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tv   BBC News  BBC News  November 10, 2021 3:00am-3:31am GMT

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welcome to bbc news. i'm david eades. our top stories: the eu accuses belarus of gangster—style behaviour as the migrant crisis on the border with poland escalates. thousands are trapped in freezing conditions. a sobering message for the climate summit: scientists warn that even with the pledges in glasgow, temperatures are still set to rise well beyond global targets. we cannot kick this can down the road. it is not something we can do in 2030, 2050, we need to do it in 2021 and 2022. also, how the seabed's vital capacity for absorbing carbon is being harmed by the process of climate change: we have a special report. fleeing poverty and crisis in afghanistan. thousands are desperate to get
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out by any means necessary. this is a deeply surreal site, a huge people smuggling hub operating completely openly. and manufacturing the red sauce on the red planet: it's the challenge to produce tomato ketchup under mars—like conditions. thank you forjoining us. the european union says it will impose additional sanctions on belarus because of what it describes as president lukashenko�*s �*gangster—style approach' towards the migrants gathering at the polish, and also now the lithuanian border. his regime has been accused of attracting migrants into belarus simply in order to send them into the eu in retaliation
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for european sanctions. at least 2,000 are now gathered in freezing temperatures on the poland—belarus border from where our correspondent nick beake reports. 0n the edge of the european union, a new, desperate migrant camp has just emerged. 0n the left, those who have come to belarus and now made their way to the border with poland. 0n the right, barbed wire and lines of troops, stopping them from crossing. emergency vehicle sirens throughout the day, we watched reinforcements race towards the village of kuznica. poland already has a force of 12,000 guarding its eastern border and is keeping aid agencies and journalists away. but we managed to make contact with some of those trapped in the freezing forest. we feel so bad because nobody help us in here and we so hungry and thirsty, no water, no food, no help.
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like most here, aziz is kurdish, and from iraq. that's all poland police, they don't let us get inside. a big tension in here. and so many family here and little children. what did the belarus police say to you? nothing, just, "go," and, "you can't turn back." did they help you get to the border at all? yes, they help us. but getting any nearer to where this crisis has erupted is not possible, as we soon found out. can we go further in? are we allowed to go further towards the border today? no, no. poland, like neighbouring lithuania, is maintaining a state of emergency here. this is as close as we can get to the poland—belarus border today because beyond this checkpoint lies a part of the european union that the polish authorities do not want us to see for ourselves.
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they are dealing with this growing migrant crisis, out of sight and on their own terms. poland has the support of the eu and nato, which accused belarus of using civilians as weapons in retaliation for sanctions. something the lukashenko regime denies. warsaw says moscow is pulling the strings. translation: this attack, - which lukashenko is conducting, has its mastermind in moscow. the mastermind is president putin. moscow denies this. tonight, belarus�*s president said he didn't want an armed confrontation, but warned that any escalation would bring in its ally, russia. translation: it will. immediately drag russia into this whirlpool and it's the largest nuclear armed power. i'm nota madman. i understand very well where this could lead to. the united nations is calling for calm, but the politics are bitter
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and the situation on the ground, increasingly desperate. nick beake, bbc news, on the polish—belarusian border. an international group of scientists has warned that the world is still heading for dangerously high global temperatures by the end of the century even if countries do honour the promises made in glasgow at the cop26 summit. the independent climate action tracker says temperatures are heading for a rise of 2.4 degrees above pre—industrial levels as opposed to the stated target of between 2 and 1.5 degrees. it's calling it glasgow's �*massive credibility, action and commitment gap�*. from glasgow, our science editor david shukman assesses the progress so far at the summit. this is what the talks are all about — keeping the planet safe to live on. and when astronaut tim peake filmed this view, he was really struck by what we keep adding
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to the air and what that's doing to the climate, so he's come to the conference in glasgow to spell out the dangers. every sunrise and sunset, we see earth's atmosphere, just 16 kilometres thick, and you realise that's it, that's what protects all life down here on the planet. and if we put things into that atmosphere, for example, wildfires, you see them covering entire continents, and the smoke disperses, and that's when you really appreciate that it doesn't have anywhere else to go. you know, we're all on this one planet together. but the challenge here at this massive gathering is to get delegates from nearly 200 countries to agree on what to do, to try to slow down the pace of climate change. so, after ten days of talking, what's actually been achieved in terms of heading off the risk of the planet getting hotter? well, just before the conference started, we were on course for an increase of 2.7 degrees celsius, a really dangerous prospect. now, if everyone keeps the promises they've made in recent days, that's come
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down to something like 1.8 degrees celsius, but it all depends on everyone keeping their word, and even if they do, that's still above the target of 1.5 degrees, so the problem is far from sorted. we don't have much time. we want to stay under 1.5, and we're already seeing the climate changing, so now we need to invest, now we need to protect, we cannot kick this can down the road. it is not something we can do in 2030, 2050, we need to do it in 2021 and 2022. new extremes of temperature are proving hazardous in many regions already, and a study by met office scientists warns that a billion people could be affected by a combination of rising heat and humidity. working outdoors could become almost impossible. so, for some, climate change is about survival, including the tiny island nations of the pacific. the realities of climate change... this government minister in tuvalu
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recorded a video appealfor help. we cannot wait for speeches when the sea is rising around us all the time. he's banking on the next few days of negotiations coming up with a way to make the world less threatening. david shukman, bbc news, in glasgow. there is another cause for concern as well. scientists exploring the seabed 3.5 miles below the surface of the ocean have found that its capacity for absorbing carbon emissions is decreasing because of climate change. the latest discovery by the international i—atlantic project, which receives significant funding from the eu, has revealed that if global temperatures increase to predicted levels, the ocean will no longer act as the earth's largest carbon store. 0ur science correspondent victoria gill reports. diving to ocean depths of up to 3.5 miles. this is the abyssal zone
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where robotic explorers are taking samples from places no—one has ever touched. a third of the carbon dioxide in our atmosphere dissolves in the surface of the ocean. when tiny marine plants and animals feed on that carbon, it becomes part of a cycle that's made the deep ocean and its muddy floor earth's largest carbon store. in an aquarium like this, you get a snippet of the life in the shallower parts of the ocean. but in the deep ocean floor, there are single—celled organisms that we can't even see, and it's those that are responsible for locking away carbon in the deep. in experiments carried out in the equatorial atlantic, about 500 miles off the coast of west africa, researchers brought tubes of sea floor mud into their ocean laboratories to test what happens to the carbon that's contained in these sediments as the ocean temperature rises. so, we have to understand how this part of our planet
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will work in the future. in this abyssal ocean that covers 60% of the planet, we're finding that under higher temperatures, we can store less carbon in these places. the ecosystems are turning over the carbon faster. they're running at a higher temperature more quickly, and they're going to release more carbon in the future, and that's really worrying. we know more about the surface of the moon than we do about life at these extreme depths. and researchers say this latest finding is just a glimpse of how our greenhouse gas emissions are transforming this huge and misunderstood habitat. working out how the deep ocean will be affected by climate change and how it could help us to solve this very human—made problem will require much deeper exploration. victoria gill, bbc news. let's get some of the day's other news. the us congressional committee investigating the attack on congress injanuary has issued summonses to ten more trump administration officials, including a former senior adviser, stephen miller and his press secretary,
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kayleigh mcenany. donald trump condemned the committee and repeated false claims that the election was fraudulent. the united nations says 16 of its staff members have been detained in the ethiopian capital, addis ababa. a un spokesperson said six others had been released. it's not yet clear why the staff were detained, but human rights groups have raised the alarm about the increasing number of arrests of ethnic tigrayans. thousands of people are still desperate to find a way out of afghanistan weeks after the evacuation flights largely stopped. the remote town of zaranj, close to the borders of both pakistan and iran, is a major people smuggling centre. smugglers there have told the bbc their business has more than doubled since the taliban takeover of afghanistan, and that a large number of those leaving hope to reach europe. 0ur correspondent secunder kermani and cameraman
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malik mudassir sent this report. afghans are leaving in their thousands. smuggled out from this remote corner of the country. no visas, no immigration, just people smugglers who pay a small fee to the taliban. most, desperate men hoping to find work. babies cry but there are whole families here too. aren't you worried about going with all these young children? at times, it feels as if the whole of afghanistan is trying to find a way out. the economy is collapsing and few have faith in the new taliban government. at least 4,000 leave here every day we're told.
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this is a deeply surreal sight — a huge people—smuggling hub operating completely openly. the taliban say that rising poverty here means that it's not possible to stop all these people from trying to leave the country. they say all they can do is control how many people get into these trucks to make the journey a little safer. the taliban are making money off this trade, around $10 per truck. but they say the economic crisis and freezing of international funding makes the flow of people unstoppable. whose fault is it, the taliban?
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zaranj has long been a people—smuggling centre. under the previous government, corrupt officials were paid off. now, smugglers say the trade is flourishing. at the border with iran, hundreds of afghans are deported back every day. but many more are setting off for the desert. we meet labourers, former soldiers, civil servants. they survived the war, but are fleeing its aftermath. secunder kermani, bbc news, zaranj. stay with us on bbc news. still to come: the latest
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in our weekly climate critical series looks at how we can measure our own personal carbon footprint. the bombastic establishment outsider donald trump has defied the pollsters to take the keys to the oval office. i feel great about the election results. i voted for him because i genuinely believe that he cares about the country. it's keeping the candidate's name always in the public. eye that counts. success or failure depends not only on public display - but on the local campaign l headquarters and the heavy routine work of their women volunteers. i berliners from both east and west linked hands and danced around their liberated territory. and with nobody to stop them, it wasn't long before the first attempts were made to destroy the structure itself. yasser arafat, who dominated the palestinian cause for so long, has died. palestinian authority has declared a state of mourning. after 17 years of discussion, the result was greeted
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with an outburst ofjoy, leaving ministers who long felt only grudgingly accepted among the ranks of clergy suddenly felt welcome. this is bbc news. the latest headlines: the eu has accused belarus of gangster style behaviour — as the migrant crisis on the border with poland escalates. thousands are trapped in freezing conditions. a tough challenge for the climate summit as scientists warn that even with the pledges in glasgow, temperatures will rise beyond global targets. this week — on our regular �*climate critical�* we look at our personal carbon footprint — what it is, how to measure it and,
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crucially, how to cut it. it�*s not easy to calculate the total amount of greenhouse gases we generate, when it involves everything we do. travel, powering our homes, and energy used to create each product we use or consume — from food to smartphones, clothes to concrete. in terms of the main greenhouse gas — c02, the global average for emissions is just under five tonnes a year per person. to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees, this needs to be cut by more than half by 2030. the wealthier you are, the more difficult this will be. the richest 1% — release 70 tonnes of c02 per person — and the poorestjust 0.1 tonne. it�*s an issue of carbon inequality.
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some of us have far more responsibility to act than others and could have a far greater impact. well let�*s look at one way we can see how our day—to—day spending affects our carbon footprint. mankaren ahluwalia is co—founder and ceo of the crowd—funded start—up yayzy — an app that aims to show you how your spending is affecting the environment, and to encourage you to go carbon neutral. it�*s been described as a fitbit for carbon. thanks very much indeed for joining us. i have downloaded it so i�*ve got an example here, let mejust show it so i�*ve got an example here, let me just show everyone on the screen here of my page and they will have give you access to my bank account first of all so you can do it which worried me a bit but fair enough, that is a secure process these days. and i am told to have a a83 kilo carbon footprint and then
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it outlines what each item is costing in carbon terms, how do you work that out?— you work that out? first of all thank you _ you work that out? first of all thank you so _ you work that out? first of all thank you so much _ you work that out? first of all thank you so much for- thank you so much for downloading and checking your carbon footprint and basically what we have done is build this incredible technology and the way it works is once you have connected your bank account or your credit card account, we met each transaction to one of our 100 plus internal impact categories using machine learning and then calculate a carbon footprint in real—time, so this requires no user input and it is now almost automatic. there is certainly no input from me and i will be honest i�*m a little bit puzzled as well, i�*ve got something on ebay for example and it�*s 0.0 kilos, but obviously it�*s got to travel to my house which presumably does have some sort of emission to it. would you accept it�*s a blunt instrument
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or is that unfair? it accept it's a blunt instrument or is that unfair?— or is that unfair? it is definitely _ or is that unfair? it is definitely in - or is that unfair? it is definitely in the - or is that unfair? it is definitely in the early or is that unfair? it is - definitely in the early days but if you look at it this is far more accurate and reliable than say going online and inputting your consumption and then trying to calculate a carbon footprint. it is also much more dynamic and the interesting thing is that we have structured the carbon footprint calculation on three different levels of the right another carbon footprint that you see on a subsector level and it also shows the user preferences, so for example if somebody is big, vegetarian, drives a hybrid, takes all of that into account copy the next thing would be to calculate on a retailer level so consumers can get a distinction between making the same purchase at two different retailers and then we want to go all the way up to the product level to give you the product level to give you the carbon footprint of a product. the only challenge there is getting that product level information so the more information we get into the act the better the assessment we can make but this is still a
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good indicator to if your carbon footprint is too high, too low and if you need to do something to manage it. sure, something to manage it. sure, so this tells — something to manage it. sure, so this tells me _ something to manage it. sure, so this tells me that _ something to manage it. sure, so this tells me that much - something to manage it. sure, so this tells me that much and| so this tells me that much and then you give me an option to do something about it which is essentially to pay for it.- essentially to pay for it. yes, so we do _ essentially to pay for it. yes, so we do allow _ essentially to pay for it. yes, so we do allow our _ essentially to pay for it. yes, so we do allow our users - essentially to pay for it. yes, so we do allow our users to l so we do allow our users to support carbon offsetting projects and this could be either renewable energy project, and do not sorry to interrupt, can ipaq the project? i interrupt, can ipaq the project?— interrupt, can ipaq the ro'ect? ~ �* ., ., project? i think you've got a list of them, _ project? i think you've got a list of them, can _ project? i think you've got a list of them, can ipaq - project? i think you've got a list of them, can ipaq them project? i think you've got a i list of them, can ipaq them or do you decide with the offset is going to go?— do you decide with the offset is going to go? absolutely, the user has the — is going to go? absolutely, the user has the choice _ is going to go? absolutely, the user has the choice as - is going to go? absolutely, the user has the choice as to - is going to go? absolutely, the user has the choice as to which j user has the choice as to which ones they want to pick however we do do our initial due diligence on the project so we only list the ones that we know are certified that we know have are certified that we know have a good reputation in terms of management and the impact they are creating and also we have now bundled them into a
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portfolio so there are multiple different projects and one. i�*ve got to ask you this, what�*s in it for you? i've got to ask you this, what's in it for you? well, the climate crisis, _ what's in it for you? well, the climate crisis, i _ what's in it for you? well, the climate crisis, i think- what's in it for you? well, the climate crisis, i think it - what's in it for you? well, the climate crisis, i think it is - what's in it for you? well, the climate crisis, i think it is a i climate crisis, i think it is a super, super important thing and everybody should have this on their focus right now. but ou can on their focus right now. but you can make _ on their focus right now. but you can make money out of this? that�*s the point? you can make money out of this? that's the point?— that's the point? definitely es, that's the point? definitely yes. yayzy _ that's the point? definitely yes, yayzy started - that's the point? definitely yes, yayzy started as - that's the point? definitely yes, yayzy started as a, . that's the point? definitelyj yes, yayzy started as a, we have three cofounders and we wanted to address a personal problem and we think the most successful businesses are the ones that are mission based but also have a means to make profit so that they are sustainable and have a future for themselves as well. so in terms of carbon offsetting we are definitely promoting awareness, action, we are promoting behaviour change, but yes at the end of the day when a user makes a purchase of carbon offset, we do have a fee that we charge on every transaction, we are super transparent on the app. thank
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ou ve transparent on the app. thank you very much _ transparent on the app. thank you very much indeed - transparent on the app. thank you very much indeed and - transparent on the app. thank you very much indeed and i i you very much indeed and i should just say that the latest research says that people particular among the young are very ready to do their bit and put their hand in their pocket to adjust their own carbon emissions. that is mankaren ahluwalia and it is the yayzy at. thank you very much. it�*s one of the most down—to—earth products, but with universal appeal. and now tomato ketchup is making its mark in the space race. the american food company heinz have created the first ever bottle of ketchup in similar conditions to the ones you would find on mars. a group of 1a scientists have worked on the project for two years. so why have they done it, and what does it taste like? the people with all the answers are former nasa astronaut mike massimino and andrew palmer from the aldrin space institute who dropped in from the stratosphere a little earlier. well david, thanks very much for having us on. it depends on the astronaut, but for me it was very important. i like having ketchup on earth
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and i enjoyed having it in space as well and it�*s not just nutrition but it�*s also a way to feel comfortable, remind you of home. meals are more than nutrition, they�*re also sharing times with your crewmates and remembering some things you love at home, but this is about more than just growing food on mars, it really is about taking that technology and applying it here on earth which andrew can tell you all about but applying it here on earth to areas that we don�*t have the fertile soil that we are lucky to have in other parts of the world, so it is not only about a few astronauts in space, it is hopefully about helping many, many people here on earth. a bit of a condiment to deal with that dry food you get served all the time. andrew, just explain to us the sort of things that you have had to do in order to recreate if you like the conditions that you would have on mars? thanks for having us on and the idea that we�*re going to live exactly on the surface of mars is of course not completely accurate, so we�*re going to have to live inside
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a shelter, so the average temperature on mars is about —60 celsius, it�*s mostly a carbon dioxide atmosphere, so that we are going to live inside shelters and habitats so we created an artificial facility where we can control the temperature, the humidity, the lighting conditions, in fact tomatoes that we ultimately supplied to heinz had never seen the light of day, they�*d only survived under led lighting and the real story here is about the soil itself. now to some truly extraordinary historic jewellery that�* s just sold at auction in geneva. two diamond bracelets once owned by the last queen of france, marie antoinette, sold for more than $eight million. they were bought by an anonymous telephone bidder. marie antoinette sent the jewellery away in a wooden box for safekeeping before
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she was guillotined during the french revolution. both bracelets were successfully smuggled out of the country. that is bbc news. hello there. it was nearly 18 degrees celsius in cheshire yesterday. temperatures which are well above where they should be for this time of year. it will be mild again for the day ahead because we�*ve got that south—westerly wind off the atlantic, but with it some rain which is all tied and from this weather front here which is pulsating, if you like, bringing some further outbreaks of rain through the small hours and into the start of the day it will be on and off throughout the day. it is coming into high pressure and it�*s weakening and to the north of it, the showers have been fading back to the coast with one or two around, but with clear skies actually it is turning chilly, a touch of frost in rural areas. while further south, temperatures of 11 and 12
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are more like where they should be during the day at this time of year. but it�*s misty, it�*s murky and some patchy fog around across southern and eastern areas and there will be some hill and coastal fog underneath our weather front which is going to bring some rain. not too heavy but really rather dank, misty and grey conditions through the day. but mild 1as and 15s, whilst it should start to break up the cloud for northern england tojoin in with northern ireland and scotland with just the odd shower and some sunshine. still a brisk wind with more showers for the north and west of scotland. and indeed here, through the evening and overnight, we�*ll have another band of showery rain moving southwards turning weaker but introduces a bit more cloud. so, perhaps the frost a little bit more patchy by the time we get to sunday morning. the cloud starting to break for the south because those weather fronts are rather weak and they are coming into this area of high pressure. so, we will have, i think, a few fog issues as well on thursday morning. so, once those clear away and at this time of year, both the coming morning and tomorrow morning, it will take it�*s time to clear and linger through the rush hour. once it does, some sunny spells, some rain is gathering
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on that southerly wind picking up further west and you may have noticed this massive rain behind me. that is all tied in with a developing area of low pressure. here it is, there�*s a big question mark as to where the wettest and windiest weather will be. but this is the capability of bringing gales and quite a bit of rain with it to end the week. so, it is one we are watching, do not take this as red because we�*ll be fine—tuning the details, but it looks as if he will be a mild into the week because those wins coming off the atlantic, but it should be moving out of the way in time for the weekend with the weakening feature, so we will see quite a bit of dry weather and still quite a bit of cloud into the weekend. bye for now.
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this is bbc news. the headlines: te european union has accused belarus of gangster—style behaviour as the migrant crisis on the border with poland has escalated. thousands of people are currently trapped in freezing conditions. lithuania has declared a state of emergency and imposed a border ban on non—residents. an international group of leading scientists has issued a stark warning that the world is still heading for dangerously high global temperatures, by the end of the century, even if the 200 countries attending cop26 in glasgow, honour their current promises on emission reductions. a usjudge has denied donald trump�*s attempt
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to prevent investigators accessing white house records, about january�*s attack on the capitol. also a congressional committee investigating the attack has issued summonses to ten more trump administration officials. now the issue of a man rescued after two days underground. the experienced caver had fallen in the cave system and one of the deepest in britain. he was brought out on a stretcher. pulling together to help one of their own. the rescuers�* own pictures tell a story of teamwork in the most challenging conditions. today, as they cleared up, a chance to realise just what they�*d achieved. we look after each other, we�*re an extended family, effectively. we don�*t know each other, all of us. we are like a big family, but if one of us is in trouble,

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