this is bbc news. i'm rich preston. our top stories: it's friday here in the uk, the final day of the cop26 climate summit. so, is a deal on climate change in sight in these last few hours? we are urging ambition and i've held meetings with quite a number of the negotiating groups and i have been told by groups, by individual parties, that they want to see ambition in the outcome of cop26. western powers at the un security council condemn the actions of belarus in the crisis over its border with poland. fw de klerk, the man who released nelson mandela from prison and ended white minority rule in south africa, has died at the age of 85. scientists say they are a close
to helping alice in humans after getting mice to walk again. welcome to our viewers on pbs in america and around the globe. with hours to go before the cop26 climate summit is due to end, the un secretary general told delegates in glasgow their promises don't amount to enough. antonio guterres said the pledges rang hollow when the fossil fuels industry still received trillions in subsidies. the event is expected to overrun as negotiators try to reach an agreement on keeping global temperature rises to less than 1.5 celsius above pre—industrial levels. our science editor david shukman is in glasgow and has this report. the endgame of the conference —
urgent consultations with governments back home, checking the agreement line by line, assessing every word. the warnings about rising temperatures are clear, but national interests are at stake so the talks go on. we are not there yet on the most critical issues. there is still a lot more work to be done and cop26 is scheduled to close at the end of tomorrow. so, time is running out. so, to try to maintain momentum, relatively easy decisions were passed tonight, and this follows initiatives by groups of nations last week. a plan to cut methane, a potent greenhouse gas, though some important countries aren't taking part. a promise to end deforestation by 2030. but we have heard this kind of thing before. and a call to end the use of coal, the dirtiest fossil fuel. but what matters is agreements that governments can't wriggle out of.
so, in this final stretch, what are the big arguments that still need to be settled? well, the first is how often countries should update their plans for going green. some say that's needed every year. others say that's too often. then there's the fundamental question of cutting the gases that are heating the planet. they're still heading up, when the science couldn't be clearer that they've got to be falling fast. and then aid for the poorest nations. they were promised it more than a decade ago. it still hasn't been delivered. it's a relief that people are recognising that we need to help communities on the front lines of the climate crisis, but it's a frustration that rich governments aren't yet doing what it takes to help them out. even now? even now. they hear the sounds, they're putting fine words on paper, but no real mechanism to address this crisis. and as a reminder of what this is all about, torrential rain struck the indian city of chennai.
floods spilling into a hospital. scientists have long warned that even more violent extremes are possible, but acting now could head them off. so, some countries want to move away from fossil fuels entirely. the uk and many others say it's not the right time. another example of different perspectives in these last hours. david shukman, bbc news, in glasgow. it has been confirmed the united arab emirates will be hosting cop28 summit. it is a most important climate conference. we will put all our capabilities to make the conference a success. let's get some of the day's other news. a ninth person has died
as a result of last week's crush at the astroworld music festival in the us state of texas. bharti shahani, a university student, was 22. police are investigating the stampede last friday when fans pushed towards the stage during a performance by the rapper travis scott. hundreds of people were injured. a us federal appeals court has temporarily blocked the release of white house records to a congressional committee investigating donald trump's role in the attack on the us capitol injanuary. the papers had been due for release on friday. police investigating a violent attack on a french footballer have released one of her team—mates without charge. aminata diallo, who plays for paris saint—germain�*s women's team, was arrested on wednesday. she's faced two days of questioning about the assault on kheira hamraoui. belarus's leader has threatened to cut off gas supplies to europe if sanctions are imposed over an escalating migrant crisis at the country's western border. eu officials have accused belarus of provoking the crisis to undermine its security, an allegation it denies.
meanwhile, the bbc has filmed hundreds of people gathering in the belarus capital, minsk, where they're apparently waiting to board buses which then take them to the border with poland. will vernon reports now from minsk. we saw large groups of migrants gathering here today in the centre of minsk, waiting for transportation to the polish border. the vast majority we spoke to were from iraq and they said that they had been sold these package deals for between $3,000 and $4,000 and they said those package deals included a belarusian visa and flights, tickets to minsk. they mentioned they were going through turkey, going through syria, and they said that once they got here, they were told that they could make their way to europe and that the border would be open and the boarder would be unguarded. they're aware of the difficulties that they might face at the polish border, but these people, they say, are desperate, they say that they can't stay in belarus.
none of them want to stay here and they say they can't to go back to their home countries and so, many of them were saying we have no choice. it is bitterly cold here now, it's very cold especially at night. many of them were not prepared for the winter, didn't have appropriate clothing. many of them were with small children. but there was a real sense of hopelessness amongst them and they still feel that even going and attempting what may seem like a hopeless endeavour is still better than the alternative. angela stent is a professor at georgetown university, a former national intelligence officer for russia at the national intelligence council, and the author of the book putin's world. she gave me her take on the situation at the border. lukashenko has orchestrated this, flying these people to belarus deliberately. he wants to cause havoc in the eu, he wants to punish the eu for the sanctions that have been imposed on him, really since an election which was falsified,
and for other things that he has done to his own people, and forcibly downing a plane. so he certainly is the, if you like, evil genius behind this. now, the role of russia itself and president putin is maybe a little less clear. this looks as if this was lukashenko�*s idea. on the other hand, belarus is very dependent on russia for its economic help, for its energy supplies, and it's very difficult to imagine that if russia didn't really want belarus to be doing this, that it would't pull some strings to get lukashenko to back down. so, so far, we have russia, as we just heard in the report, backing belarus also in the united nations security council, and saying things like, well, maybe the european union should pay belarus some money and that maybe we'll take care of it. we've had condemnation from the european union and from the un and from polish officials, but little practically being done. what's your view on the international response to this?
i think it's been very slow. this has been going on forfive months. it's accelerated in the past couple of weeks. it's made much worse by the onset of winter. but i think people hoped that it would go away. but of course it's not going away, it's getting worse. so now we have people saying there will be more sanctions on individuals in belarus and on the airline, and other sanctions may be imposed, and we know that chancellor merkel has had two conversations with president putin in the last couple of days, asking for russia to intercede to put an end on this. we haven't seen that yet. whether sanctions on these individuals will be enough remains to be seen. clearly, the sanctions that are being imposed on belarus so far have adversely effected the economy, but they really haven't changed lukashenko�*s behaviour at all. at the same time, we are seeing reports of russian troop build—up on the border with ukraine. how does this all fit
in to the bigger picture of president putin's ambitions in the region? well, ithink, again, putin has everyone off guard. you have the us secretary of state warn russia that they shouldn't even think about invading ukraine again, but no—one quite knows what's going on. so in general, you have the sense now of foreboding, if you like. it plays to the instabilities that exist. the ukrainians are trying not to be provoked. i would say the same is true of the poles. so part of these actions are designed to provoke other countries into taking rash military actions which could then be justified if either belarus or russia wanted to get into an actual war with these countries. so i think it's actually quite a dangerous moment and i think these things are all locked together. professor angela stent there. the man who ended white minority rule in south africa, fw de klerk, has died at the age of 85. he was south africa's president for five years, and was a key figure in the country's transition
to democracy, including ordering the release of nelson mandela from prison. in a message, mr de klerk repeated an apology for the pain and hurt caused to black and minority south africans during the apartheid era. our correspondent andrew harding reports. we did not only admit the wrongness of apartheid... fw de klerk was terminally ill when he recorded this farewell message, released today — a man still wrestling with his place in south africa's tortured history. i, without qualification, apologise for the pain and the hurt and the indignity and the damage that apartheid has done. back in the 1970s and �*80s, south africa was drifting to all—out conflict. the security forces of a racist white minority government battling against an increasingly defiant black majority. when fw de klerk came to power in 1989, nobody expected
this conservative figure to change much. after all, his government ran a nation where black people were treated as inferior, to be kept apart. but within months, de klerk announced a shocking u—turn. the prohibition of the african national congress, the pan african congress, the south african communist party and a number of subsidiary organisations is being rescinded. applause the anc, the outlawed liberation party of nelson mandela, was unbanned, and soon after that, mandela himself was released from prison after 27 years. cheering applause soon, the two men, once bitter enemies, were sharing the nobel peace prize as south africa inched towards democracy. what nobody can take away from him is his foresight. he seized the moment, he showed the courage, and he was the figure that eventually saw
the end of apartheid, and nelson mandela elected as president in those heady days of the new rainbow democracy. but the transition was not peaceful. thousands of black south africans died during political violence that was, it turned out, deliberately stirred up by white security forces. still, de klerk and mandela kept negotiating, nudging their nation forward — not that they were ever close. so help me god. and then, in 1994, history was made, as mandela was sworn in as democratic south africa's first president. de klerk retreated backstage. later, he apologised for his role in apartheid, but insisted he'd never authorised any criminal acts. within my knowledge and experience, i never included the authorisation of assassination, murder, torture, rape, assault or the like.
many south africans found that hard to swallow, and today, there is a lukewarm tone to some tributes. he had the courage to step away from the path that his party that he led had embarked upon from 19118, and we will remember him for that. de klerk was a divisive figure, and an unlikely revolutionary, but history will record his key role in bringing freedom to south africa. the former president of south africa, fw de klerk, who's died at the age of 85. stay with us on bbc news. still to come: we'll tell you how scientists treating paralysed mice in the us are now a step closer to reversing paralysis in humans. the bombastic establishment outsider donald trump has defied the pollsters to take
the keys to the oval office. i feel great about the election results. i voted for him because i genuinely believe that he cares about the country. it's keeping - the candidate's name always in the - public eye that counts. success or failure depends not only on public display, j but on the local- campaign headquarters and the heavy routine workj of their women volunteers. berliners from both east and west linked hands and danced around their liberated territory. and with nobody to stop them, it wasn't long before the first attempts were made to destroy the structure itself. yasser arafat, who dominated the palestinian cause for so long, has died. palestinian authority has declared a state of mourning. after 17 years of discussion, the result was greeted with an outburst ofjoy, leaving ministers who long felt only grudgingly accepted among the ranks of clergy suddenly felt welcome.
this is bbc world news. the latest headlines: negotiators at the glasgow summit have just 2a hours to agree a deal that will limit global temperature rises to 1.5 degrees. western powers at the un security council condemn the actions of belarus in the crisis over its border with poland. people across the uk have joined together to observe armistice day, after last year's commemorations were scaled back because of the pandemic. there was a two minute silence to mark the end of the first world war in 1918. sarah campbell reports. on the 11th day of the 11th
november the 11th. this year. sydney, australia on novemberthe11th. it this year. sydney, australia on november the 11th. it is also france's national day of remembrance. so many lives were cut short in french fields, so many soldiers never returned home. walter toal was one of them. britain's first black army officer was killed in 1918. today in the cenotaph and london his great—nephew laid a wreath in his honour. this london his great-nephew laid a wreath in his honour.— wreath in his honour. this is a fantastic _ wreath in his honour. this is a fantastic event _ wreath in his honour. this is a fantastic event to _ wreath in his honour. this is a fantastic event to come - wreath in his honour. this is a fantastic event to come to - wreath in his honour. this is aj fantastic event to come to the point where i am able to lay a wreath on behalf of my granduncle at the cenotaph is a great honour and a great honour to him. �* , . to him. armistice day, ensuring those who _ to him. armistice day, ensuring those who are _ to him. armistice day, ensuring those who are lost _ to him. armistice day, ensuring those who are lost are - to him. armistice day, ensuring those who are lost are not -- i those who are lost are not —— who were lost are not forgotten. �*s eric campbell, bbc news. europe was one of the first regions in the world to deploy coronavirus vaccines,
yet parts of the continent are seeing a resurgence in cases, with some countries experiencing their highest infection levels of the pandemic. record numbers are reported in germany, netherlands and austria where the government is planning to impose a lockdown on the unvaccinated. dr uzma syed is an infectious diseases specialist, i asked her how people might react to the lockdown. this is quite a controversial topic here and unfortunately you know we have all been through lockdowns throughout this pandemic, we have seen that far too often and unfortunately it is not one thing that we want to be doing and we would hope thatjust building confidence in vaccines and promoting science and really fighting and combating the misinformation and the disinformation that is being spread out there is really the way to people's hearts for people to see that vaccination is really the way out of this pandemic. is really the way out of this pandemic— pandemic. you mentioned buildinu pandemic. you mentioned building confidence - pandemic. you mentioned building confidence in - building confidence in vaccines. some people still would rather not take their inoculations, what reasons do these people give?— these people give? there is 'ust so these people give? there is just so much _
these people give? there is| just so much misinformation these people give? there is - just so much misinformation and disinformation unfortunately thatis disinformation unfortunately that is out there, that is very, very dangerous and a majority of this has been spread through social media. much of it is just running rampant throughout the course of this pandemic especially since vaccines were first made available, and a lot of different reasons. some people have hesitancy because of concerns and fears of the unknown, however now we have so much access to accurate information but people keep sharing the misinformation and disinformation that is out there where people are talking about fertility issues that are just not true and people are talking about alteration of dna in all sort of myths that unfortunately is just propaganda that is now being spread even more so because of ultimately the polarisation in this pandemic.— ultimately the polarisation in this pandemic. vaccines have been around _ this pandemic. vaccines have been around for _ this pandemic. vaccines have been around for about - this pandemic. vaccines have been around for about a - this pandemic. vaccines have been around for about a year| been around for about a year now, cases as we discussed our still rising. is it unfair to just target the unvaccinated. are we looking at putting entire countries and regions and cities back into lockdowns
again? and cities back into lockdowns auain? ~ and cities back into lockdowns auain? . . , and cities back into lockdowns auain? . ., , ., again? we certainly don't want to no again? we certainly don't want to go there _ again? we certainly don't want to go there again _ again? we certainly don't want to go there again but - again? we certainly don't want to go there again but we - again? we certainly don't want to go there again but we have | to go there again but we have to go there again but we have to really look at it in a case—by—case basis and a specific time because we see very commonly with this pandemic that cases will rise and we have to really use all of our mitigation strategies in addition to vaccinations and when levels of the virus come down in our community we cancel to relax those a little bit. vaccinations are going strong throughout a good part of the country and a good part of the world especially in europe however we need to remember that there is a significant amount of population that is still not vaccinated including the paediatric population which could really be accounting for the rise in cases, not to mention that the level that we need to reach herd immunity shifts every time we have a new variant that emerges that is more and more transmissible. scientists in the united states say they are a step closer to reversing paralysis in humans after they successfully administered a new injectable therapy in mice. the drug was injected
into their spinal cords and the mice learned to walk again within four weeks. the team hope to begin patient trials within two years. mark lobel reports. spot the difference. this is a mouse before treatment and after. walking again.- mouse before treatment and after. walking again. over the eriod of after. walking again. over the period of about _ after. walking again. over the period of about 3- _ after. walking again. over the period of about 3- four - after. walking again. over the | period of about 3- four weeks, period of about 3— four weeks, we were able to observe that an initially paralysed mouth, as a result of severe spinal cord injury, regained great ability to walk. 50 injury, regained great ability to walk. ., ,. , , to walk. so how did scientists do it? a treatment _ to walk. so how did scientists do it? a treatment packed . to walk. so how did scientists. do it? a treatment packed with hundreds of thousands of molecules was injected in the tissue around the spinal cord to repair sales. crucially, this watery therapy kept everything moving. irate everything moving. we discovered _ everything moving. we discovered that - everything moving. - discovered that the motion of the molecules inside this
filament is critical in their ability to signal sales in the spinal cord in order to initiate repair. to spinal cord in order to initiate repair. spinal cord in order to initiate reair. ., initiate repair. to trigger the exoeriment _ initiate repair. to trigger the experiment and _ initiate repair. to trigger the experiment and incision - initiate repair. to trigger the experiment and incision was| experiment and incision was made in the mammals' spine. that is to replicate what happens to humans after they suffer a car crash, sports injury, gunshot wound orfrom a disease. it is hoped human trails could be approved next year. trails could be approved next ear. , ., ,, trails could be approved next ear. , ., , , , trails could be approved next ear. , year. this therapy is also auoin year. this therapy is also going to _ year. this therapy is also going to affect _ year. this therapy is also going to affect other - year. this therapy is also i going to affect other targets that are related to the central nervous system, for example the brain. so we hope to be able later to use and also for stroke treatment, and for neurodegenerative diseases. for now though, this exciting discovery, unique assembly many molecules may soon offer hope to hundreds of thousands of people living with spinal injuries, with a simple injection in the back, if human
testing stands up to scrutiny too. a new species of dinosaur with an unusually large nose has been identified by a retired doctor in southern england. the bones were uncovered more than a0 years ago on the isle of wight. duncan kennedy has more. gnarled, nobbly and what a nose! this is how the not very dainty dino would've looked like. and the usp of this vip, its bulbous snout. and here we have vertebra or backbone of... its remains had spent a0 years in old boxes untiljeremy lockwood, a retired gp, went through them. he'd always believed there had to be more than two types of dinosaur on the island. and he was right. i took a bone, which was a nasal bone, and i thought, "i'm going to try and reconstruct what the skull of this animal looked like," so i sort of put it into life position. and i thought, "goodness me,
this has got a bulbous end to the end of its nose." so, it became obvious that this was something completely different. it took dr lockwood two years to sift through all the bones, and his new species has now been confirmed by experts. just along there is where i found it all them years ago. that's right. keith simmonds is the one who found the dinosaur near a village called brighstone, which is why it's being called brighstoneus simmondsi. it was in 1978 keith discovered the bones, and now the new species has been confirmed, he's delighted. it's nice, yeah. a bit of recognition for the work done over the years. it's ideal. and now you found out you found a new species of dinosaur, what do you make of that? something for the history books, really, and, yeah, it's very good. this coast was already known as a world class centre for discovering dinosaurs. it seems some have, well, just got a nose for it. duncan kennedy, bbc news,
on the isle of wight. that's it for now. you can reach me on twitter — i'm @richpreston. hello. with low pressure moving right across the uk, the week is coming to a windy end and there's the chance of rain as well. there will be some heavier bursts of rain, especially in scotland. and around this area of low pressure, plenty of mild air moving in on quite a strong wind, it has to be said, particularly across coastal parts of the north and west. here comes the low pressure, the centre of which will move across scotland as we go on through friday. it's in scotland we're going to see the heaviest rain. now, these are the temperatures to begin the day, so already very mild — 11 degrees in belfast and manchester, for example. the heaviest rain will be in scotland, a couple of pulses of that working on through, but heaviest and most persistent in hills
in the west. and very wet for a time across much of northwest england. showery bursts of rain for northern ireland, for wales, across the rest of england. certainly not raining all the time. there will even be a few brighter breaks here and there as well, but it is going to be blustery. these are average wind speeds. around the coasts of northern and western scotland, northern ireland, through the irish sea, may get some gusts around 40—50 mph, so there will be some gales in places here. we know it's a mild start. temperatures will edge up a little bit further. we're talking highs of around 1a, 15 degrees for many places. it will be turning drier in scotland going into the evening. and overnight, there will be some clear spells and fog patches. wales and england keeping a lot of cloud here and still some showery rain around, mostly across eastern parts of england going into saturday morning. and the winds gradually easing, though staying quite windy along that north sea coast. and it's another mild night and start to saturday. into the weekend, the area of low pressure's moving away, this little ridge of high pressure is moving in, although there are weather fronts in
the atlantic not too far away. that said, much of the weekend will be dry. some fog patches in scotland on saturday morning, some sunny spells, though, to follow. plenty of cloud around elsewhere. still a few showers, mainly towards the eastern side of england. still breezy along that north sea coast. may see a bit of patchy rain moving towards northern ireland later in the day. again, it's mild. temperatures for the most part in double figures. some fog patches around as we go on into sunday, a lot of cloud, a few bright or sunny breaks here and there, the chance for thicker cloud across western areas and some mostly light and patchy rain. some heavier bursts of rain, though, moving towards the northern and western isles, the far northwest of scotland, on what will be another mild day.
this is bbc news. the headlines: we're into the final day of the cop26 climate summit. negtiatiors are looking to secure a deal that will limit global temperature rises to 1.5 degrees. the un secretary general says he thinks governments are unlikely to make the pledges needed to cut greenhouse gas emissions. western powers at the un security council have condemned belarus in the crisis over its border with poland. they're accusing belarus of what they call an orchestrated instrumentalisation of humans by sending migrants to destabilise the eu's border. scientists in the us say they're a step closer to reversing paralysis in humans after they successfully managed to get paralysed mice to walk again. it happened four weeks after being injected with a gel that encouraged molecules in the spinal cord to dance, promoting nerve regeneration.