welcome to bbc news, i'm david eades. our top stories: the eu accuses belarus of gangster style behaviour, as the migrant crisis on the border with poland escalates. thousands are trapped in freezing conditions. a sobering message for the climate summit. scientists warn that even with the pledges in glasgow, temperatures are set to rise well beyond global targets. we cannot kick this can down the road. it is not something we can do in 2030, 2050, we need to do it in 2021 and 2022. how the seabed's vital capacity for absorbing carbon is being harmed by the process of climate change. we have a special report. manufacturing the red sauce on the red planet. it's the challenge to produce tomato ketchup under mars—like conditions.
welcome to our viewers on pbs in america and around the globe. the european union says it will impose additional sanctions on belarus, because of what it describes as president lukashenko�*s �*gangster—style approach' to the migrants gathering at the polish, and also now the lithuanian border. his regime has been accused of attracting migrants to belarus in order to send them into the eu in retaliation for european sanctions. at least 2,000 are now gathered in freezing temperatures on the poland—belarus border from where our correspondent nick beake reports. 0n the edge of the european union, a new, desperate migrant camp has just emerged.
0n the left, those who have come to belarus and now made their way to the border with poland. 0n the right, barbed wire and lines of troops, stopping them from crossing. emergency vehicle sirens. throughout the day we watched reinforcements race towards the village of kuznica. poland already has a force of 12,000 guarding its eastern border and is keeping aid agencies and journalists away. but we managed to make contact with some of those trapped in the freezing forest. we feel so bad because nobody help us in here and we so hungry and thirsty, no water, no food, no help. like most here, aziz is kurdish, and from iraq. that's all poland police, they don't let us get inside. a big tension in here. and so many family here and little children. what did the belarus
police say to you? nothing, just, "go," and, "you can't turn back". did they help you get to the border at all? yes, they help us. but getting any nearer to where this crisis has erupted is not possible, as we soon found out. can we go further in? are we allowed to go further towards the border today? no, no. poland, like neighbouring lithuania, is maintaining a state of emergency here. this is as close as we can get to the poland—belarus border today because beyond this checkpoint lies a part of the european union that the polish authorities do not want us to see for ourselves. they are dealing with this growing migrant crisis, out of sight and on their own terms. poland has the support of the eu and nato, which accused belarus of using civilians as weapons in retaliation for sanctions. something the lukashenko regime denies. and warsaw says moscow
is pulling the strings. translation: this attack, - which lukashenko is conducting, has its mastermind in moscow. the mastermind is president putin. moscow denies this. tonight, belarus�*s president said he didn't want an armed confrontation, but warned that any escalation would bring in its ally, russia. translation: it will. immediately drag russia into this whirlpool and it's the largest nuclear armed power. i'm nota madman. i understand very well where this could lead to. the united nations is calling for calm, but the politics are bitter and the situation on the ground, increasingly desperate. nick beake, bbc news, on the polish—belarusian border. lithuania's border with belarus is also affected. there, too, border guards are trying to prevent migrants from crossing over.
bbc newsnight�*s kirsty wark spoke to the lithuanian prime minister, ingrida simonyte, and asked her what her government would do when faced with real human hardship and distress on the border. we have already had a number of humanitarian cases, and those people have been led into the country where there is a very clear humanitarian circumstances, and i need to remind you that we have already had more than 3000 — three and a half thousand people who are already here in the country, waiting for their asylum request to be processed. a senior official from the lithuanian a senior officialfrom the lithuanian government was wrecked quoted as saying, since july this year, irregular crosses, at least two dozen members of radical terrorist groups have tried to get across. tell me about your concerns about that.
of course, we need to be vigilant because this high number of people trying to cross the border, there are all sorts of stories behind. there are people who might be persecuted in their countries because they are lgbt or for some other reason, or they may have a track record of participation in a dangerous things, so, yes, we are working closely, we are partners, we are checking on that, and all the cases that have been established with the people of this track record of terrorism or related activities, some of them have been reported, deported, and the others are isolated. that was the lithuanian minister, ingrida simonyt, talking to us earlier. an international group of scientists has warned that the world is still heading for dangerously high global temperatures by the end of the century, even if countries
do honour the promises made in glasgow at the cop26 summit. the independent climate action tracker, says temperatures are heading for a rise of 2.4 degrees above pre—industrial levels as opposed to the stated target of between two and 1.5 degrees. it's calling it glasgow's �*massive credibility, action and commitment gap�*. from glasgow our science editor david shukman assesses the progress so far at the summit. this is what the talks are all about — keeping the planet safe to live on. and when astronaut tim peake filmed this view, he was really struck by what we keep adding to the air and what that is doing to the climate, so he's come to the conference in glasgow to spell out the dangers. every sunrise and sunset, we see earth's atmosphere, just 16 kilometres thick, and you realise that's it, that's what protects all life down here on the planet. and if we put things into that atmosphere, for example, wildfires, you see them covering entire continents, and the smoke disperses, and that's when you really appreciate that it doesn't have anywhere else to go.
you know, we're all on this one planet together. but the challenge here at this massive gathering is to get delegates from nearly 200 countries to agree on what to do, to try to slow down the pace of climate change. so, after ten days of talking, what's actually been achieved in terms of heading off the risk of the planet getting hotter? well, just before the conference started, we were on course for an increase of 2.7 degrees celsius, a really dangerous prospect. now, if everyone keeps the promises they've made in recent days, that's come down to something like 1.8 degrees celsius, but it all depends on everyone keeping their word, and even if they do, that's still above the target of 1.5 degrees, so the problem is far from sorted. we don't have much time. we want to stay under 1.5, and we're already seeing the climate changing, so now we need to invest,
we need to protect, we cannot kick this can down the road. it is not something we can do in 2030, 2050, we need to do it in 2021 and 2022. new extremes of temperature are proving hazardous in many regions already, and a study by met office scientists warns that a billion people could be affected by a combination of rising heat and humidity. working outdoors could become almost impossible. so, for some, climate change is about survival, including the tiny island nations of the pacific. the realities of climate change... this government minister in tuvalu recorded a video appeal for help. we cannot wait for speeches when the sea is rising around us all the time. he's banking on the next few days of negotiations coming up with a way to make the world less threatening. david shukman, bbc news, in glasgow.
scientists exploring the seabed 3.5 miles below the surface of the ocean have found that its capacity for absorbing carbon emissions is decreasing because of climate change. the latest discovery by the international i—atlantic project, which receives significant funding from the eu, has revealed that if global temperatures increase to predicted levels the ocean will no longer act as the earth's largest carbon store. 0ur science correspondent victoria gill reports. diving to ocean depths of up to 3.5 miles. this is the abyssal zone, where robotic explorers are taking samples from places no—one has ever touched. a third of the carbon dioxide in our atmosphere dissolves in the surface of the ocean. when tiny marine plants and animals feed on that carbon, it becomes part of a cycle that's made the deep ocean and its muddy floor earth's largest carbon store.
in an aquarium like this, you get a snippet of the life in the shallower parts of the ocean, but in the deep ocean floor, there are single—celled organisms that we can't even see, and it's those that are responsible for locking away carbon in the deep. in experiments carried out in the equatorial atlantic, about 500 miles off the coast of west africa, researchers brought tubes of sea floor mud into their ocean laboratories to test what happens to the carbon that's contained in these sediments as the ocean temperature rises. so, we have to understand how this part of our planet will work in the future. in this abyssal ocean, that covers 60% of the planet, we find that under higher temperatures, we can store less carbon in these places. the ecosystems are turning over the carbon faster. they're running at a higher temperature more quickly,
and they're going to release more carbon in the future, and that's really worrying. we know more about the surface of the moon than we do about life at these extreme depths. and researchers say this latest finding isjust a glimpse of how our greenhouse gas emissions are transforming this huge and misunderstood habitat. working out how the deep ocean will be affected by climate change and how it could help us to solve this very human—made problem will require much deeper exploration. victoria gill, bbc news. thousands of people are still desperate to find a way out of afghanistan weeks after the evacuation flights largely stopped. the remote town of zaranj, close to the borders of both pakistan and iran, is a major people smuggling centre. smugglers there have told the bbc their business has more than doubled since the taliban takeover of afghanistan, and that a large number of those leaving hope to reach europe. 0ur correspondent secunder kermani and cameraman malik mudassir sent this report.
afghans are leaving in their thousands. smuggled out from this remote corner of the country, no visas, no immigration, just people smugglers who pay a small fee to the taliban. most, desperate men hoping to find work. babies cry. but there are whole families here, too. aren't you worried about going with all these young children? at times, it feels as if the whole of afghanistan is trying to find a way out. in this dusty car park, passengers wait to start the economy is collapsing and few have faith in the new taliban government. at least 4,000 leave here every day, we're told. this is a deeply surreal sight, a huge people—smuggling hub, operating completely openly.
the taliban say that rising poverty here means that it's not possible to stop all these people from trying to leave the country. they say all they can do is control how many people get into these trucks to make the journey a little safer. the taliban are making money off this trade, around $10 per truck. but they say the economic crisis and freezing of international funding makes the flow of people unstoppable. who's fault is it, the taliban?
zaranj has long been a people—smuggling centre. under the previous government, corrupt officials were paid off. now the trade is flourishing. at the border with iran, hundreds of afghans are deported back every day. but many more are setting off for the desert. we meet labourers, former soldiers, civil servants. they survived the war, but are fleeing its aftermath. secunder kermani, bbc news, zaranj. stay with us on bbc news, still to come: the scientists meeting the challenge
of producing tomato ketchup, in conditions that are out of this world. the bombastic establishment outsider donald trump has defied the pollsters to take the keys to the oval office. i feel great about the election results. i voted for him because i genuinely believe that he cares about the country. it's keeping the candidate's name always in the public. eye that counts. success or failure depends not only on public display - but on the local campaign l headquarters and the heavy routine work of their women volunteers. i berliners from both east and west linked hands and danced around their liberated territory. and with nobody to stop them, it wasn't long before the first attempts were made to destroy the structure itself. yasser arafat, who dominated the palestinian cause for so long, has died. palestinian authority has declared a state of mourning.
after 17 years of discussion, the result was greeted with an outburst ofjoy, leaving ministers who long felt only grudgingly accepted among the ranks of clergy suddenly felt welcome. this is bbc news. the latest headlines: the eu has accused belarus of gangster style behaviour, as the migrant crisis on the border with poland escalates. thousands are trapped in freezing conditions. a tough challenge for the climate summit as scientists warn that even with the pledges in glasgow, temperatures will rise beyond global targets. all frontline national health staff in england will have to be fully vaccinated against covid to protect patients and the health service. the deadline is expected to be the first april next year. the health secretary sajid
javid told parliament more than 100,000 nhs workers in england had yet to be jabbed. 0ur medical editor fergus walsh reports. do you want to roll up your sleeve for me? nojab, nojob — that appears to be the stark reality facing nhs workers in england. those with face—to—face contact with patients have until the 1st of april to have two doses of vaccine. speaker: sajid javid. the health secretary said the move would protect both patients and staff from infection. no—one in the nhs or care that is currently unvaccinated should be scapegoated, singled out or shamed. that would be totally unacceptable. this is about supporting them to make a positive choice, to protect vulnerable people, to protect their colleagues, and of course, to protect themselves. the nhs staff we spoke to in london were broadly in favour. i'm all for it. yeah? yeah.
if people want to work here then they should be prepared to have whatever vaccinations they need. i think everyone needs to have the vaccine. i but this trainee gp says she's recently had covid and believes she is now protected, and so doesn't want to be vaccinated. it is unethical to force anyone to have a medical procedure. and if i've decided, for various reasons, to not have this medical procedure, it shouldn't be up to the government to force me to, or to say i'm going to lose myjob. in england 90% of nhs staff have had two doses of covid vaccine. but 103,000 are completely unvaccinated. among care home workers in england, 88,000 were unvaccinated just a few months ago. that's now down to 32,000. but the deadline for them to be fullyjabbed is this thursday. there are over 90,000 job vacancies in the nhs, and employers are concerned
that could rise even further. if we lose significant numbers of staff as a result of mandatory vaccination, then that's going to put very, very significant pressure on the nhs. so what we're saying to the government today is, yeah, absolutely see the logic of why you would want to do this, but please help us manage the risk of losing nhs staff. several european countries already have compulsory vaccination for health workers. it prompted protests in france but the government there says take up among staff soared from just 60% injuly to 99% now. ministers here will be hoping for a big boost in immunisation rates. but there is a risk that this may alienate some staff who choose to leave the nhs rather than being taken off the wards and redeployed. it's one of the most
down—to—earth products, but with universal appeal. and now tomato ketchup is making its mark in the space race. the american food company heinz have created the first ever bottle of ketchup in similar conditions to the ones you would find on mars. a group 01:14 scientists have worked on the project for two years. so why have they done it, and what does it taste like? the people with all the answers are former nasa astronaut mike massimino and andrew palmer from the aldrin space institute. thanks very much forjoining us. how important is tomato ketchup to an astronaut? iretell ketchup to an astronaut? well david, thanks _ ketchup to an astronaut? well david, thanks very _ ketchup to an astronaut? well david, thanks very much - ketchup to an astronaut? -ii david, thanks very much for having us on. it depends on the astronaut, but for me it was very important. i like having the ketchup on earth and i enjoyed having it in space as well and it is notjust nutrition but it's also a way
to feel comfortable, remind you of home. meals are more than nutrition, is also sharing times with your crewmates and remembering things you loved that home but this is more aboutjust that home but this is more about just growing food that home but this is more aboutjust growing food on mars, it really is about taking that technology and applying it here on earth which andrew can tell you all about but are playing at here on earth to areas that we don't have the federal soil that we are lucky to have another parts of the world, so it is not only about a few astronauts in space, it is also about helping many people here on earth. ﬁx, is also about helping many people here on earth. a bit of a condiment _ people here on earth. a bit of a condiment to _ people here on earth. a bit of a condiment to deal— people here on earth. a bit of a condiment to deal with - people here on earth. a bit of a condiment to deal with that| a condiment to deal with that dry food you get served all the time. andrew, just explain to us the sort of things that you have had to do in order to recreate if you like the conditions that you would have on mars? ., ., ., , on mars? thanks for having us on mars? thanks for having us on and the _ on mars? thanks for having us on and the idea _ on mars? thanks for having us on and the idea that _ on mars? thanks for having us on and the idea that we're - on and the idea that we're going to exactly on the surface of mars is of course not completely accurate, so we're going to have to live inside a shelter, so the average
temperature on mars is about -60 temperature on mars is about —60 celsius, it's mostly a carbon dioxide atmosphere, that we will live inside shelters and habitats so we created an artificial facility where we can control the temperature, humidity, the lighting conditions, in fact tomatoes that we ultimately supplied to heinz had never seen the light of day and only survived under led lighting and the real story here is about the soil itself. so the soil on mars is devoid of any shaping by biological processes. so what we have taken is material from processes. so what we have taken is materialfrom places here on earth that are like places on mars or on the moon, very nitrogen course, so they are not filled with a lot of organic material and they are
going to be more methodologically accurate and closer to mars so learning to grow and that in the challenges with that, you learn a little bit about how we're going grow on mars to support the future martian colony, which the audiences he will be interested in but also how to grow in these nutrient poor areas here on the planet. these nutrient poor areas here on the planet-— on the planet. and you can't live on tomato _ on the planet. and you can't live on tomato ketchup - on the planet. and you can't i live on tomato ketchup alone. what other sort of, i don't know, fruits, vegetables, what works under these conditions? well so that is where we are beginning to grow a larger and larger palate, so my lab and other experiments have been lettuces, potatoes, cucumbers, but this is the first effort to do a large—scale production of this where we were actually able to make some thing in a significant enough yield that we could actually turn it over as product with our partners that heinz and that was a really big issue for us was
trying to move notjust beyond can we grow in these nutrient poor conditions, but can we make something that would be a healthy and tasty product that we could share.— we could share. accurate who are making — we could share. accurate who are making quite _ we could share. accurate who are making quite a _ we could share. accurate who are making quite a launch - we could share. accurate who are making quite a launch of. are making quite a launch of this as you can imagine and fair enough, that tasting is later on in the day. have you been given a private tasting? no i have on, andrew and ir both i think hopeful of eventually having a chance to do that but (crosstalk) ﬁn eventually having a chance to do that but (crosstalk) oh the assumption — do that but (crosstalk) on the assumption that _ do that but (crosstalk) on the assumption that it _ do that but (crosstalk) on the assumption that it is _ do that but (crosstalk) on the assumption that it is ok - do that but (crosstalk) on the assumption that it is ok or- do that but (crosstalk) on the assumption that it is ok or at. assumption that it is ok or at least as good as, does this for you as an astronaut think that the prospect of living, working on mars has come a little bit closer? absolutely. i think that's right on, david. i think if all of what we've seen even in the past year and a half where
access to space has improved, automated systems, reusability, hopefully the price coming down, the access to space will help and i think projects like this become very viable. we've not to this become very viable. we've got to leave — this become very viable. we've got to leave it _ this become very viable. we've got to leave it there. _ this become very viable. we've got to leave it there. make, . got to leave it there. make, andrew, thank you both very much indeed. that's it. hello there. it was nearly 18 degrees celsius in cheshire yesterday. temperatures which are well above where they should be for this time of year. it will be mild again for the day ahead because we've got that south—westerly wind off the atlantic, but with it some rain which is all tied and from this weather front here which is pulsating, if you like, bringing some further outbreaks of rain through the small hours and into the start of the day it will be on and off throughout the day. it is coming into high pressure and it's weakening and to the north of it, the showers have been fading back to the coast with one or two around, but with clear skies actually it is turning chilly, a touch of frost in rural areas. while further south, temperatures of 11 and 12 are more like where they should be during the day
at this time of year. but it's misty, it's murky and some patchy fog around across southern and eastern areas and there will be some hill and coastal fog underneath our weather front which is going to bring some rain. not too heavy but really rather dank, misty and grey conditions through the day. but mild 14s and 15s, whilst it should start to break up the cloud for northern england tojoin in with northern ireland and scotland with just the odd shower and some sunshine. still a brisk wind with more showers for the north and west of scotland. and indeed here, through the evening and overnight, we'll have another band of showery rain moving southwards turning weaker but introduces a bit more cloud. so, perhaps the frost a little bit more patchy by the time we get to sunday morning. the cloud starting to break for the south because those weather fronts are rather weak and they are coming into this area of high pressure. so, we will have, i think, a few fog issues as well on thursday morning. so, once those clear away and at this time of year, both the coming morning and tomorrow morning, it will take it's time to clear and linger through the rush hour. once it does, some sunny spells, some rain is gathering on that southerly wind picking up further west and you may have noticed this
massive rain behind me. that is all tied in with a developing area of low pressure. here it is, there's a big question mark as to where the wettest and windiest weather will be. but this is the capability of bringing gales and quite a bit of rain with it to end the week. so, it is one we are watching, do not take this as red because we'll be fine—tuning the details, but it looks as if he will be a mild into the week because those wins coming off the atlantic, but it should be moving out of the way in time for the weekend with the weakening feature, so we will see quite a bit of dry weather and still quite a bit of cloud into the weekend. goodbye for now.
this is bbc news. the headlines: lithuania declares a state of emergency to prevent a surge of migrants from belarus. thousands are trapped at the border in freezing conditions. lithuanian has declared a state of emergency and imposed a border ban on nonresidents. an international group of leadihg scientists has issued a stark warning that the world is still heading for dangerously high global temperatures, by the end of the century, even if the 200 countries attending cop26 in glasgow, do honour the current promises on emission reductions a usjudge has denied donald trump's attempt to prevent investigators accessing white house records, about january's attack on congress. meanwhile, a congressional committee investigating the attack has issued summonses to ten more trump administration officials, donald trump has condemned the committee. a man rescued from a cave in the breacon beacons