this is bbc news, i'm rich preston. our top stories: hearing no objections, it is so decided. after two weeks of intense negotiations at the global climate summit, world leaders have agreed a deal, but is it good enough? the agreement means countries must strengthen their targets to cut emissions for 2030. but a last minute intervention from india waters down the commitment to phase out coal, the dirtiest fossil fuel, leaving many deeply disappointed. the cop26 president alok sharma was visibly emotional as he apologised for the way in which the talks ended. un secretary general, antonio guterres, calls the final agreement in glasgow an important step, but questions if it's enough to avoid what he calls �*climate catastrophe�*.
in other news, belarus says it's stepping up humanitarian aid for migrants trapped on its border, but the european union says belarus is playing politics. doctors in sudan says at least five protesters have been killed in the latest mass rally against military rule. hello and welcome to bbc news. the un climate summit in glasgow has adopted a new agreement, called the glasgow climate pact, aimed at curbing global warming. but many say the deal is a disappointment. the summit�*s british president has apologised for the way the process unfolded, but said the agreement would keep within reach the goal of limiting temperature rises to 1.5 degrees. many countries say the final
text has been watered down, and the un secretary general said the world was still knocking on the door of a climate catastrophe. our science editor david shukman has the latest. relief after a long and stressful fortnight. the conference faced challenges right to the end. the day began with confusion and uncertainty. a delivery of what looks like pizza boxes. in fact, documents for the un secretary general. a great deal was at stake. we have had two incredibly intense weeks of negotiations in glasgow, and we arrive at what i believe is the moment of truth, and this is the moment of truth for our planet, and a moment of truth for our children and our grandchildren. negotiators broke up into huddles, a rare glimpse of bargaining that normally happens behind closed doors. the american envoyjohn kerry
with china's chief negotiator, arguing line by line about fossil fuels. china and india are worried about slowing down their development. how can anyone expect developing countries to make promises about phasing out coal and fossil fuel subsidies? developing countries have still to deal with the development agendas and poverty eradication. then alok sharma, the conference chair, began his own shuttle diplomacy, first trying to persuade the chinese to support the agreement, next checking in with the americans, and then with the indian delegation. in the end, one of the biggest obstacles in these talks was over the future of coal. the early draft had talked about phasing out this dirtiest of fossil fuels, but after a last—minute flurry negotiations, that was changed to phasing down. it sounds like a minor alteration, and indeed, many are asking what it means. coal is the biggest single source of greenhouse gas, but countries that depend on it managed to get the agreement
watered down, which left others very unhappy. let us be clear, we do not need to phase down, but to phase out coal and fossil fuel subsidies. we know full well that coal has no future, and this is what we are working on with our own plans to put an end to coal in europe in the foreseeable future. it is also vital that we protect this package. | faced with all of this, alok sharma's emotions got the better of him. were things going wrong? but enough countries were reluctantly giving their support. we do so only, and i really want to stress, only because there are critical elements of this package that people in my country need as a lifeline for the future. history has been made here in glasgow.
that is for others to judge. when we see of the pledges made here to reduce emissions and to boost aid to the poorest nations have actually delivered for years to come. we heard in david's report from the cop26 president, the british government minister, alok sharma. as well as telling the conference it was a historic moment, mr sharma also became visibly emotional as he apologised for the way in which the meeting ended. may i'd just say to all delegates, i apologise for the way this process has unfolded, and i am deeply sorry. i also understand the deep disappointment, but i think as you have noted, it is also vital that we protect this package.
vital that we protect this package-— at the heart of the two weeks of talks was the aim of keeping temperatures as close to i.5c above pre—industrial levels as possible, to avoid the worst effects of climate change. so what sort of impact will the agreement have on global temperatures, and on the way we all live? here's our science correspondent, rebecca morelle. piece by piece, after two weeks of intense negotiations, uniting people from all over the world, a plan for the future of our planet has come together. but will it stop temperatures rising over 1.5 degrees? at the start of the conference, every country submitted plans to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and scientists have been crunching the numbers. global temperatures are already i.i degrees over
preindustrial levels. if every nation carries out its long—term pledges, we get to 1.8 degrees. but if you look at what countries are actually doing, the more likely outcome is 2.4 degrees. this is more progress on climate than we've seen before. but in an absolute sense, we are miles and miles away from where we need to be, and we are still on course for really catastrophic warming. the glasgow conference clearly hasn't solved the problem, but will some aspects of what's happened here keep 1.5 alive? coal, the most polluting fossilfuel, will be reduced but not phased out. some nations will cut methane, a potent greenhouse gas. tackling deforestation has been promised too. and importantly, countries are being asked to return next year with better plans to cut emissions. we need these governments to really come back with an honest action.
notjust empty pledges, not just about net zero by 2050, but the actions that they're going to take in the short term. so, how will the glasgow agreement affect all of us? how are our lives going to change? ultimately, this will impact everything from how we get around to the food we eat and how we heat our homes. but this will take time. 0ur fragile planet is already changing, and while there has been progress in glasgow and 1.5 degrees hasn't been lost, it will take a monumental effort to stop temperatures from rising above that. rebecca morelle, bbc news, glasgow. harjeet singh is a senior advisor for climate action network international, hejoins me live now from glasgow. thank you very much for staying up thank you very much for staying up late for us up there in glasgow, are you happy with this deal?— this deal? not at all. this deal clearly _ this deal? not at all. this
deal clearly doesn't - this deal? not at all. this deal clearly doesn't go i this deal? not at all. this| deal clearly doesn't go far enough and in fact fails to respond to the urgency of climate action and doesn't affect ambition or even balance, because poor people as you must be hearing are not happy because they have not got any support to recover from climate impacts they are already facing or what we call loss and damage under the un terminology. loss and damage under the un terminology-— loss and damage under the un terminology. your work focuses on developing _ terminology. your work focuses on developing countries - terminology. your work focuses on developing countries in - on developing countries in particular, what would many of these countries like to have seenin these countries like to have seen in this final agreement? we have been calling for a balance between mitigation and adaptation finance which means $50 billion must go to adaptation, we have to recognise the fact that markets don't provide money for adaptation, so $100 million becomes really important for developing nations and 50% at least should go for adaptation, and the current level of financing is about $20 billion a year and that, the doubling
of that has been agreed but pushed to 2025, which means that by 2025, developing countries are going to get only $40 billion a year and this is a long demand of keeping it at the level of at least $50 billion a year. plus, they don't get any support from the system to recover from climate impacts and there was a major demand from developing countries to set up a glasgow loss and damage facility which has been brushed aside by rich nations. �* ., , , has been brushed aside by rich nations. �* . , , ., has been brushed aside by rich nations. �* , ., ., ., nations. arguably a vague deal is better than _ nations. arguably a vague deal is better than no _ nations. arguably a vague deal is better than no deal- nations. arguably a vague deal is better than no deal in - nations. arguably a vague deal is better than no deal in one i is better than no deal in one of the key points of this agreement is that countries will meet more often, certainly more often than once every five years. what is your take on that? ~ ., , that? well, that is something ositive, that? well, that is something positive. only _ that? well, that is something positive, only if _ that? well, that is something positive, only if countries - positive, only if countries come every year with increased targets and more financing for
developing countries so that they can also enhance their target. so that has been mentioned and even now in the next 12 months when we go to egypt for the next conference, they have been asked to revise their targets upwards.- their targets upwards. there was this conversation - their targets upwards. there was this conversation about | was this conversation about phasing down coal rather than phasing down coal rather than phasing out but the phasing down came from developing countries, so isn't it the case that developing countries could also be doing more themselves? well, we have to talk about equity, we have to talk about fair shares. equity, we have to talk about fairshares. developing fair shares. developing countries are fairshares. developing countries are least responsible for the crisis that we are facing. current crisis is because of the historical emissions by the global market by rich nations and the reality is that developing countries are not getting the natural support to make that transition and that is exactly what india was calling for, that we will phase down and we need support and that language was inserted and that language was inserted
and we also have two recognise that 100 million people in india still do not have access to electricity. 0ne quarter of the population still lives with poverty, so with those challenges, india needs timespace and support and that has not been provided, and another important thing i must mention, when we talk about fossil fuels, mention, when we talk about fossilfuels, it is notjust about coal, it is also about oil and gas but rich nations only focused on coal because they continue to drill oil and gas in their own backyard, so it is not a balanced agreement where we just push developing countries on coal and not bring in oil and gas in the same paragraph that has been agreed. all right, we will have to leave it there, thank you very much forjoining us. appreciate it. much for “oining us. appreciate it. ., ~ much for “oining us. appreciate it. . ~ , ., much for “oining us. appreciate it. . ~ and much for “oining us. appreciate mi and we - much for “oining us. appreciate mi and we will- much for “oining us. appreciate mi and we will have it. thank you. and we will have more on _ it. thank you. and we will have more on the — it. thank you. and we will have more on the outcome - it. thank you. and we will have more on the outcome of - it. thank you. and we will have more on the outcome of cop26 later in the bulletin. let's get some other news now, and belarus says it's stepping up the provision of aid to migrants trapped on the border with poland.
poland says belarus is provoking a surge in people trying to cross in to the european union as revenge for eu sanctions. it says belarusian security forces tried to break part of a border fence in an attempt to let some of those people through. some 2,000 people, many of them iraqi kurds, are camped on the belarusian side of the frontier. 0ur correspondent steve rosenberg sent this report. winter is coming in belarus, so at the migrant camp they're gathering whatever they can to build some shelter. but for the people camping out, there is little protection — and no one knows how long they're going to be here. we can't stay more, because the weather is too cold, people may die here from cold. so, you'll have to go back to your country, no? never. we never go back. better to die here, no go back to our country.
poland is so close — they're living on the eu's doorstep. poland now has 15,000 troops in this area guarding europe's border. these people have come to belarus with one aim, to try to use this country to get to europe. and look how close they've got. the european union is almost within touching distance. but as you can see, poland is determined not to let them through. many of these people are from the middle east. the eu has accused belarus of facilitating theirjourney here — of bringing them to the border to pressure europe. belarus denies that. as for the migrants, they are desperate to leave here. we want to go, we don't want to stay here. where do you want to go? europe, or us, or canada. don't matter.
belarusian police are trying to keep order. go back! please, go back! but there has been a delivery of humanitarian aid. this is what happens when you're hungry and cold. well, this is the chaos of the migrant camp. aid is being distributed, in this case blankets and clothes, and people are desperate to receive it. the police are struggling to maintain control. they're telling people to get down while the aid is being given out. sit down! for these people, at this moment, their priority isn't europe — it's survival. steve rosenberg, bbc news, on the border of belarus and poland. a doctors' group in sudan says security forces have killed five protesters attending mass pro—democracy demonstrations. these are the latest pictures. tens of thousands of people angry at last month's military
coup have been rallying in towns and cities across sudan. 0ur correspondent sally nabil is in khartoum. protesters are jumping slogans against the military rulers. we stand against the kerr stage by the army last october and they want to have a civilian government take place. but we have seen heavy security presence. we have also seen some streets and bridges close. just a short while ago, security forces around here fired tear gas against some of the protesters but they have managed to regroup. the head of the now dissolved civilian government mr abdalla hamdok is still under house arrest. we see many protesters hold his
pictures. some other politicians are also behind bars. what infuriated the crowds even more is the step taken lately by sudan achieve general abdel fattah al—burhan decided to lead a sovereign council which includes army generals and civilians he has picked. people feel he's just boring them and not listening. translation: we boring them and not listening. translation:— boring them and not listening. translation: we want general abdel fattah _ translation: we want general abdel fattah al-burhan - translation: we want general abdel fattah al-burhan to - translation: we want general abdel fattah al-burhan to stop. abdel fattah al—burhan to stop creating divisions in this country and to leave office. we want civilian _ country and to leave office. we want civilian rule. translation: ~ ., , translation: we are fed up with military rule. _ translation: we are fed up with military rule, we _ translation: we are fed up with military rule, we have _ translation: we are fed up with military rule, we have had - military rule, we have had enough of it. the military has done no good to any arab country. done no good to any arab country-— done no good to any arab count. ., , , done no good to any arab count. ., , _, ,., country. you can see clouds of smoke as _ country. you can see clouds of smoke as the _ country. you can see clouds of smoke as the result _ country. you can see clouds of smoke as the result of- country. you can see clouds of smoke as the result of tear . smoke as the result of tear gas. public anger is rising and western pressure is going on
military leaders to hand over power to a civilian government. western countries have also called for the release of all political prisoners but so far the army generals seem to be proceeding with their plans, despite local and international pressure. sudan is now standing at a crossroads and the path to the future is quite uncertain. in ecuador, at least 68 people have been killed in clashes between rival gangs in guayaquil prison. at least ten people are said to have been injured. the same jail was the scene of a lethal riot in september in which 119 people were killed. the south african novelist, wilbur smith, has died at the age of 88. he wrote more than 40 novels, starting with when the lion feeds, in 1964. it spawned a 19—book series following the fictional courtney family from the 1660s to the 1900s. let's go back to our top story that's been dominating
over the last few hours — a deal has been done in glasgow at the cop26 summit but not everyone is happy. low—lying island countries and small economy blocs had been pushing hard for more money from rich nations to help them adapt. the marshall islands climate envoy tina stege told my colleague christian fraser that the deal does not go far enough. it was a real blow. we had been told that there would be no further changes to the text, and we had already swallowed some changes that were very difficult to swallow, and that came at the end, and... as i said in my statement, there are other pieces of that package that are critical that we fought really hard to get and that are part of the lifeline that people in my country need. and so what we took it, but i needed to express the deep disappointment that we felt about having to do that.
india is a very big place in the room, naturally. and i guess alok sharma as the president took the view that he wouldn't get this across the line unless he bowed to what they were saying. was it as simple as they wouldn't have backed the whole document had he not made that change? as i said, we were not in the room. and perhaps if we had been, i could answer your question, but i can't tell you, but i think for us particularly, the very small island states, we come here to speak, to be heard, and for that to happen, we need to be in the room. so, this is where we are. we do have a package that has doubling of adaptation finance, which is something that
the high ambition coalition really brought up, brought to the table, and there are also other pieces of the package that reflect the leader statement that we put out last week. so really, really important pieces that, you know, we could not afford to lose. and that we hope gives us a basis for more progress. it has to. this has to be the basis for more progress, much more accelerated progress over the next year up to cop27. disappointment too from clara winkler of the federation of young european greens who spoke to christian earlier about greta thunberg's remarks i completely agree with these, it is all just i completely agree with these, it is alljust "blah blah blah". we had a phase—out of fossil fuel subsidy blah". we had a phase—out of fossilfuel subsidy in blah". we had a phase—out of fossil fuel subsidy in the document now we have a fossil
fuel phase down. nobody knows what that means and how it is measured and it will definitely not save our future. it will definitely not keep the earth overheating below five degrees and it will definitely not stop extreme weather events from occurring. extreme weather events from occurring-— extreme weather events from occurring. but can you see the oint of occurring. but can you see the point of alec _ occurring. but can you see the point of alec sharma - occurring. but can you see the point of alec sharma that - occurring. but can you see the| point of alec sharma that there is a promise that has started here. —— alok sharma. it is a first—time fossilfuel here. —— alok sharma. it is a first—time fossil fuel has been mentioned in any climate summit and the rest and exhilaration process, they will have to be a new target next year and of the year after and things are happening much more quickly. festival, the target these countries are coming up with, the reason a huge gap between targets and their actions so this is really another "blah blah blah" and we also don't think thatjust mentioning
fossilfuel, to have them somewhere in the document is going to change anything if they are surrounded by weak wording. nigel topping is the un high level climate action champion for cop26. christian asked him to respond to the kind of criticism we've just heard. you really need to elevate the conversation higher than throwing "blah blah blah" and that it throwing "blah blah blah" and thatitis throwing "blah blah blah" and that it is all green wash and based on offset because none of those are true. we cannot say, let's be honest and then throw away dismissive comments like that. there is real progress here and it is not enough. there is real progress. this glasgow climate summit hasn't tried 1.5 degrees as the north star. that was unimaginable in madrid just two years ago. it has everybody committed to
coming up to ratchet up the commitments next year, we are not waiting until 2025 because we know that those degrees are not the sum of the ambition and we have had really substantive commitments in the short time for real money to real solutions. this is a very significant step forward and it is not enough so we should neither celebrate the saving of the world nor dismiss this as mere hot air. mi the world nor dismiss this as mere hot air.— mere hot air. ali monro was sa in: , mere hot air. ali monro was saying. don't _ mere hot air. ali monro was saying, don't forget, - mere hot air. ali monro was saying, don't forget, the - mere hot air. ali monro was saying, don't forget, the uk still has the presidency. what happens in the coming weeks when the real hard work starts. what we do next? i when the real hard work starts. what we do next?— what we do next? i think everybody _ what we do next? i think everybody has _ what we do next? i think everybody has made - what we do next? i think— everybody has made commitments, for concrete plans. we are talking about 2030 commitments
not to,000 50 commitments. —— 2050. the plastic to be enacted and we need to see the results and we need to see the results and a lot of those plans are about allocation of money and if you're a man and you said you're going to do something, if you're not doing so, like buying electric buses, one of the keys, it is based on momentum building since paris and it is now starting to go exponential whether it is buses, sales of electric cars, some of these announcements are about decolonising shipping. 200 companies, loads of countries committing to green shipping corridors, green hydrogen sorry, companies think that will only by zero carbon freight. we are confident we can bring the dates earlier as
the costs come down and we get more confident.— more confident. that is it from us now. thank _ more confident. that is it from us now. thank you _ more confident. that is it from us now. thank you for - more confident. that is it from us now. thank you for being i us now. thank you for being with us. bye—bye. hello there. part one of the weekend was a little bit dull for many of us. we held onto cloudy skies, sunshine was limited. it is going to be pretty similar, i think, for sunday, with limited sunshine, a lot of cloud around, and there will be some rain as well, particularly across the northwest at the uk closer to this area of low pressure and its weather front. but further south, it's higher pressure, barely any isobars, so the winds will be light. but it is still going to be relatively mild for the time of year, particularly towards the western side of the country, as we draw up the south—westerly breeze. now, we start sunday morning off on a rather cloudy note. there could be a little bit of sunshine too, but also some mist and fog patches to watch out for. i think into the afternoon, much of england and wales should tend to see more holes breaking in the cloud with some sunny spells. a few showers across the southeast
there, but the wettest and breeziest of the weather will be across the north and west of scotland, perhaps northwestern parts of northern ireland. 11—14 celsius pretty mild, but we could see 15 degrees for belfast. now, as we head through sunday night, that weather front in the northwest begins to sink southwards and eastwards. but as it's running into an area of high pressure, it will begin to fizzle out. so the rain will get lighter. there will be some heavier bursts on it, i think, during sunday night. those temperatures range from 6—11 celsius. so, this weather front will be sinking slowly southeastwards, almost grinding to a halt. as it pushes into that area of high pressure, it will fizzle out through the day. so, we start off with some patchy rain for southern scotland, just pushing into parts of northwest england and northwest wales, but you can see it fades away and just leaves no more than a band of cloud. behind it, skies brighten for scotland and northern ireland, just a few blustery showers, but a much better day. further south and east, another rather cloudy one for much of england and wales, limited sunshine once again. temperatures 11—12, maybe 13 celsius. as we move through the rest
of the week, it stays milder, even turns very mild at times, particularly across southern areas, and most of the wind and the rain will be confined to the north of the uk, as you can see here, as we run through tuesday into wednesday, it's low—pressure to the north of the uk, which will bring these spells of wet and windy weather further south closer to this area of high pressure, this is where we will see the light winds and the more settled conditions. but you'll see how mild it is. temperatures reaching the mid—teens at times, particularly across southern areas. quite a bit of cloud around, limited sunshine with most of the rain confined to northern areas. see you later.
emissions—cutting targets for 2030. summit president, alok sharma, said the agreement would keep within reach the goal of limiting temperature rises to 1.5 degrees celsius. but that the deal would only survive only if countries kept their promises. but a last minute intervention from india watered down the commitment. the final text changed the expression �*phasing out�* of coal to �*phasing down�*, leaving many nations deeply disappointed. the un secretary general said the world was still knocking on the door of a climate catastrophe. belarus has said it's stepping up humanitarian support to migrants trapped on the border with poland. it's been accused by the european union of cynically using them as political pawns, by engineering a surge in retaliation for eu sanctions against minsk. poland has accused belarus of trying to establish a permanent camp. a famous motorcycle brand, which supplied motorcycles