Skip to main content

tv   BBC News at Ten  BBC News  November 25, 2021 10:00pm-10:30pm GMT

10:00 pm
that we have may well be less effective. we'll have the very latest from south africa. also tonight... we're live in calais after the deaths of 27 people in the channel — and yet the crossings continue. more migrants arrived on the kent coast today, after risking the perilous journey. translation: we need more cooperation from the british l because we're guarding the border for the british. this is about addressing long—term pull factors, smashing the criminal gangs that treat human beings as cargo, and tackling supply chains. this requires a coordinated international effort. at a vigil in calais, the men, women and children who drowned are remembered. but inside the makeshift camps of northern france — others hope to get the green light
10:01 pm
from smuggling gangs. and coming up in the sport on the bbc news channel... mixed fortunes for british sides in europe — defeat for celtic in germany means they fail to qualify from their europa league group. good evening. the health secretary, sajid javid, says scientists are deeply concerned about a new variant of coronavirus that's been discovered in south africa. as yet it hasn't been detected here in the uk, but the government is now suspending all flights from south africa, namibia, zimbabwe, botswana, lesotho and eswatini. 59 cases have been confirmed so far, and speaking in the last hour, mrjavid said the variant may be the most infectious yet. from what we do know there's a significant number of mutations, perhaps double the number of mutations that we have seen in the delta variant.
10:02 pm
and that would suggest that it may well be more transmissible and the current vaccines that we have may well be less effective. our medical editor fergus walsh is here. do we have any idea what we are dealing with at the moment? this is a raidl dealing with at the moment? this is a rapidly evolving — dealing with at the moment? this is a rapidly evolving situation. - dealing with at the moment? this is a rapidly evolving situation. this - a rapidly evolving situation. this variant was only identified a couple of days ago, but i have to say tonight this is genuinely a cause for concern but not for alarm. coronaviruses mutate all the time but this has something like 50 mutations, more than we have seen in any other variant so far, far more than in the delta variant which is the dominant global strain now. one scientist said to me this was the worst variant they had seen so far and a dramatic change from everything we have seen since the wuhan strain first emerged last year. on paper it is worrying but
10:03 pm
there is no evidence yet that it causes more severe disease. there is no evidence that current vaccines are ineffective, and other scary variants have popped up and disappeared without trace. but it will take three weeks for cases in south africa and elsewhere to translate into hospitalisations and four weeks for it to show up in death and if we wait to act until thenit death and if we wait to act until then it will be too late. to death and if we wait to act until then it will be too late.- then it will be too late. to be clear there _ then it will be too late. to be clear there has _ then it will be too late. to be clear there has not _ then it will be too late. to be clear there has not been - then it will be too late. to be clear there has not been a i then it will be too late. to be l clear there has not been a case then it will be too late. to be - clear there has not been a case so far in the uk? ida clear there has not been a case so far in the uk?— clear there has not been a case so far in the uk? no cases here so far identified and _ far in the uk? no cases here so far identified and the _ far in the uk? no cases here so far identified and the uk _ far in the uk? no cases here so far identified and the uk has _ far in the uk? no cases here so far identified and the uk has some - far in the uk? no cases here so far identified and the uk has some ofl identified and the uk has some of the best surveillance in the world. in terms of direct flights, they are being banned, suspended from midday tomorrow, and the six countries put on the red list with the quarantine ring and post. we've only had 59 cases confirmed in south africa so it's really early days. had world reaction to _ it's really early days. had world reaction to this _ it's really early days. had world reaction to this then? -
10:04 pm
it's really early days. had world reaction to this then? the - it's really early days. had world l reaction to this then? the variant doesnt reaction to this then? the variant doesn't have _ reaction to this then? the variant doesn't have a _ reaction to this then? the variant doesn't have a name _ reaction to this then? the variant doesn't have a name yet - reaction to this then? the variant doesn't have a name yet but - reaction to this then? the variant doesn't have a name yet but thel doesn't have a name yet but the world health organization are meeting in emergency session tomorrow talking to south african officials and it's likely to get a name after the greek alphabet, it may be called the nu variant. but we will know well before christmas whether this is the next big twist in the pandemic, but the really vital messages that people should continue to get vaccinated because so far the vaccines have provided a high level of protection against all variants in terms of serious illness. so that is the best advice tonight. illness. so that is the best advice toni . ht. , illness. so that is the best advice toniaht. , . ., , illness. so that is the best advice toniaht. , ~ . , ., , ., tonight. fergus walsh, many thanks, our medical— tonight. fergus walsh, many thanks, our medical editor. _ in a moment we'll hear form our correspondent in south africa, andrew harding. but first let's talk to nick eardley at westminster. how concerned is the government about this?— how concerned is the government about this? , ., _, . about this? there is real concern in whitehall about _ about this? there is real concern in whitehall about this _ whitehall about this variant tonight. you heard it in the health
10:05 pm
secretary's voice in that clip you just played. he was speaking after the senior ministers got advice from senior scientific advisers about what they had found out and the level of concern in that meeting was such that ministers felt that they had to act immediately. speaking to others involved in the conversations today, it's clear there is real nervousness about where this variant might go. it's worth remembering that the red list, the final countries, were only removed from that list a month ago so it's also significant that six countries are being added back to it, even more significant that such is the urgency that ministers have said that they are suspending flights until hotel quarantine in england can come into place. it will come into place slightly earlier in scotland, from saturday morning. but the message from ministers is that this shows the pandemic is not over. it shows they are prepared to take urgent action to protect boarders after
10:06 pm
being criticised in the past for not acting quickly enough, but when it comes to restrictions here the message is also that that's not on the cards at the moment in terms of extra restrictions and that plan b that the government has in reserve. nick eardley at westminster, thank you. andrew in south africa, how well—equipped is south africa to deal with this new variant? goad deal with this new variant? good evening, clive. _ deal with this new variant? good evening, clive. pretty— deal with this new variant? good evening, clive. pretty well- evening, clive. pretty well equipped. scientists say it's almost like they are being punished for being so quick to spot and analyse this new variant and to raise the alarm. tonight those top scientists are working at a laboratory outside durban, trying to understand the mutations on this new variant. the one thing they do know is that it is extremely transmissible. it's spread far faster than previous variants during previous waves of infection here in south africa and they say that really is a cause for concern.
10:07 pm
even though as fergus was saying, we don't know whether or not this poses a significant threat in terms of people who have been vaccinated and so on. right now south africa seems to be on the cusp of a new wave of infections, its fourth wave, so that's an added concern. but tonight top scientists here telling me they are really not happy with these new red listings, with the board is going up. what they say south africa needsis going up. what they say south africa needs is more support, more help, more reward for the fact it's been so good at spotting these new variants, and helping the world deal with them. frustration too of course about levels of vaccination around africa, still hovering at three or four percent. that's a real concern if this variant spreads. here in south africa about two thirds of older people have been vaccinated and that is certainly a source of some encouragement. our africa correspondent, _ some encouragement. our africa
10:08 pm
correspondent, andrew - some encouragement. our africa correspondent, andrew harding, | correspondent, andrew harding, thanks for that injohannesburg. the government's latest coronavirus figures show there were more than 10,000 new infections recorded in the latest 24—hour period. on average, there were over 43,000 new cases reported per day in the last week. 147 deaths were recorded, that's of people who died within 28 days of a positive covid—i9 test, which means on average in the past week there were 125 covid—related deaths recorded every day. on vaccinations, more than 16.3 million people have had their boosterjab, which is 28.5% of the population aged over 12. there's added urgency to talks between the uk and france to combat people smuggling across the channel, after the deaths of 27 men, women and children yesterday when their small boat capsized. london and paris say they want the crossings to end. but how this may be achieved is farfrom clear. let's join my colleague, mishal husain, who's live in calais for us tonight.
10:09 pm
it may seem extraordinary given what happened in the waters just behind me here within the last 2a hours but today, more people set off from these very beaches to make that same crossing to the uk. they did so in the knowledge not only of the risks but of the deadly fate that had befallen some of those who went exactly this way only yesterday. our first report from calais is from our paris correspondent, lucy williamson. empty beach is a battleground between smugglers and police. translation: , ., , ., , translation: yesterday the tragedy hit calais, it was _ translation: yesterday the tragedy hit calais, it was a _ translation: yesterday the tragedy hit calais, it was a tragedy _ translation: yesterday the tragedy hit calais, it was a tragedy that - hit calais, it was a tragedy that was dreaded, that was foreseen and we have sounded the alarm on this several times, saying that the smugglers are becoming more and more careless. , ., , , ., , , ., careless. this tragedy stopped two nations in their _
10:10 pm
careless. this tragedy stopped two nations in their tracks. _ but on the channel today, it was business as usual. arrivals in kent this morning were loaded into a british double—decker bus. fearjust isn't enough to slow a trade greased by profit and fuelled by hope. the boats they came in on this flimsy and dangerous as the one that capsized yesterday. any puncture on boats like this can be fatal. the one found yesterday had deflated, the french interior minister said, deflated, the french interior ministersaid, like deflated, the french interior minister said, like a child's paddling pool. there are questions here now about whether it may have been hit by a container ship. this is where the boat is thought to have set off from on its journey to the uk yesterday. a local mayor told us the people smugglers here have become much more violent over the past year and the turf wars between them more vicious. some, he said, are now carrying guns.—
10:11 pm
them more vicious. some, he said, are now carrying guns. what happened esterda are now carrying guns. what happened yesterday was — are now carrying guns. what happened yesterday was a _ are now carrying guns. what happened yesterday was a dreadful _ are now carrying guns. what happened yesterday was a dreadful shock. - are now carrying guns. what happened yesterday was a dreadful shock. it - yesterday was a dreadful shock. it was not a surprise, but it is also a reminder of how vulnerable people are put at peril when in the hands of criminal gangs. there is also no quick fix. of criminal gangs. there is also no ruick fix. �* _, , of criminal gangs. there is also no ruick fix. �* , ., , quick fix. but could this tragedy have been _ quick fix. but could this tragedy have been stopped? _ quick fix. but could this tragedy have been stopped? in - quick fix. but could this tragedy have been stopped? in the uk i quick fix. but could this tragedy - have been stopped? in the uk today, suggestions that the french police should be doing more. france sent the message straight back. translation: we the message straight back. translation:— the message straight back. translation: ~ ., ., ., ., translation: we are asking for an increased involvement _ translation: we are asking for an increased involvement from - translation: we are asking for an increased involvement from the - increased involvement from the british because i would like to remind you that we are holding the border for remind you that we are holding the borderfor the british remind you that we are holding the border for the british and away and all these women and men do not want to see them in french. we offer it to see them in french. we offer it to them and all those that they are processed in centres around dunkirk and calais. , , , . and calais. five suspected smugglers thou~ht and calais. five suspected smugglers thought to be — and calais. five suspected smugglers thought to be linked _ and calais. five suspected smugglers thought to be linked to _ and calais. five suspected smugglers thought to be linked to the _ and calais. five suspected smugglers thought to be linked to the crossing l thought to be linked to the crossing have been arrested. france says it's
10:12 pm
dismantled more than a0 networks since the beginning of this year. so why isn't it having an effect? the chief smuggler — why isn't it having an effect? iie: chief smuggler lives in why isn't it having an effect? "tie: chief smuggler lives in london and they invest the money. i make one accusation to the english government. i say why you don't control the money of these gangs? in calais and dunkirk tonight people gathered to remember those who died. the cold a reminder of the conditions they faced. many migrants say they are still planning to cross. 27 people died here yesterday but the business that killed them lives on. lucy williamson, bbc news, calais. and in calais today, i've talked to local people who seem resigned to this happening night after night on their doorstep, who have little faith the situation — and the smugglers — can be controlled. and i've talked to some
10:13 pm
of those who have travelled thousands of miles to get here and hope to make it across to the uk. our europe correspondent nick beake has been inside a makeshift camp near dunkirk — to hear about their journey. beside an abandoned train track in northern france, families desperate to resume their own journey to the uk, despite the horror of the past 2a hours. for now, more than 500 people call this camp home. among them, new arrivals, this family from iraq. their family has grown in the three years they've been on the road, trudging through more than half a dozen countries to get here. romania, after hungary, after france, after the uk. but tonight, all six will sleep in this tent, and every night, until they risk the english channel.
10:14 pm
would you still be prepared to try and get a boat to the united kingdom? "we cannot survive here," she tells us. "we will freeze. we have to go to the uk." and you say you have travelled through lots of countries, including germany. now you're in france. why do you want to try and reach the united kingdom? "it's much betterforfamilies in the uk," she says, "and for keeping families together." this corner of northern france has witnessed these scenes and heard these sort of stories for more than 20 years now. it feels like a conveyor belt of misery, and this is a new generation, willing to risk everything to try and make it to the united kingdom. we meet a group of afghan men who say they fled the taliban this summer. this man wants to get to britain so his wife can follow, along with his three daughters, who can then continue their studies.
10:15 pm
have you tried to cross already on a boat? yeah, two times. and what happened? the boat was broken in the sea, - so the police came and took us out. we were all in the water. yeah, we nearly died. he then reveals he had briefly met two of those who died yesterday. i said to him, "0k, good luck to go, and i'm not going with you." - they said bye— bye. did it look like they were hopeful? i'm very sorry. the deaths of so many of their fellow travellers has numbed many here, but it's not changed where they want to go. nick beake, bbc news, dunkirk. the uk government said again today it wanted to be part ofjoint patrols with the french along this stretch of coastline. but president macron says action is needed before people get to northern france.
10:16 pm
so what are the options? our home editor mark easton has this analysis from dover. boatloads of desperation continue to wash up on kent's beaches. only a fraction of asylum seekers in europe choose the uk, but those that do are usually drawn by family links or an understanding of the english language. in the face of such resolve, what can be done to stop the smuggling gangs, in the prime minister's words, getting away with murder? uk politicians have argued more should be done to stop the small boats before they leave french beaches, but it's a huge challenge. the smugglers had been using about 50 kilometres of coastline to launch their dinghies, but that's recently extended to more than 200 kilometres. the gangs can buy an inflatable dinghy on the internet, drive to a quiet spot near the water's edge at dawn, and have their human cargo in the channel within minutes.
10:17 pm
stopping determined smugglers requires huge resources and huge commitment. the uk and france agree there should be greater cooperation, but the politics is complicated. the french today ruled out the idea of having british police or border force officers operating on their soil, saying it was a matter of national sovereignty. progress has been made, 20,000 crossings have been stopped so far this year. but we will continue to work with the french in partnership to ensure that we can avert tragedies, as we saw yesterday. once the dinghies are in the channel, the options become much more limited. spotter planes and patrol vessels can monitor the boats, but without the cooperation of those aboard, intervening at sea could be extremely dangerous. a uk tactic, trialled this year, is to push migrant boats back into french waters, but given yesterday's deaths, that's unlikely to be a solution. people who voted to take back control have every right to ask the question, if you can't protect the integrity of your borders,
10:18 pm
what can you control? police on both sides of the channel have been working to break the smugglers' chain. earlier this month, french and uk officers arrested 18 people for supplying boats to the smuggling gangs. we've got to improve our law- enforcement here because the people smugglers, the traffickers, have got a real hold - on these desperate people. we need to break that. the government's long—term solution to stopping the people smugglers is reform of the asylum system, penalising those who come to the uk by unauthorised routes. they've already introduced rules of inadmissibility for migrants deemed to have come from a safe country like france. despite that, figures released today indicate asylum applications at their highest level for six years, at 37,000. they also show the home office notified 6,500 migrants they could face deportation under the inadmissibility rules. butjust a third of cases have been resolved, of which only a8 people were ruled inadmissible, and just ten migrants have been removed.
10:19 pm
the government's reforms aren't going to work, they aren't going to be able to demonstrate that people should be sent back to another so—called safe country. what the government needs to do is recognise that you can't just shut this border. there are no easy answers to the challenges of international migration, of people on the move, but progress can be prompted by a moment when the human trumps the strategic. this may be one of those moments. mark easton, bbc news, dover. we'll hear from our europe editor in a moment, but first live to westminster and our political correspondent chris mason. is there now new thinking about how to solve this, chris? good evening. the prime minister has written to the — good evening. the prime minister has written to the french _ good evening. the prime minister has written to the french president - good evening. the prime minister has written to the french president this i written to the french president this evening after the telephone call last night saying unless there is joint action on both sides, there will be further tragedy will stop so what is he suggesting? he is suggesting joint patrols in boats in
10:20 pm
the channel, joint patrols in the air over the channel and also joint patrols on the french side come on french beaches involving the uk border force and french authorities, something that has been resisted by the french on sovereignty rounds because it is their land. boris johnson saying those patrols could begin as soon as next week. the other big thing he wants is what is known as a returns policy, in other words, that those people who arrive on small boats are taken straight back. he wants an agreement in the long term with the european union. in the shorter term with france. but the relationship between the uk and the relationship between the uk and the eu, particularly the uk and france has been scratchy, hasn't it, overfishing amongst other things as the two sides try and work out a relationship after brexit. at the weekend the home secretary will meet her opposite numbers from france and germany, the netherlands and belgium. the prime minister offering upgrade that to a leaders summit. the simple truth, though, is finding a solution here will not be easy.
10:21 pm
governments of all sorts of colours on both sides of the channel have been working on this for years and have yet to arrive at a solution. chris, thank you very much. our europe editor katya adler is with me now. that was the view from westminster. how does france see this situation? france has said no again to the uk offer_ france has said no again to the uk offer of— france has said no again to the uk offer of having joint patrols on its beaches — offer of having joint patrols on its beaches or — offer of having joint patrols on its beaches or its waters. it says this is a national— beaches or its waters. it says this is a national sovereignty issue and it says _ is a national sovereignty issue and it says the — is a national sovereignty issue and it says the prime minister should understand that on the back of brexit — understand that on the back of brexit. the eu is accusing the prime minister— brexit. the eu is accusing the prime minister of— brexit. the eu is accusing the prime minister of being so keen to distance _ minister of being so keen to distance himself from brussels after brexit— distance himself from brussels after brexit that he didn't agree some kind of— brexit that he didn't agree some kind of migration pact that could have _ kind of migration pact that could have been useful now. but basically, all this— have been useful now. but basically, all this cross—channel sniping on the back— all this cross—channel sniping on the back of— all this cross—channel sniping on the back of this tragic loss of life yesterday— the back of this tragic loss of life yesterday comes down to this, it is difficult _ yesterday comes down to this, it is difficult to — yesterday comes down to this, it is difficult to cooperate on such a sensitive — difficult to cooperate on such a sensitive issue if there is little trust. — sensitive issue if there is little trust. and _ sensitive issue if there is little trust, and that is the case after those _ trust, and that is the case after those difficult brexit negotiations and post— those difficult brexit negotiations and post brexit rows as well. so
10:22 pm
that's _ and post brexit rows as well. so that's one — and post brexit rows as well. so that's one thing. but emmanuel macron— that's one thing. but emmanuel macron doesn'tjust see that's one thing. but emmanuel macron doesn't just see this as a bilateral— macron doesn't just see this as a bilateral issue with the uk, he sees this as _ bilateral issue with the uk, he sees this as a _ bilateral issue with the uk, he sees this as a pan—european problem. he says look. _ this as a pan—european problem. he says look, these asylum seekers and others _ says look, these asylum seekers and others who— says look, these asylum seekers and others who come to calais to cross over to _ others who come to calais to cross over to the — others who come to calais to cross over to the uk haven'tjust others who come to calais to cross over to the uk haven't just appeared from nowhere. they will have crossed other— from nowhere. they will have crossed other european union countries to -et other european union countries to get here _ other european union countries to get here and he wants help from brussels — get here and he wants help from brussels. brussels is all too familiar— brussels. brussels is all too familiar with irregular migration issues _ familiar with irregular migration issues at — familiar with irregular migration issues at its borders. remember the migration— issues at its borders. remember the migration crisis of 2015. but it is also _ migration crisis of 2015. but it is also very— migration crisis of 2015. but it is also very familiar with the complete inability— also very familiar with the complete inability until now of all member states— inability until now of all member states to — inability until now of all member states to agree on what they should do together. states to agree on what they should do together-— states to agree on what they should do together. katya adler, thank you very much- — well, here in calais it has been a day of sorrow and remembrance, there was a vigilfor the day of sorrow and remembrance, there was a vigil for the 27 people who died as they tried to make it to the uk from here. but there is also this overwhelming sense from many people that you talk to, those who have seen this kind of thing happen for many, many years already, that there is a weariness, in frustration, even a hopelessness at how intractable
10:23 pm
all of this appears, and the chances of truly being able to resolve it. clive, back to you. mishal husain, many thanks for that. mishal husain, many thanks for that. mishal husain, many thanks for that. mishal husain in calais. let's take a look at some of the day's other top stories. reports from russia say 52 people are now known to have died in a siberian coal mine, after a fire broke out. rescue efforts had to be suspended, because of the risk of an explosion, from high levels of methane gas. the national trust will no longer issue licences for trail hunting on its land, after trust members voted to ban it. trail hunting involves leaving a trail of fox scent for hounds to follow, but has been used as a "smokescreen" for illegal fox hunting. the countryside alliance, which campaigns for field sports including hunting, says the national trust is "picking and choosing acceptable legal activities," on its land. manchester united is close to appointing a new interim manager, on a six—month contract.
10:24 pm
the german, ralf rangnick is poised to take over, but won't be in charge this weekend, as he awaits a work permit. united sacked their previous head coach, ole gunnar solskjaer last sunday, after a string of poor results. this magnificent mosaic has been discovered in a muddy farmer's field in rutland, in the east midlands. it was found by the farmer's son while out walking during the lockdown. the mosaic depicts a scene from homer's epic poem, the iliad, and although a handful like it have been unearthed in other parts of europe, it's the first of its kind ever discovered in the uk. the site has now been granted protection following a recommendation from historic england. our midlands correspondent phil mackie has been to meet the man who stumbled upon a piece of history. hidden for more than a millennium and a half — a mosaic so rare, nothing like it's ever been found in the uk before, and it's part of a much bigger roman villa complex from the third or fourth centuries.
10:25 pm
excavations were carried out this summer in a farmer's field in rutland, but the discovery was made in 2020 by the farmer's son, jim irvine. it was amazing, really. i mean, the level of preservation. he found some pottery fragments, then checked satellite imagery and noticed the outline of what looked like ancient buildings. and this is the the mosaics in this section, all of this... so the family came back on a sunny day with some spades and started digging. you can only tell so much from a map and from some crop marks. until you actually dig a hole, you don't really know what's in it, so that was a good day out. we didn't really know what we had. so i expanded the hole up a bit until we came across what was obviously rare roman mosaic tiles, at which point things went a bit silent in the group and we realised what we had. late roman pottery gives us a date of third, fourth century ad... the university of leicester, provided the archaeologists, who've removed some artefacts for study.
10:26 pm
it's the most complicated and complete plan of a roman villa we've found. but the icing on the cake really is this fantastic mosaic. it's so unique and it really emphasises how important this place was. what well, the mosaic�*s been covered up again, it's back beneath the soil — that's for its own protection. but it's hoped — at least it's hoped byjim — that at some point in the future, it could be uncovered again so that people can come and see it for themselves. i would really like people to be able to do that. in fact, i'm going to order my toga and sandals when i get back so i can show people around! the best way to preserve this archaeology is to preserve it in situ, which is where it is now, and it can be opened up occasionally for people to look at in future generations. they've only excavated a tiny part of the site so far, so there could be many more discoveries in the digging seasons to come. phil mackie, bbc news, rutland. that's it. now on bbc one, time
10:27 pm
for the news where you are. hello there. it's been a quiet day today, but the first named storm of the season will be looming large by this time tomorrow. it's quite cold at the moment ahead of this cloud and rain that's going to be sweeping its way southwards overnight, showers then following on behind, the winds strengthening as well. but ahead of all that, the temperatures still could be close to freezing in the southeast of england first thing in the morning. the cloud and rain then moves its way southwards across england and wales. sunshine follows, showers, some heavy, but we'll find those showers turning wintry in northern ireland. some snow over higher ground in northern parts of scotland, blizzards as well because the winds really starting to ramp up by this stage. temperatures may be a little bit higher than today, but the winds will be stronger. and it's going to be storm arwen that sweeps some gales widely down across the uk later friday and into saturday. may well be some snow over some northern hills. some disruption can be expected. the strongest of the winds where we have this amber wind warning from the met office — eastern scotland, northeast england. gusts of 75 miles an hour.
10:28 pm
10:29 pm
this is bbc news. our latest headlines... britain is banning travellers from six countries in southern africa because of concerns about a new coronavirus variant. on the south coast of england scientists in south africa have described the heavily—mutated variant as a definite cause for concern. the united nations says the deaths of 27 people, who drowned in the english channel, could have been avoided. the un refugee agency says closing off legal routes to asylum—seekers leads to more dangerous attempts to reach safe countries. more people have arrived
10:30 pm

45 Views

info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on