this is bbc news. welcome if you're watching here in the uk, or around the globe. i'm rich preston. our top stories: hearing no objections, it is so decided. after two weeks of intense negotiations at the global climate summit, world leaders have agreed a deal — but does it go far enough? the agreement means countries must strengthen their targets to cut emissions for 2030. but a last minute intervention from india waters down the commitment to phase out coal, the dirtiest fossil fuel — leaving many deeply disappointed. un secretary—general antonio guterres calls the final agreement an important step, but questions if it's enough to avoid what he calls "climate catastrophe."
in other news, belarus says it's stepping up humanitarian aid for migrants trapped on its border, but the european union says belarus is playing politics. at least 68 people have been killed in deadly clashes between rival drugs gangs in a prison in ecuador. the un climate summit in glasgow has adopted a new agreement called the glasgow climate pact aimed at curbing global warming. but many say the deal is a disappointment. the summit�*s british president has apologised for the way the process unfolded, but said the agreement would keep within reach the goal of limiting temperature rises to 1.5 degrees. many countries say the final text has been watered down, and the un secretary—general
said the world was still knocking on the door of a climate catastrophe. our science editor david shukman has this analysis. hearing no objections, it is so decided. relief after a long and stressful fortnight. the conference faced challenges right to the end. the day began with confusion and uncertainty. a delivery of what looks like pizza boxes. in fact, documents for the un secretary—general. a great deal was at stake. we have had two incredibly intense weeks of negotiations in glasgow, and we arrive at what i believe is the moment of truth, and this is the moment of truth for our planet, and a moment of truth for our children and our grandchildren. negotiators broke up into huddles, a rare glimpse of bargaining that normally happens behind closed doors. the american envoyjohn kerry with china's chief negotiator, arguing line by line about fossilfuels. china and india are worried about slowing down their development.
how can anyone expect developing countries to make promises about phasing out coal and fossil fuel subsidies? developing countries have still to deal with the development agendas and poverty eradication. then alok sharma, the conference chair, began his own shuttle diplomacy, first trying to persuade the chinese to support the agreement, next checking in with the americans, and then with the indian delegation. in the end, one of the biggest obstacles in these talks was over the future of coal. the early draft had talked about phasing out this dirtiest of fossil fuels, but after a last—minute flurry negotiations, that was changed to phasing down. it sounds like a minor alteration, and indeed, many are asking what it means. coal is the biggest single source of greenhouse gas, but countries that depend on it managed to get the agreement watered down, which left others very unhappy. let us be clear, we do not need
to phase down, but to phase out coal and fossil fuel subsidies. we know full well that coal has no future, and this is what we are working on with our own plans to put an end to coal in europe in the foreseeable future. it is also vital that we protect this package. | faced with all of this, alok sharma's emotions got the better of him. were things going wrong? but enough countries were reluctantly giving their support. we do so only, and i really want to stress, only because there are critical elements of this package that people in my country need as a lifeline for the future. history has been made here in glasgow. that is for others to judge. when we see of the pledges made here to reduce emissions
and to boost aid to the poorest nations have actually delivered for years to come. at the heart of the two weeks of talks was the aim of keeping temperatures as close to i.5c above pre—industrial levels as possible, to avoid the worst effects of climate change. so what sort of impact will the agreement have on global temperatures and on the way we all live? here's our science correspondent, rebecca morelle. piece by piece, after two weeks of intense negotiations, uniting people from all over the world, a plan for the future of our planet has come together. but will it stop temperatures rising over 1.5 degrees? at the start of the conference, every country submitted plans to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and scientists have been crunching the numbers. global temperatures
are already 1.1 degrees over pre—industrial levels. if every nation carries out its long—term pledges, we get to 1.8 degrees. but if you look at what countries are actually doing, the more likely outcome is 2.4 degrees. this is more progress on climate than we've seen before. but, in an absolute sense, we are miles and miles away from where we need to be, and we are still on course for really catastrophic warming. the glasgow conference clearly hasn't solved the problem, but will some aspects of what's happened here keep 1.5 alive? coal, the most polluting fossil fuel, will be reduced but not phased out. some nations will cut methane, a potent greenhouse gas. tackling deforestation has been promised, too. and importantly, countries are being asked to return next year with better plans to cut emissions. we need these governments to really come back with an honest action. notjust empty pledges, not just about net zero by 2050, but the actions that they're going to take in the short term.
so, how will the glasgow agreement affect all of us? how are our lives going to change? ultimately, this will impact everything from how we get around to the food we eat and how we heat our homes. but this will take time. 0ur fragile planet is already changing, and while there has been progress in glasgow and 1.5 degrees hasn't been lost, it will take a monumental effort to stop temperatures from rising above that. rebecca morelle, bbc news, glasgow. harjeet singh is a senior advisor for climate action network international. he's been part of the negotiations in glasgow but told me the outcome is disappointing. this deal clearly doesn't go far enough and in fact fails to respond to the urgency
of climate action and doesn't affect ambition or even balance, because poor people as you must be hearing are not happy because they have not got any support to recover from climate impacts they are already facing or what we call loss and damage under the un terminology. your work focuses on developing countries in particular, what would many of these countries liked to have seen in this final agreement? we have been calling for a balance between mitigation and adaptation finance which means $50 billion must go to adaptation, we have to recognise the fact that markets don't provide money for adaptation, so $100 billion becomes really important for developing nations and 50% at least should go for adaptation, and the current level of financing is about $20 billion a year and that, the doubling of that has been agreed but pushed to 2025, which means that by 2025, developing countries are going to get only $40 billion a year and this is a long—pending demand of keeping it at the level of at least $50 billion a year. plus, they don't get any support from the system
to recover from climate impacts and there was a major demand from developing countries to set up a glasgow loss and damage facility which has been brushed aside by rich nations. arguably a vague deal is better than no deal and one of the key points of this agreement is that countries will meet more often, certainly more often than once every five years. what is your take on that? well, that is something positive, only if countries come every year with increased targets and more financing for developing countries so that they can also enhance their target.
so that has been mentioned and even now in the next 12 months when we go to egypt for the next conference, they have been asked to revise their targets upwards. there was this conversation about phasing down coal rather than phasing out but the phasing down came from developing countries, so isn't it the case that developing countries could also be doing more themselves? well, we have to talk about equity, we have to talk about fair shares. developing countries are least responsible for the crisis that we are facing. current crisis is because of the historical emissions by the global market by rich nations and the reality is that developing countries are not getting financial support to make that transition and that is exactly what india was calling for, that we will phase down and we need support and that language was inserted and we also have two recognise that 100 million people in india still do not have access to electricity. 0ne quarter of the population
still lives with poverty, so with those challenges, india needs timespace and support and that has not been provided, and another important thing i must mention, when we talk about fossil fuels, it is notjust about coal, it is also about oil and gas but rich nations only focused on coal because they continue to drill oil and gas in their own backyard, so it is not a balanced agreement where we just push developing countries on coal and not bring in oil and gas in the same paragraph that has been agreed. some countries have voiced dismay at a last—minute change backed by india, which waters down commitments on getting rid of coal. the climate activist greta thunberg is also not impressed with the outcome at cop26. she tweeted to say...
john ashton is a former british diplomat who was the uk's special representative on climate change between 2006 and 2012. this is his assessment of the summit. you have to be very cautious in the heat of the moment, when the print is — the ink is not yet dry before offering sort of lapidary commentary on it, particularly when you are inside the room, when you have been in a kind of bubble for the past two weeks, but even when you are 400 miles away, like i am, you need to digest it and, above all, i think the proof of this agreement will not be in what any of us say today or tomorrow or next week, it will be in what unfolds as a result of it, leveraged by it over the next few months leading up to the next cop, but there are some things you can say. number one, i completely understand the anger and disappointment of those countries who are already being devastated by climate change — a problem that they have done least of all in the world to cause and which they are least
well—equipped to deal with — and i think they came to glasgow hoping that there would be some recognition of their predicament and the beginning of a mechanism to help them deal with those consequences. and i think the outcome on what is called loss and damage, a mechanism that would have provided that help, is well below what anybody can be proud of. and by accepting it at the end, i think if anybody wants to say that this cop was a success, it owes more to those countries than it does to any of the other players. other news now. belarus says it's stepping up the provision of aid to migrants trapped on the border with poland. poland says belarus is provoking a surge in people trying to cross in to the european union as revenge for eu sanctions.
it says belarusian security forces tried to break part of a borderfence in an attempt to let some of those people through. some 2,000 people — many of them iraqi kurds — are camped on the belarusian side of the frontier. 0ur correspondent steve rosenberg sent this report from inside belarus, close to the polish border. winter is coming in belarus, so at the migrant camp, they're gathering whatever they can to build some shelter. but for the people camping out, there is little protection and no—one knows how long they're going to be here. we can't stay more, because the weather is too cold — people may die here from cold. so, you'll have to go back to your country, no? never. we never go back. better to die here, no go back to our country.
poland is so close. they're living on the eu's doorstep. poland now has 15,000 troops in this area guarding europe's border. these people have come to belarus with one aim — to try to use this country to get to europe. and look how close they've got — the european union is almost within touching distance. but, as you can see, poland is determined not to let them through. many of these people are from the middle east. the eu has accused belarus of facilitating theirjourney here, of bringing them to the border to pressure europe. belarus denies that. as for the migrants, they are desperate to leave here. we want to go. we don't want to stay here. where do you want to go? europe, or us, or canada — don't matter.
belarusian police are trying to keep order... go back! please, go back! ..but there has been a delivery of humanitarian aid. this is what happens when you're hungry and cold. well, this is the chaos of the migrant camp. aid is being distributed — in this case, blankets and clothes — and people are desperate to receive it. the police are struggling to maintain control. they're telling people to get down while the aid is being given out. sit down! for these people, at this moment, their priority isn't europe, it's survival. steve rosenberg, bbc news, on the border of belarus and poland. a doctors' group in sudan says security forces have killed five protesters attending mass pro—democracy demonstrations. these are the latest pictures.
tens of thousands of people angry at last month's military coup have been rallying in towns and cities across sudan. 0ur correspondent sally nabil is in khartoum. protesters here are chanting slogans against their military rulers. they stand against the coup that was staged by the army last october and they want to have a civilian government in place. on our way here, we have seen a heavy security presence in different parts of the capital. we have also seen some streets and bridges closed. just a short while ago, security forces arrived here and tear—gassed some of the protesters, but they have managed to regroup. the political scene here at the moment is quite complicated. the head of the now—dissolved civilian government, mr abdalla hamdok, is still under house arrest. we've see many of the protesters here holding his pictures. some other politicians are still behind bars, too.
what infuriated the crowds here even more is the step taken lately by sudan's army chief, abdel fattah al—burhan. he has decided to lead a new ruling sovereign council, which includes army generals and civilians he has picked. the people here feel he's just ignoring them, he's not listening. translation: we want - abdel fattah al-burhan to stop creating divisions in this country and to leave office. we want a civilian rule. translation: we are fed up with military rule! - we have had enough of them! the military has done no good to any arab country! as you can see, there are clouds of smoke here as a result of car tyres being burned currently. public anger is rising here and western pressure is growing on military leaders to hand over power to a civilian government.
western countries have also called for the release of all political detainees but so far, the army generals seem to be proceeding with their own plans, despite local and international pressure. sudan is now standing at a crossroads and the path to the future is quite uncertain. in ecuador, police reinforcements have been the husband of nazanin zaghari ratcliffe has ended is hunger strike. , ., , , strike. his wife was first “ailed strike. his wife was first jailed in _ strike. his wife was first jailed in tow _ strike. his wife was first jailed in tow run - strike. his wife was first jailed in tow run in - strike. his wife was first jailed in tow run in 2015 | strike. his wife was first i jailed in tow run in 2015 on spain charges which she has always denied. he had been on hunger strike for three weeks, at whitehall, demanding the government does more to secure his wife's release. in ecuador, police
reinforcements have been sent in to secure an infamous prison, after another deadly riot started by rival gangs. at least 68 people have been killed and more than two—dozen injured, in the latest violence, as fighting intensifies between warring drug cartels. courtney bembridge reports. family and friends of the inmates gathered outside the prison, desperate for information. a list of victims was taped to a post, while others learned what happened through harrowing footage and photos shared on social media. dozens of prisoners were killed in the clashes, which started on friday evening and lasted for almost eight hours. police eventually forced their way in and found guns and explosives. authorities say it started as a territorial dispute between rival gangs after one of the ringleaders was released early. translation: as this section of the prison l was without a ringleader,
other gangs tried to subdue them, to enter to carry out a total massacre. there are approximately 700 prisoners in that part of the prison. just two months ago at this same prison, there was another deadly riot. soldiers had to be brought in to help take back control of the complex. it was the worst month for gang—related violence in ecuador�*s history, and the government says it needs international support to combat the growing influence of powerful drug cartels. courtney bembridge, bbc news. the south african novelist, wilbur smith, has died at the age of 88. he wrote more than 40 novels, starting with when the lion feeds, in 1964. it spawned a 19—book series following the fictional courtney family from the 1660s to the 1900s. thousands of people took to the streets of santiago on saturday to celebrate
chilean pride, demanding equal rights and an end to violence against the country's lbgt community. 0rganisers of the colourful event called on chile to legalise same sex marriage and the adoption of children by same—sex couples. civil unions have been legal in the south american country since 2015, but promised legislation for full marriage status has stalled since that milestone. every year it's one of the longest avian migrations in the world — around 80,000 godwits leave their breeding grounds in the alaskan arctic, across the pacific ocean before settling in new zealand for summer in the southern hemispehere. now, thanks to radio transmitters, experts can track exactly where the birds are and how long they fly for. and this year not only has the longest flight ever by a land bird been recorded but one godwit was forced to make a dramatic u—turn back to alaska, after 57 hours of non stop flying. earlier i spoke to the manager
of the pukorokoro miranda shorebird centre, on new zealand's north island, keith woodley, about these incredible journeys. they are astonishing birds. they breed in alaska and they migrate to new zealand every year. and in order to make these non—stop flights, they have got to do some pretty amazing things. certainly, they have got to be able to navigate, they have got to be able to find their way, but also do things like double their weight before they depart. they go through various changes within their bodies before the migration flights as well so not only are they making these huge flights, but they are doing some remarkable things in order to make those flights. do we understand how these birds navigate over this incredible journey? the consensus seems to be they are following a number of cues like magnetic fields, the stars, the sun and the moon presumably, and they also seem to have a very good sense of where they are. the one thing this tracking has shown is that when birds
are drifting off their optimal course by maybe persistent winds, after a period of time, when the conditions are ok, they can clearly adjust and change their direction and get back onto a heading for where they were originally going for, so they know where they are and they know how to get to where they need to go. you mentioned changing direction and we mentioned in the introduction one bird seemed to turn back to alaska after already flying for 57 hours. do we know why that bird would have done that? it would have struck some very, very strong headwinds early in thejourney and just decided, "well, enough of that!" and went back to alaska, where it stayed for about 11 days before setting off again. but it was not actually able to make the full flight to new zealand this time around, either. it struck weather conditions further south on its track and landed on new caledonia, where it spent the next few weeks. so it made two attempts this
year to get here non—stop. the interesting thing is the same bird last year also stopped on new caledonia, so three attempts in two years and the bird never quite made that flight — although it is now back with us — it has left new caledonia and it is now here. you have been studying the birds for 30 years. what changes have you noticed and what do you predict because of things like climate change? the big change i have noticed in the number of godwits — the population we are talking about has essentially halved in that time and the main driver of that has been loss of habitat at the staging sides in east asia, around the yellow sea. massive habitat loss there has led to these declined population in notjust godwits but many other shorebirds. but looking ahead, climate change is going to affect these birds everywhere you look. rising sea levels, where you have hard edges, will reduce the area of intertidal flats where the birds forage. you've got changing temperatures on the tundra, on the arctic tundra,
which brings forward the food source a lot earlier than the birds are used to. changing vegetation patterns on the tundra as well. that is it from us. bye—bye for now. hello there. part one of the weekend was a little bit dull for many of us. we held onto cloudy skies, sunshine was limited. it's going to be pretty similar, i think, for sunday with limited sunshine, a lot of cloud around and there will be some rain as well — particularly across the north—west of the uk, closer to this area of low pressure and its weather front. but further south, it's higher pressure, barely any isobars, so the winds will be light. but it's still going to be relatively mild for the time of year, particularly towards the western side of the country, as we draw up this south—westerly breeze. now, we start sunday morning off on a rather cloudy note. there could be a little bit of sunshine, too, but also some mist and fog patches to watch out for. i think into the afternoon, much of england and wales should tend to see more holes
breaking in the cloud with some sunny spells. a few showers across the south—east there, but the wettest and breeziest of the weather will be across the north and west of scotland, perhaps north—western parts of northern ireland. 11—14 degrees — pretty mild — but we could see 15 degrees for belfast. now, as we head through sunday night, that weather front in the north—west begins to sink southwards and eastwards but as it's running into an area of high pressure, it will begin to fizzle out, so the rain will get lighter. there will be some heavier bursts on it, i think, during sunday night. those temperatures range from around 6—11 degrees. so this weather front will be sinking slowly south—eastwards, almost grinding to a halt. as it pushes into that area of high pressure, it will fizzle out through the day. so we start off with some patchy rain for southern scotland, just pushing into parts of north west england, north west wales, but you can see it fades away and just leaves no more than a band of cloud. behind it, skies brighten for scotland and northern ireland — just a few blustery showers but a much better day. and further south and east, it's another rather cloudy one for much of england and wales — limited sunshine once again. temperatures 11—12,
maybe 13 degrees. as we move through the rest of the week, it stays mild or even turns very mild at times, particularly across southern areas, and most of the wind and the rain will be confined to the north of the uk, as you can see here. as we run through tuesday into wednesday, it's low pressure to the north of the uk which will bring these spells of wetter and windy weather. further south, closer to this area of high pressure, this is where we will see the lighter winds and the more settled conditions. but you'll see how mild it is — temperatures reaching the mid—teens at times, particularly across southern areas. quite a bit of cloud around, limited sunshine with most of the rain confined to northern areas. see you later.
this is bbc news, the headlines: the un climate summit has ended in glasgow with an agreement to strenghthen emissions—cutting targets for 2030. summit president alok sharma said the deal would keep within reach the goal of limiting temperature rises to 1.5 degrees celsius, but that it would only survive if countries kept their promises. a last minute intervention from india watered down the agreement. the final text changed the wording "phasing out" of coal to "phasing down," leaving many nations deeply disappointed. the un secretary—general said the world was still knocking on the door of a climate catastrophe. and belarus says it's stepping up humanitarian support to migrants trapped on the border with poland. the european union has accused belarus of cynically using them as political pawns, by engineering a surge in retaliation for eu sanctions against minsk. poland has accused belarus of trying to establish a permanent camp. a famous motorcycle brand, which supplied motorcycles to the british army in wold war two, is making