banking system in the united states everybody banking transaction dependent on timing signal from gps. bottom line is this, as nasa administrator i heard a lot about tang and velcro i'm here
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to tell you that misses the economic impact from spaces for the everyday american citizen in a way that most americans don't realize it but if we lose space it is an existential threat to united states of america if we lose space, we lose the united states of america. that is how dependent we have ebecome on our space base capabilities so commercially and then civilly and, of course, on the national security and defense side as well. so nasa plays on the economic side and a very significant way. we know we talk about communication navigation, production of food energy all of these nasa is forefront leading knock logical enno vaition and commercializings them but we're also using microgravity and compound pharmaceutical in microgravity you can't do on earth not just about pharmaceutical but immunization and salmonella and for pneumonia
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that are advanced on international space station we're creating human tissue using your own dna -- we're going to eventually be able to take your own dna and create your own human tissue for your own body eventually for organs to replace organs in your own body if you were to try to do that in gravity well of earth tissue just goes flat but in space it is grow in three dimensions which is critically important and, of course, creating capability to, you know, create an artificial human retina i using advance materialf you lose your eyesight from macular degeneration you can get an artificial retina but right now microgravity of space enables that to happen so on economic side, this is a critical capability where the united states of america absolutely must lead. and so we think about the elements of national power, yes, the big m is what everybody here is to hear about and certainly happy to talk about it and i'm
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going to when it comes to our friends at air university, the air command and staff college specifically i'm looking forward to hearing their comments. but it is important to remember that when it comes to securing the country, there's all of these elements of national power that go beyond military. so that ultimately all of us can remain safe and secure and prosperous. and with that jv i'll turn it back to you and certainly open it up to a few questions. >> fantastic so we have time for one on two questions with you this is actually from the audience, and it's several people asked that very similar question -- and nasa moves forward with landings on moon and then mars how do you see the relationship between nasa and the space force changing? >> well, i think it won't change much i don't think it will. nasa is intentionally independent from the department of defense. the nasa administrator reports directly to the president of the united states.
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and the secretary of defense, reports to the president of the unitedhe states, and that was designed intentionally to make sure that nasa would not be part of the space force but i think -- we're the biggest overlap happens is the technology. as nasa develops technology, that technology transforms life here on earth and it creates capability for commercial capabilities, create commercial capabilities, of course, that can be -- useded by the department of defense and significant ways but, i really think that nasa needs to not become part of the military capability because ultimately that's what gives us the leverage and on the diplomatic side. >> fantastic well here's a littleer confusion question for you. this is from jack byer with washington free beacon. i would be interested in your perspective on the recent controversy over long march five b and trajectory which reportedly narrowly missed the
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international space station with little communication involved and there are role for space force or other space facing entities in protecting against the reoccurrence such as incidents or upholding norms for responsible behavior in space. do you have any thoughts on that? >> yeah this is where nasa plays a very stropping role look if you want to be part of the, you know, the community of nationings that explores space together which is what nasa leads, leak i just talk sed about all of our diplomatic interactions one is that we have little almost no diplomatic interactions with china and reason is because of these types of events. we go back to 2009 when they shot down a weather satellite and it resulted in orbital debris we're dealing with it as it relates to international space station and, of course, this wasn't a unique ejt with the long march 5b this happened last may when it was getting ready to reentry it flew over los angeles. it flew over central park and new york city eventually crashed
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into -- land crashed into atlantic oce. but look, there has to be, you know, responsible behavior in space it is -- it is critical that we use the of diplomacy to compel good behavior. but this -- what krntion me most on this space force side is not a rocket body that everybody knew about and was watching and paying attention to. what occurs to me on the space force side is -- you know, what are the they thinks we can't see that we don't know about? what we think about things like cuba sack, smaller they thinkings get the harder they are to detect and know what they're up to and what they're doing. we have to be really good at space situational awareness that improves ground sensors that space centers that are -- basically protecting and keeping an eye around our centers of gravity around our most important satellite whts we think about space infrared or national technical mean satellite, our, you know, advance extremely high frequency
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satellites for nuclear command and control these are the capabilities capabilities that absolutely protected a rocket launch from china everybody knows an seeses that a problem just from a -- good public policy perspective. but that's not what -- that's not what concerns me when you think about threats in space in nature and that's why i'm looking forward to the rest of the segment with the air university professors. >> great you've been very generous with your time sir congratulations y on extraordiny run as administrator of nasa. i want to thank you for your time with us today, sir. >> thank you jv. >> ladies and gentlemen for remainder of our time we're going to pelt our -- our two panelists with as many questions as we can. can i get evan coyote would you guys come up both with your cameras and your microphones if
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you would. and as they're coming up, katherine would you post the result of our two polls? okay how is u.s. currently against attack on space sac sets this isho pretty striking that more than half 60% of the spongts believe that we are well or somewhat well prepared for an attack only 40% believe otherwise and one more if you would katherine the second question. u.s. offensive counterspace capable and relation to china and russia again this is a surprising result. u.s. is well ahead of its fears. 13% parody 45% which means that half of our respondents believe that we're either ahead or on a par with our peers and then somewhat behind 37% and then the
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u.s. well behind a very small minority of 5% of our respondents okay with that would you take down that poll let us see our two folks. ladies and gentlemen, the center on my screen i've got dr. everett he goes by ev to his left i've got -- doctor mv coyote smith and you'll hear refer to both of them as ev and coyote and i look forward to banter between two of them as we move forward so my first question is actually to you ev last summer united states employed elon musk constellation of star link salt light and project exercise, those satellites are designed to provide broadband access to folks who are remotely situated around the world. that constellation has grown to 1400 satellites and they, obviously, have more capability
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than u.s. giving folks access to the internet would you attack a minute or two to tell us about what those capabilities might be on those satellitings and what they mean for both space force and other services. >> yeah. that was a pretty impressive demonstration for a still limited network of salt lights that we're calling mega constellations now and working at having a lot of those in the future. which is going to be the thing, but the real advantage to this particular system is provide for the military is communication and data to far flung widely dispersed platform from all services that might be a shadow and wouldn't have integration and jammed by radio jammers, hacked into by needs and particularly those isolated battle stations or sometimes far
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behind enemy lines and at sea where there's no shell type connection. you've got now a network of satellites that are linked by laser comes which means that regular jamming going to be very difficult against them. they're going to be very secure because been trying to hack into as difficult as you have to get in the beam itself to really access that so you have a secure communication system that can provide every single platform every single individual on the battle space with real time streaming internet data level communications and that is extraordinary thing. that advantage that that comes i one of the participants there i remember one that allows us to see first to understand first, decide first, and act first. battle space is changing where it used to be a battle space of mass and fire it is a battle
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space dominated by information and you can see john boyd -- in that as well. the advantage that is going to come up is no longer in mass no longer in hours and days. but it is going to be in seconds and microseconds not guess the information. but who gets it, compile it is understands it, decides on that and asks first and then didn't matter if everyone has it it is who can tweal use it officially faster that's what army is working on in. this case for an all force joint operation. pretty answer amaze how intertwined the commercial military and civil sectors are becoming, and jim did a really good job laying that out front but this is another extraordinary example of it let me turn to coyote. coyote we have the poll survey came out which was a little bit of a surprise to me. there's a public perception that up until recently dwriets had
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its head in the sand over a potential conflict in space. but obviously, our viewers here are not just strikingly handsome but they're pretty savvy on what's going on with the united states space program. the united states established its space weapons in 1996, as a space weapons herself of that inaugural year, and apollo instructor could you instruct public perception how u.s. impacted your team as an instructor tore at the school? i think that's interesting. first of all i need to caveat everything i'm going to say with a disclaimer i'm an employee of the u.s. government so the statements that i say including the steaments that doctor evil is going to make are hours alone do not reflect opinion of u.s. government united states air force space force, air demand and staff code or even
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significant others but they ought to. stepping into the question there, about space for peaceful purposes i remember -- being in attendance when air force base was redesignated with present for that redesignation and in the office who was commander of air force space command at time having reception -- one of our young lawyers asked general what his opinion was of space for peaceful purposes and to paraphrase what general said he chuckled a little bit and he said, space for peaceful purposes. what about your bs that was. he knew what we know is that space was never a sank wear from the time until today tit for tat space encounter space by each of the great power and even powers that are becoming involved in
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outer space. back 25 years ago, i was the offensive and defensive counterspace instructor at the air force weapon school and when we graduate our classes of space weapon officers they go back out into the space forces as they were then to integrate space capables into active operations. however, i was very upset by the fact that the air force was not giving us ample support to provide defense not just for our military satellites but we were leafing our commercial assets absolutely undefended. i began a letter writing campaign to congressman excuse me senator bob smith from new hampshire whoen was my senator t the time. and started a company to try to advance american space power. this culminated in creation of the rumsfeld space commission which would report out in 2001. it was at that point in time the statement was made that it was
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the last chance that the air force would have to get it right in space. problem is the air force properly was making it priority air power. and the air force because congress set it up that way would sacrifice second and third order missions such as space and cyber in order to maximize output offer a power that is reasonable i would have done the same thing no airmen deserves krits sesm for that but problem was year after year after yeared air force ftion not closing the deal with providing the defense for our military satellites or extending that defense to our commercial and ally type of satellites as well. really unfortunate so i take a look at the survey i would say that wee are xreet poorly prepared to deal with counterspace against our satellites. because we -- have got improvements with communications, but basically one of the things that we're
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counting are with mass eve constellation of large numbers of satlights aisle not talking about connective weapons because space profession and space control professions don't talk about connective weapons and space debris when lasers are so effective and can be used so covertly that they have littered our history in space with their use. but space is out of sight out of mind there's no explosions. nothing blows up just services just don't get delivered to a customer and customers left wondering whether they have their switch and things like this are type of engagements that characterize space warfare. >> fantastic. so ladies and gentlemen, i don't know if you heard coyote reference ev as dr. evil i'm not sure if that's what it stands for ev evil but just so you
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don't get the two confused. ev this is or dr. evil this is a question for you. that star link consolation we talked ab few minutes ago has 1400 plus satellites right now but it is on its way to grow the 45,000 satellites over the next several years. and it is only one of the broadband games that's moving to space jeff bezos has project hyper others here in the united states and beyond are moving in that -- in that direction. could you talk about the great good and the challenge it is that competition mean for the space force. >> yeah. and by the way, this pronounceed not dr. evil but yeah. you know, that is really something that is going to be no good that doesn't come with bad the amazing absolutely amazing real time massive data capables we're going get from space to
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include interesting ones that may help with power production, all green looking at an all green for outer space big problem i got request massive satellites is what -- despite fact that space is mass constellation space is enormous place, they're very fast that means half a military and any collision will be problem mat egg and space force recognizes that, and for the first time in its doctrine they have negotiating agreed upon approach that gives us ideas of when you're too close what would problems be. what you do with a rocket body that comes in that how we make sure those don't come in and land, and what are responsible things that space fearing nation dos and because it is not for -- but to get to point where we can go international space traffic
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management system we're looking at some of my colleagues tell me to quarter of a million satellites you could operate successfully and safely if we have a robust and enforceable space system now here's one of the u.s. space force will play in because space is not is not subject to ownership and wherever you have nonsovereign areas or areas where no state holds sway, the only legitimate policing or use of force organization is in the military. when it is used so the role space force will probably have in the future is very much like u.s. navy other navies in the open seas. if we can get a viable space traffic management system it is the air force that is going to provide the lookout for that the space awareness, satellites that can monitor and see who is not following. and has some enforcement
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capability as well to perhaps remove debris but also remove noncompliant software or salt satellites out there is and space force combat piracy that is likely to happen with commercial satellite capabilities if possible. physical and cyberattacks in space will have to be -- dealt with. the space force will actually line the communication or transport open just as navy is taking out blockades. they'll provide space weather data and warning data of events like radiation and storm stuff like that, probably will be the beyond that does search and rescue operations in space and humans go out into space more. andch generally puts that trafficking seen that with human traffic on the open ocean. it is no one else to enforce that and make sure that big
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people are safely put back to the shore. there will be some types of e lis set traffic that goes on in space as commerce grows. and this is a final they think i'll say on this idea. commerce has grown extraordinarily wherever we have had the open oceanings like american west. when commerce grows it really doesn't matter if the military wants to get involved or think it is a drill they'll be called in to do those initial protections because they're ones who can do it in the international system that we have today. >> ferasing. if you talked about space situational awareness we have a question from audience about that. and before i go into it, i explored a little bit about that in that space rebuilding america pape you'll find out in handout sex ladies and gentlemen over on right-hand side and how well we're doing there and how about
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platforms that land base cape sbility this question is actually from the audience. i would love to hear about how the panel thinks we can improve and update our space situational awareness to better inform our national security needs as a militarization and commercialization of space increases. thoughts on that, coyote? >> you know, good news is i just had i trio of young air two air force majors in a navy attack commander complete a very successful thesis on xeangt that top egg they are talking about a organization led by the united states perhaps by nasa. perhaps by the faa that confuse together all centers of data to create what they call a space ecosystem characterize that goes beyond military of space domain or situational awareness but one
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common recognized picture about what goes on on orbit, this is going to be published out as a book we are hoping. if it is not by one of our publishers we are not going to push into this self-publishing system within next year these students thesis can be available available be reviewed by everyone in the world we think it is absolutely essential for us to do this as a broad international partnership so that we all have a common understanding of what's going on on orbit just as dr. evil or -- youu have to drivel? got it confused -- i think perhaps this will be an open argument for how we can integrate our sensors into much better more mature manner as an international community. >> outstanding. ev what do you think? >> well you know, the space situation awareness that we relied on for so long was ground based through radar fences. through telescopes et cetera and
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problem is going through the atmosphere we get a lot and coverage of dispersion of that and difficult to get from the earth. we're going to have to have a nearng maybe even a mega constellation sensors in space that can with great -- with the vacuum of space that will have ability to see technical data to see if they're violating norm and see these small satellites that are almost impossible to see from earth. we can see clearly if we have a good network of space situational awareness satellites that can determine how close we are where they're going if there's right now from the ground we can detect debris that's about the size of your fist. maybe a little bit smaller. if we're goapg to actually start cleaning up the debris of space actually the removing debris from space we have to see things that are technically small as a paint chip -- and could be damaging given speeds that you're going so
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answer there is we have to have a network of satellites that are doing nothing but space situational awareness and getting that to deal with that and wanting events that are going on and actually determine who is following the rule. that's an outer space function and earlier questions for georgia in this area and role in space force and -- it does help some of your questions space force is probably a little premature. but it is a forcing function by a force out there we are getting people ready and thinking about those things that we will be called upon to do. as the number one space power in the world, and will have to be responsible for. >> ferasing so we're getting near the end of our time but i want to go into offensive side with you coyote we hear about
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china, russia and their offensive capabilities rendezvous proximity and rpo nothing about our capables how does classification mask what we may already have fielded and with nasa's leg up with cube rendezvous proximity technology what may be on the horizon for the offensive side of our space force? >> you're on mute. coyote thinks he got his name because coyote is as he was lacking in pilot school but it's actually that's what he looks like. >> are you up coyote? >> nope, i'm not. gone someplace else. [laughter] >> can you hear me? >> yep. loud and clear.>> okay. you know, united states russia, china, few other countries are
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all part what have we call space flight club and three rules about space fight club. number one, there's no talking about the space fight club. rule number two and three are the same. when it comes to offensive type of capables i'll just say this the push that culminated in creation of u.s. space force started under obama administration. events happened. andd president obama discovered that you can jam satellitings. not only that, it happens a lot. and he had been told that it was impossible to jam a satellite besides nobody would do that because we have trees against that. and that was not true. well, the air force senten j's over to give briefs on counterspace threats that adversaries pose against us and he was quite literally shocked by this and directed every member would be inen doctrine
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naitd and he described seeing that briefing as it scared jesus out of us we have no idea we were that far behind so to your second question there. we're well behind the russians and chinese increasingly if you read through the unclassified reports coming from the director of national intelligence office over the last two to three years increasingly we see russia and china operating as partnership and together they have a healthy and robust center space of capabilities. that hence the apprehension that members of congress have and why that was such a proponent to go forward. something thats people didn't hear because this happened in the chat room before they brought us into the overall event. jim who was in congress at the time said that the creation of a
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space corps. which became space force was one the only bipartisan issues with over 370 votes off the house floor going forward. remarkable that is how -- bad the situation is that it drove a consensus in the last congress. >> topic if i can jump in offensive capables in space, it's not something we like think about. but if i can -- if i can paraphrase perhaps the only philosopher war karl -- defensive stronger form. but if you can't go on offense eventually you will lose. and that's the pretty much if we're actuallyy advocates or thinking about warfare in space and trying to avoid it. that's primarily our purpose. we have too do both offensive ad defensive capabilities in the space force will be the
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legitimate arm of the state that we have ---- allowed to do that. >> fantastic. you knoww it's kind of funny, ad writing that paper the space rant i interviewed the team, our own in house expert at heritage foundation and he told me that -- in every war game that he had been in at the highest level the classification, if you didn't have an offensive capability, you lost. in every one of them and that's stark thing for us to stew on and maybe -- begin the next conversation with because we are at the end of our time for this one. gentlemen it has been a pleasure. to the honorable jim biden thank you so much sir for being with us for our two extraordinary panelistth coyote and ev thank u very much for playing ball with us. we look forward to future engagements with all three of you over the weeks and months ahead. we want to take a minute to
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remind you that after this is over with, you shutdown your end of the internet you're going get a survey on today's engagement with really be grateful if you would take the time to review that for us and maybe answer some questions if it has been my honor to be with you today and absolutely a pleasure to be with these extraordinary gentlemen with that ladies and gentlemen, it is time for us to by the you farewell thank you for joining us and until next time. jv out. 2 p.m. house is back for work on legislation dealing with suicide prevention and mental health services. on c-span2 the senate returns at
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10 a.m. eastern to consider nominations for deputy secretary at hhs and the education department. and on c-span 3 also at 10 a.m. law enforcement officials and firearms experts testify at a senate judiciary sub committee hearing on reducing gun violence. that's followed by an afternoon hearing with irs officials on efforts to address the widening gap between taxes owed and taxed paid in the u.s. there's more streaming on our website including senate homeland security hearing on preventing and responding to cyberattacks within the federal government. that's 10 a.m. eastern. at 2:30 p.m. a hear on fraight industry and its role in helping u.s. supply chains.


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