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tv   Click - Short Edition  BBC News  November 21, 2021 7:30pm-7:46pm GMT

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hello, this is bbc news. the headlines: belgian police fire water cannon and tear gas at around 35,000 protesters in brussels marching against coronavirus restrictions. 0le gunnar solskjaer has been sacked as manchester united's manager after three years, following a had run of results. the taxi driver from the liverpool terror attack says it's a "miracle" he is alive, and thanks the public for their "amazing generosity". missing chinese tennis star peng shuai is reported to have said she's safe and well in a call with olympic officials.
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the queen has celebrated the double christening of her two great—grandsons in a private ceremony in windsor. coming up in a moment on bbc news, it's sportsday — but first, it's click. on this programme, we see a lot of really useful technology, but some things are just solutions looking for problems. the first obvious place for vr was gaming, but once the technology had proved that it was properly immersive, we started to see signs that it really could take us
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to real places. it could put us in all sorts of situations, including education and even medicine. and sometimes, technology turns out to be most useful where you least expect it. i've seen vr used to help people overcome phobias. you've seen it used to teach students how to do surgery. but this has to be the most powerful use of vr i have ever seen. six—month—old archie was born with sagittal synostosis. you are a happy boy, aren't you? a condition where a baby's growth lines in the skull fuse too early. this means as the brain grows, the skull can't grow sideways to accommodate it, so it expands front and back, distorting the head shape. oh, that was nice! while it is not life—threatening, it leaves parents like amanda and judd faced with a difficult decision as to whether they opt
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for the risks of surgery or let nature take its course, with the physical and psychological impacts that follow. it's been quite overwhelming, hasn't it? like, there's been a lot of appointments and a lot of time away. so, when offered the chance to be the first to use a groundbreaking new ai platform that predicts the outcome of the operation in virtual reality, theyjumped at the chance. you are able to see your own child's condition or your own child's heart or head projected into this virtual environment, with a full feeling of what will happen in terms of the treatment to your own child. i've come here to great 0rmond street hospital tojoin the family for their consultation where, for the first time, they're going to get to see the virtual reality.
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you're about to see now what will hopefully be the final result. how are you feeling? excited. and obviously, there is always that worry about what he is going to have done. archie babbles. and that's what he thinks of it! you will be placed in - an immersive world and you're going to be able to| interact with things using the controllers. so here is archie's skull as it stands now that we have done the reconstruction using the ct scan. and as you can see, this is the side view. we've got the forehead here, the back of the head here, and these lines are the sutures — the ones that are working still, the growth lines. so the way we do the surgery is we make a small window in the bone, here. the algorithms needed to create these images have been made possible by the harnessing of data from 60 operations over
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the course of the last seven years. so here, the grey is the head shape as it's now, the green is the predicted head shape, so the first change that you can see is that the back of his head which, at the moment is sloping down, is pushed up a little and there's a more regular curvature to it. this immersive experience allows the parents to see from all angles a truly personalised picture of exactly how archie's head can be reshaped with surgery. would you like us to suggest anything about the head shape that you would like to see done differently? no, i think it's the back of the head that we are noticing the most. indeed, and that you should see within a week or two of surgery... wow, 0k. ..you can see the back going in. and, having confirmed their decision to go ahead,
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within a few weeks, the big day arrived. the theatre is just being prepared as, in a few minutes, archie is coming into his surgery where a spring like this is going to be inserted into his skull through a small cut. it will immediately expand and start to change the shape of his head, and then continue to do so over the next four weeks. at that point, it can be removed. invented by drjeelani 13 years ago, this technique has reduced operation time from three hours to a0 minutes, cut blood transfusions by 90% and provides more predictable outcomes. 0k, spring engaged. and it's that predictability that's made the data usable for visualisations with 90% accuracy. so we have just finished. the surgery�*s gone really well. the springs are in, we've seen an expansion on the table and we should meet our predictions over the
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next few weeks. what we've seen here is being created for one particular condition, but it could be applied to many different types of surgery in the future. what we have shown here is essentially proof of principle — that if you take a condition, an art form, make it granular enough that you can study it and put it on engineering and ai platforms, then you can actually predict the future with a reasonable degree of accuracy. what i would like to see as a surgeon in ten, perhaps 20 years' time, is that most surgeries — most surgical practice is done this way, where the control and the power is very much given to the parents and the patients. two weeks on from surgery and we visited archie and his family. we're quite relieved that we are over the other side now. archie's doing really well. so we've been told that obviously now he's had it done, there shouldn't be any concerns with development and things, so we're really with how it went. happy
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but having the opportunity of doing the vr really, really sort of reassured us that we were doing the right thing. i know that was something that did cross our mind at first, but being able to actually see the before and after was quite a relief of that pressure, wasn't it? it lifted that weight off our shoulders so, yeah, we're happy. the lost city of pompeii was destroyed by an eruption of mount vesuvius in the first century. while a lot of the site was remarkably preserved, many details of life here were lost, including some of the colourful frescoes of the buildings. above the main site is the cacina rustica, a storage place for thousands of fragments of two frescoes destroyed in the initial eruption and damaged further by bombing in world war ii. how many pieces do you think are here?
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i think here we get 10,000 pieces of fragments at the moment. this is only a little part because in other storerooms we have more and more in a box that never studied before. the fragments come in all sorts of sizes, from tiny bits of rubble to big pieces. so no—one knows exactly how these frescoes look like. there are lots of missing pieces. it's not like an ordinary puzzle. there will be a lot of holes in this fresco. these are three—dimensional pieces which are flat on one side. 0n the flat side, there is usually some decoration, some colour, and there is a kind of a three—dimensional structure, and these pieces do not match exactly, so it's a very difficult and challenging problem. the puzzle has remained unsolved for decades, and now, a team led by the ca' foscari university of venice, will create a robotic system
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to analyse and eventually piece together the frescoes. called repair, or reconstructing the past: artificial intelligence and robotics meet cultural heritage, it's the first time machine learning and artificial intelligence techniques will be used to take on a project of this scale. the robot is scanning a piece of fresco using polarised lenses and so, at the end of the process, the piece will be scanned in 3d. with the same infrastructure and the same type of technology, we can also scan the same piece using hyperspectral sensors that are able to collect information that the human eyes cannot see. this information includes the residual colours of pigments used by the romans which cannot be seen with the naked eye. what we can see here is basically, the light coming from our object at different wavelengths.
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we can select the wavelength that we want to look at, and this amount gave us initial information of our material of oursample. different points on the objects can be selected to examine closely, with information given about similarities and differences between pixels in the image. once all of the information is collected, an algorithm will suggest how it thinks the pieces fit together and what's missing, and run it past a human expert. if this works, i think it will have a huge potential in future projects, both in pompeii and elsewhere, for not only wall paintings but also pottery fragments, which is the majority of finds during most excavations. and there is a huge potential in reconstructing and, yeah, analysing these finds.
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the final piece of the puzzle is a robot that will be built to be able to handle and reconstruct the frescoes using soft hands. the robot will pick up with its hands all the fragments, grasping every single pieces, and i think this kind of robotic colleague is like — maybe internet before 19 years. yes! now it's new and i hope it will be very usual and common for us in the future to have this kind of help. how interesting was that? absolutely. that wasjen in pompeii. that is it for the shortcut of click. the full—length version is waiting for you right now on iplayer. as ever, you can keep up with the team on social media. find us on youtube, instagram, facebook, and twitter at @bbcclick. thanks for watching. we'll see you soon. bye— bye.
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hello and welcome to sportsday. i'm gavin ramjaun. no longer at the wheel. manchester united focus on life after 0le gunnar solskjaer, who was was sacked today, following their poor run of form. a rocket from rodri! city are slick at the etihad — they blow away everton, to keep the pressure on at the top. and dominant in the desert — lewis hamilton closes in on max verstappen, as the fi season gets set for a grandstand finish.
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hello and welcome to sportsday. good evening. plenty to come on the programme. but we start with the big news concerning manchester united, who this morning sacked their manager 0le gunnar solskjaer. the move follows yesterday's 4—1 defeat at watford. solskjaer had been in charge for almost three years, but the club has suffered a string of poor results, and are currently seventh in the premier league. jane dougall reports. this has been a dark and dismal day for him and manchester united football club. even he seemed to know this would be his last game in charge. a club legend like 0le gunnar solskjaer could have been forgiven for losing 4—1 to watford but after so many other disappointing results, the patience of the fans had been pushed to their limits. the boys are in a terrible place in their heads right now. of course they are disappointed. they've let themselves down, we have let ourselves down. and the fans down. it's hard to stand there and explain that but that's football. anyway, we have to
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take the flak for it. the manner in which they lost left even the players bemused. it was embarrassing for me, to be honest. it is unacceptable for this club, the level of players that we have. so it is another nightmare. it prompted crisis talks with club owners, the glazerfamily, and manchester united fans woke up to the news that their manager had gone. finally. finally, 0le out. i think it was always going to happen. he started off well. at the start and then obviously the last seven - of games he's only won two. he spent all that money and he's just not good enough so a change is necessary, isn't it? many had wished for him to succeed. as a player he helped the team on the way to winning the treble in 1999, his famous late goal in the champions league final cementing him as a cult hero. and that was acknowledged by the club. they said...

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