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tv   BBC News  BBC News  November 1, 2021 10:00am-1:01pm GMT

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this is bbc news. i'm annita mcveigh, live in glasgow, where world leaders are gathering for the cop26 climate summit. as it begins, borisjohnson warns humanity has run down the clock on climate change and says urgent action is needed. this is very, very urgent. notjust for our country, for the whole world. and if i had to give a comparison, i would say it was a one minute to midnight moment. and the clock is ticking. un scientists warn that extreme weather events are the new normal — and the past seven years are on course to be the hottest on record. but the leader of china — the world's biggest polluter — will not attend the summit in glasgow — president xi
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will address the conference by a written statement instead. welcome back to glasgow. world leaders are gathering for the un climate conference and this is day one of the leaders summit. they are being urged to put aside their differences and agree urgent action to limit dangerous rises in temperature. around 120 heads of state will attend the conference, including the us president, joe biden. but the leaders of both china and russia, two of the world's biggest greenhouse gas producers, won't be there.
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the summit is being seen as the moment when countries must deliver on pledges to limit temperature rises to 1.5 celsius above pre—industrial levels, to avoid the worst effects of climate change. scientists say that we need to make sure it doesn't rise beyond that. the uk prime minister borisjohnson says the world is at "one minute to midnight" having run down the clock on waiting to combat climate change, and the prince of wales who is due to address the leaders today says a "war—like footing" is needed to deal with the climate crisis. ahead of today's events borisjohnson has been speaking to our climate editor, justin rowlatt. would you say you're now an environmentalist, mrjohnson? i've always been a passionate lover of the natural world. but it was only really on becoming prime minister, seeing the, you know, the upward spike in temperature change. there is absolutely no doubt
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about it, we have to fix this thing. i also think it's the way people want to go. the big change in all this is, it's not what governments think any more, it's not what the corporations think, it's what their punters think. and the people watching, they want change, and they want us to grip this thing. and on the subject of change, we're all thinking about our own carbon footprint. what is thejohnson household doing... yeah, i know! obviously, i've totally abolished commuting since i live above my place of work. but what i used to do is, i used to cycle absolutely everywhere. what about beef, for example? look, i, i, ithink that... i've got to probably stop eating a lot of everything, a lot less, i've got to stop, i've got to start eating a lot less of all kinds of things.
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on the big issue, the cop26 summit, it isn't brexit that in the long term you're going to be remembered for. you're going to be remembered for the deal that you bring back from glasgow because that is the one that's going to affect the climate that we all endure or live in for decades, centuries, thousands of years, possibly. that is the tragedy of it. look, i don't think people realise the difference between 1.5, getting it, restraining it to 1.5 degrees, the difference between 1.5 degrees and two degrees is the difference between losing 70% of the world's coral reef at 1.5 degrees and losing all of it at two degrees. that is an appalling prospect. not to mention desertification, storms, heatwaves. all that. and the consequences, to say nothing of the natural disaster, the consequences for humanity, are enormous. but a couple of weeks before the conference starts, you go on holiday in marbella. is that world leadership?
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well, i think that on the issue of short—haulflights, the... we've got to do things to, i know that people object to what we did with, with the budget, but actually we're increasing the taxation on long haul flights which account for 96% of the emissions. you reduced it on domestic short—haulflights. ones that there are alternatives for. and increased it on long haul flights, so you did nothing. you did nothing. it's very difficult. i mean, i hearyou, but it's very difficult. but the point is, you are asking developing nations to make really tough decisions about their future. yes. and at the same time, and you're saying you want to turn aspiration into action, aspiration into action. you're not delivering action on short—haulflights in britain, are you? with great respect, everybody knows that it's the uk that's out in front. when i was a kid, 80% of our power came from coal. when i was mayor of london it was a0%, it's now 1%.
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let's talk about coal. that's an amazing, that's an amazing... i know everybody asks you this question. but you're going to china, you're going to india, you're going to developing world saying, phase out coal. at the same time as not ruling out a new coal mine in britain, a new coal mine in britain. we started the industrial revolution, we should... i just gave you the statistics. but why don't you just say, we're not going to open... i've just given you the statistics, we have no... the chinese will say, we can't take this guy seriously. well, sorry, what absolutely everybody finds absolutely incontrovertible is the progress the uk has already made. i'm sorry to bang on about the coal. but the point is it makes you look... it makes you look a little bit weaselly, not answering the coal question. because they're going to go and you're talking about coal. sorry, i have answered the coal question. directly, directly. let me say to you directly. yes or no on the coal mine, you personally, what do you reckon?
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i'm not in favour of more coal, let's be absolutely clear, but it's not a decision for me, it's a decision for local planning authorities. one last thought, you're about to go to glasgow. how confident are you about the outcome? i've told you, i think it's in the balance. i think that we've had a decent outcome at the g20 so far. but everybody�*s got a lot more to do. borisjohnson boris johnson speaking to justin rowlatt. over the two week summit here in glasgow there will be a series of negotiations to agree steps to limit climate change, to stop global average temperatures rising more than 1.5 celsius above pre—industrial levels. let's take a look at what is expected at the summit today. world leaders are invited to an opening ceremony, hosted by the uk prime minister, to welcome them to the world leaders summit of cop26. the ceremony has been described as being a significant,
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symbolic and impactful moment. throughout today and tomorrow leaders from across the world will come together in glasgow to give national statements. and taking place this afternoon is the first leaders event action and solidarity — the critical decade. the leaders will hear the latest scientific reporting and examine the state of progress, hearing success stories, but also what is at stake for countries across the world if action isn't taken. lets look across the clyde at what is happening in the blue zone, as it is happening in the blue zone, as it is known. that is where the leaders are gathering on the stage. you have borisjohnson as well as the un secretary general, antonio guterres, and they are officially welcoming around 120 world leaders here to this first part of the world leaders summit. with me here in the studio
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is our reality check correspondent chris morris. chris, beyond all of this, once the leaders go behind closed doors and begin talking, give us a sense of what is going to happen. the leaders are here for the first couple of days, then they lead and —— then they leave. what goes on in a closed door meetings? film; in a closed door meetings? any summit, in a closed door meetings? any summit. it _ in a closed door meetings? any summit. it is — in a closed door meetings? sin; summit, it is important to get in a closed door meetings? jifiy summit, it is important to get the leaders together at the beginning of the end, because they make the decisions. it's more thanjust symbolism, what we are seeing. it's important to get leaders together, and therefore it is disappointing that the presidents of china and russia are not here. but you are right, once the politicians depart, there are technical negotiators, experts, who have been preparing for the summit notjust four months, but for years, the summit notjust four months, but foryears, on an the summit notjust four months, but for years, on an almost constant basis. they are negotiating the detail of international climate action. over the next couple of weeks, they will be trying to hammer out what they have been working on for a long time. that is essentially
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putting what was decided in principle at the last cop in paris, turning that into practical action, that can happen not a long way in the future, but can happen this decade. that is the key thing, what they can actually do. they will be looking at the technical data, going through text line by line. sometimes a single sentence to hold them up for hours or even days, if it is a really difficult issue. but that is where the meat and drink of the summit takes place. make no mistake, the politics is really important, because those are the decision—makers. because those are the decision-makers.- because those are the decision-makers. ., ., , , decision-makers. you absolutely will have our decision-makers. you absolutely will have your reality _ decision-makers. you absolutely will have your reality check _ decision-makers. you absolutely will have your reality check hat - decision-makers. you absolutely will have your reality check hat on - decision-makers. you absolutely will have your reality check hat on over i have your reality check hat on over the next few days, because you will be doing a lot of fax checking as we listen to the political rhetoric? it is a really difficult thing to fact check, because so much of what you get is promises to do things by 2050. you can't fact check the future. what you can say is, well,
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how are we doing so far and how much are those future promises being implanted now? that is why there are so much stress on, yes, a lot of countries committing to a net zero by 2050, but what will happen over the next decade, up to 2030? you can't back load all of the decisions that need to be made into the last decade, into the 20 40s. that would not be sufficient. for example, they are hoping there will be in agreement on substantial cuts in methane over the course of this decade. we talk a lot about carbon dioxide, but it is not the only greenhouse gas. methane is a very, very strong greenhouse gas, but it stays in the atmosphere for less time than carbon dioxide. if you can agree substantial cuts in methane emissions, that can be a fairly quick win for politicians to make a substantial difference. that quick win for politicians to make a substantial difference.— quick win for politicians to make a substantial difference. that is why we are going _ substantial difference. that is why we are going to — substantial difference. that is why we are going to hear— substantial difference. that is why we are going to hear the - substantial difference. that is why we are going to hear the phrase i we are going to hear the phrase decisive decade a lot, the years up to 2030 over the next couple of weeks? it to 2030 over the next couple of weeks? ., , to 2030 over the next couple of weeks? . , , ., . , weeks? it really is a decisive decade. weeks? it really is a decisive decade- at _ weeks? it really is a decisive decade. at the _ weeks? it really is a decisive decade. at the moment, - weeks? it really is a decisive decade. at the moment, the weeks? it really is a decisive - decade. at the moment, the un says, under current plans, we will still
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be producing twice the amount of oil, coaland be producing twice the amount of oil, coal and gas that we would need to hit the target of 1.5 degrees. in other words, limiting global temperature rises to 1.5 degrees above where they were in pre—industrial times. a lot of scientists think 1.5 may now be impossible. at the moment we are probably heading with current, official pledges made to the un, for about 2.7 degrees, which the un said would be catastrophic for the climate. yes, progress has been made in the last few years, but an awful lot needs to be done, and it really needs to be done in the next few years. we can no longer talk about what we are going to do in the future, it's what we are going to be doing now. future, it's what we are going to be doinu now. , ., future, it's what we are going to be doing nova— future, it's what we are going to be doinu now. , ., ., doing now. chris, for the moment, we will be talking — doing now. chris, for the moment, we will be talking throughout _ doing now. chris, for the moment, we will be talking throughout the - doing now. chris, for the moment, we will be talking throughout the day. - it's been called "the world's best last chance to get runaway climate change under control", but what does this actually mean and how did we get here? the bbc�*s science correspondent victoria gill has the details. over the years, we've witnessed
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and reported the impacts of climate change around the world. we've seen deforestation on a vast scale contribute to carbon emissions. and you no longer have to travel to the deserts to see the impact of global temperature rise. the effects of climate change are playing out everywhere. we've been here 20 years, we've got a beautiful home, and just look at it. but while its impact can be painfully dramatic, the process that brings countries together to tackle the issue can be painfully slow. there have been moments of triumph, though, in this long negotiation. at the cop in 2015 in paris, 196 countries signed a global treaty agreeing to limit global warming to well below two celsius and to aim for 1.5. that's the threshold scientists agree beyond which the most dangerous impacts of global warming play out. so now it comes down to here in glasgow. to keep that 1.5 celsius target alive, emissions need to halve within the next decade, and to reach net zero,
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where the world is taking out as much carbon from the atmosphere as it's putting into it, by the middle of the century. so the 200 countries being represented here at cop26 are being asked for their specific plans to meet that goal. the success of this conference will be based partly on countries' willingness to outdo each other when it comes to emission reduction. the uk's net zero strategy has been widely praised. the government has promised to fully decarbonise our electricity supply by 2035, and to phase out the sale of petrol and diesel cars by 2030. but some countries have much more ambitious goals. costa rica, a country that has committed to phasing out fossil fuels completely, is urging richer nations to do more. the fact that costa rica is a small country with limited resources, and yet has been able to put forward very ambitious plans. if we are doing it, you countries that are larger than us, larger economies, better resources, there is no excuse, you have to do it too.
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there's a great deal of work to do here. countries�* current pledges have us on a path towards a 2.7 degrees temperature increase by the end of the century. if negotiations over the next two weeks can't nudge that down significantly, we'll be facing a very uncertain future. victoria gill, bbc news, glasgow. let's talk to baroness brown, chair of the adaptation committee on climate change. thank you very much for your time today. so, as we consider adaptation and what we need to do, both on an individual level, at a national level and water businesses etc need to do, how closely linked do you think the post—pandemic recovery is to dealing with the climate crisis? gosh. that is a challenging question. i think the pandemic has
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made us all much more aware of our need for resilience. one of the things i'm hoping forfrom cop is much, much more focus on adaptation. i think net zero has become sexy and exciting, but alongside that, we have got to recognise that temperatures will go on increasing to 2050, and possibly even a little beyond that, and so adaptation is notjust beyond that, and so adaptation is not just to the terrible beyond that, and so adaptation is notjust to the terrible events we have seen already this year, it will be two events that get worse than that. adaptation is really crucial. one of the things for us in the uk is to think about, actually, our food supply chain. and i think the pandemic has made us think very hard about supply chains. we have seen all sorts of supply chain challenges. well, the climate change thatis challenges. well, the climate change that is going to be happening in other parts of the world is going to be affecting food production. things that we like everyday like tea and coffee, all sorts. we import more
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than half ourfood, around half our food in the uk. so it's really crucial that the countries producing this food are able to adapt. and we may well need to be helping them to do that. , . ., , ., ., may well need to be helping them to dothat. , . ., ., , do that. yes, adaptation absolutely is a crucial precursor— do that. yes, adaptation absolutely is a crucial precursor to _ do that. yes, adaptation absolutely is a crucial precursor to getting - do that. yes, adaptation absolutely is a crucial precursor to getting to l is a crucial precursor to getting to net zero. that might be the buzz phrase. but we do have to focus on how we get to that point. you mentioned the food sector, what are the other key areas that we need to focus on right now in terms of adaptation? i mean, renewable energy is the one that springs to mind. well, we need to be thinking about our energy system, in terms of ensuring it is prepared for the changing climate. at the moment in the uk, about 15% of our energy comes from electricity. by the time we get a 2050, that will be 60 to 70% of our energy coming from electricity. so, ifany 70% of our energy coming from electricity. so, if any part of the electricity. so, if any part of the electricity system is affected by a climate —related disaster, whether
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that be flooding, whether that be a tree falling on an electric line or something, the cascade of problems that will come from that will be much greater than they are today. if your home is cut off today, you quite possibly have a car that is full of petrol or diesel that you can drive to somewhere else. if your home is cut off in the future, your car will also be powered by electricity, so unless you have thought in advance to make sure it is charged, you could find yourself unable to escape, potentially. so, we really need to be thinking about how do we make these systems much more resilient as we become much more resilient as we become much more dependent on them. figs more resilient as we become much more dependent on them.- more resilient as we become much more dependent on them. as we have soken to more dependent on them. as we have spoken to viewers _ more dependent on them. as we have spoken to viewers in _ more dependent on them. as we have spoken to viewers in advance - more dependent on them. as we have spoken to viewers in advance of - spoken to viewers in advance of cop26, one of the messages coming through clearly is that people want to know what this conference means for them, what they are as individuals can do to assist with dealing with climate change, and how much of the adaptation, the sort of things you are talking about, will be driven by the demands of
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individuals.— be driven by the demands of individuals. well, i think it is very important _ individuals. well, i think it is very important that - individuals. well, i think it is very important that we - individuals. well, i think it is very important that we have | individuals. well, i think it is - very important that we have better communication with people. i've been working in peterborough and cambridgeshire, sharing the local climate commission there. and people are very keen to understand better what are the climate risks in their area. so that they know what kind of precautions they can take personally. so, things like signing up personally. so, things like signing up for the environment agency, the flood risk warnings. the environment agency and now also the met office produce an enormous amount of useful information for people, warning them about weather systems that are coming, warning them about very wet weather, warning them about the risk of flooding, you know, knowing whether you should have a bag packed, whether you should start to removing precious things upstairs in your house, if you live by a river that flows from time to time. so, we do need to be really thinking about what kind of information campaigns we need, to help make sure people
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are more prepared for the changes that are coming. and also, you know, helping them think about what do we do if there is... when there is, not if there is, another really hot summer, what are the best ways to keep homes cool, what we do about elderly people or people with chest problems, orsmall elderly people or people with chest problems, or small babies, to make sure they are safe in really, really hot weather. so, all sorts of useful information that can help people. here in the uk, do you think more needs to be done, i'm talking not only about people that might be living on or below the poverty line, but throughout society, more needs to be done by way of financial packages to help people adapt to perhaps retrofit their houses for instance, to put in insulation. i'm thinking about the story that we covered recently about the current announcement on money, which helps households with heat pumps. as we have heard from the green party and others, if a house is not properly insulated, well, putting on a heat pump is like trying to use a leaky teapot. do you think the government
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needs to put more money behind helping people to adapt? absolutely. i think when we _ helping people to adapt? absolutely. i think when we are _ helping people to adapt? absolutely. i think when we are thinking - helping people to adapt? absolutely. i think when we are thinking about i i think when we are thinking about insulating a house, we also need to be thinking about ventilating and shading it. we need to be thinking about notjust shading it. we need to be thinking about not just the shading it. we need to be thinking about notjust the insulation we need for the cold weather, so that we can heat our homes electrically and use less energy heating them, we also need, the same time, to be making modifications that will enable people to cope with the very hot weather and ensure that their homes are both net zero and resilient and safe.— homes are both net zero and resilient and safe. yes, that is absolutely _ resilient and safe. yes, that is absolutely a — resilient and safe. yes, that is absolutely a very _ resilient and safe. yes, that is absolutely a very good - resilient and safe. yes, that is absolutely a very good point i resilient and safe. yes, that is| absolutely a very good point on resilient and safe. yes, that is - absolutely a very good point on the day that we are told the next seven years will likely be the hottest on record. ~ ,,., , years will likely be the hottest on record. ~ , , ~ ., record. absolutely. and we have exoerienced _ record. absolutely. and we have experienced that. _ record. absolutely. and we have experienced that. we _ record. absolutely. and we have experienced that. we had - experienced that. we had temperatures of almost a0 celsius in the botanic garden in cambridge in 2019. ., ~ ,., the botanic garden in cambridge in 2019. ., ~ a, the botanic garden in cambridge in 2019. a, a, 2019. thank you for your time. the chair of the —
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2019. thank you for your time. the chair of the adaptation _ 2019. thank you for your time. the chair of the adaptation committee | 2019. thank you for your time. the i chair of the adaptation committee on climate change. one leader missing is china's president xijinping. the one leader missing is china's president xi jinping. the country is the will�*s largest emitter of greenhouse gases. president xi's absence would mark a setback for hope of getting world leaders to agree on a climate deal. i asked our china correspondent, stephen mcdonell, how his absence will be received amongst leaders in glasgow. well, people will wonder why xi jinping is not at the conference, why the leader of the country that produces more carbon than anyone else is not physically at the meeting, providing solutions. but he hasn't been overseas at all for two years, as far as we can see. china's leader has not travelled outside the country since the coronavirus outbreak started, possibly because they didn't want him to get covid. the chinese government
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would say this is not a snub, he has not gone to this conference because he hasn't been to any conferences. that said, i thinkjust having a written contribution from xijinping might be interpreted as... i don't know, an all too small offering from china's leader. however, really, what happens at these conferences, the leaders are not actually making the deals. it's all the people on the sides. and china has people there, they can certainly call through, and if there are agreements to be made, the chinese government would argue it is still there, contributing, being part of the discussion. partly because it has no choice, really. catastrophic climate change is bearing down on this country like everywhere else. there have been these terrible weather events. the government knows this, it has spoken about it. also, the chinese government thinks that it has not a bad story to tell. because even though this is the biggest contributor
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to the problem, it is also hoping to become the biggest contributor to the solution, with his huge wind farms, huge solarfarms, and even here, you know, this used to be a coal—fired power station. now it has been converted to gas. there are no coal—fired power stations in the beijing area. the government says it is moving slowly but surely towards achieving solutions. i guess the debate is the extent to the speed of it, what the ambition should be for china, is it doing enough? obviously it still relies heavily on coal, and it finances a number of coal—powered projects in other countries. just tell us a little bit more about exactly where china is on the pathway to try to keep globaltemperature, globalwarming, below 1.5 degrees, and also, of course, net zero.
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well, in terms of financing coal projects in other countries, the chinese government says it is going to stop doing that. so, again, even though there are big challenges, big problems, beijing would argue at least it has a plan. unlike the chinese government says other countries, which haven't really got a pathway forward. i mean, if you can believe the chinese government, this country is going to reach peak coal—fired power in just four years. at the moment, they are still furiously building new coal—fired power stations. the reason for that is said to be to replace these clapped—out, more polluting coal—fired power stations, and then, i guess, after four years it will start to taper off and they will rely on other technologies. there is still so much coal—fired power in china,
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so much carbon being omitted. you know, there is a lot to be done, especially in storage. if they can get enough of the renewable energy onto stream and into the mix of the power that this enormous country is using right now. steve mcdonald in beijing. decisions made at cop 26 in scotland will affect countries which may lack the infrastructure to make the transition to green energy. that means they could struggle to commit to key targets to reduce carbon emissions. nigeria is africa's biggest oil producer and its economy is almost entirely reliant on fossil fuel extraction. our correspondent mayeni jones reports from lagos is already going to be very challenging. nigeria has committed reducing emissions by 20%. it aims to do that by taking up solar power and reducing gas flaring, which is a by—product of its massive oil industry. at over the weekend, the
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president wrote an opinion piece in newsweek, where he highlighted the fact that many renewable energy technologies are not yet at the level where they can be used in africa, without back—up diesel generators. he says the use of fossil fuels is still going to generators. he says the use of fossilfuels is still going to be necessary here, particularly when it comes to generating enough electricity to fuel development in this country of 200 million people. it is currently slated to be the third most populous country in the world by the end of the century. so, the authorities here are incredibly concerned with how to develop the country enough, turn it into an industrialised nation, to provide enough employment for all of these people. and they say transitioning to renewables to quick simply won't allow them to do this. lets look over the clyde at what is happening in the blue zone, where world leaders are gathering for the first day of the leaders summit. there you have borisjohnson,
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antonio guterres, the secretary—general of the united nations. they have been, and they continue to greet world leaders arriving here. around 120 of them. this stage of the process is taking a little while, and later in the day we are expecting... may be they have finished, actually, as they walk off the stage. they may have finished that meet and greet part of it. isn't it typical? you come to a shot like that and they finish meeting or 120 or so world leaders. but we will be hearing a number of very significant speeches later on throughout the day and we will bring you all of the key moments that you need to hear about from cop26. most people understand that something needs to be done to tackle climate change. but what risks do big multi—national companies face if they don't transition to reducing their carbon footprint. let's talk to rowan davies from the climate 81 resilience hub of the world's largest insurance broker, willis towers watson — which is part of the coalition for climate resiliant investment. it aims to ensure that, by 2025, physical climate risks
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are systematically integrated into all investment decisions. really good to have you with us. it is interesting, looking at the politicians. we have talked a lot already about what they need to do on pledges to deliver money, to deliver climate finance. prince charles was talking about it yesterday, and we are going to hear so much more about it. the role of the private sector is going to be huge. and chatting to you just before this interview, you were saying that paris was known for the politics, but you believe that glasgow will be known for the economic and finance. explain what you mean by that?— you mean by that? absolutely. the markets believe _ you mean by that? absolutely. the markets believe the _ you mean by that? absolutely. the markets believe the story - you mean by that? absolutely. the markets believe the story that - you mean by that? absolutely. the| markets believe the story that chris morris just talked about earlier on. they understand what is going to happen, physically. they can see the changes now. they can see what is happening ahead. they can also really believe that we are moving to a low carbon transition, that is
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what policymakers are clearly driving towards. so, i think the developing story we will see here in glasgow is that major finance institutions essentially declare the beginning of the end, the rapid beginning of the end, the rapid beginning of the end, the rapid beginning of the end, of the fossil fuel economy and the need for the type of resilience that was spoken about by the baroness just now. and thatis about by the baroness just now. and that is a seismic moment. so, when we say paris, everybody immediately remembers it as the time that the world's 200 nations agreed on a new direction of travel. i think in ten years' time, when people say glasgow, it will be the moment where people accepted mainstream markets moved in any direction, partly because of sticks, regulators and others are requiring companies to disclose these risks, but also carrots, people can see where the future is, and it is rather ironic that adam smith wrote the wealth of nations here in glasgow and talked about the role of the invisible hand, and actually we are updating
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adam smith for the new challenges we face, and that is what glasgow will be remembered for. and it's going to have a massive influence on all markets, but also us. how much of this has been driven by a market rather than a moral imperative?— a market rather than a moral imperative? driven by a moral imperative _ imperative? driven by a moral imperative by _ imperative? driven by a moral imperative by many _ imperative? driven by a moral imperative by many in - imperative? driven by a morall imperative by many in business imperative? driven by a moral- imperative by many in business ten years ago, but after paris there was a switch and to find in companies no longerjust be if you like activists within companies, and there are activists pushing the sun coming to events, now it is actually marrying a brutal truth that if you invest in assets which are going to crumble, albeit that is a bad investment, if you invest in a fossil fuel economy which will not be there in 20 years thatis which will not be there in 20 years that is a bad investment, and we are
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moving towards a situation were to be both moral and economically rational is coming together and that is very exciting because that moves the into a whole different either. that ties in with what the italian prime minister was saying yesterday in the g20 in rome, face now orface a higher cost later, and that is relatively simple economics. it is. it is a bit like — relatively simple economics. it is. it is a bit like having _ relatively simple economics. it is. it is a bit like having a _ relatively simple economics. it 3 it is a bit like having a medical. we know that we have to look after ourselves, we have to have a medical or go to the dentist but we put it off, and broadly speaking our economies, we have been putting off as medical and we have been getting sicker and sicker and sicker. we are at the chance where we are still fit enough to properly get better. if we leave it much longer we are going to be in the realms of palliative care, not curing the problem, and that is why these next ten years the climate
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decade is so important because if we do not make this change knife and move markets and governments we are going to struggle to make this. fine going to struggle to make this. one ofthe going to struggle to make this. one of the big themes as climate justice. talking about the global north the generally wealthier nations and the global south are generally poorer nations and i wondered if what you are talking about and best repositioning of markets and multinationals will have more of an impact on people i know ready developed nations or whether it will have a significant impact on those developing countries. we are hoping to bring a clip very soon of the prime minister of antigua representing the small island developing states and he says it takes a single storm just a few hours to destroy an entire economy and infrastructure on a small island state so i wonder how much the repositioning of markets will actually help these sorts of places. funnily enough, teams we are working
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with are working in antigua so it is great to hear the prime minister speak, but essentially there are two things we need to do with a particularly exposed small island developing states. one is make sure when we invest we take account of the risks and the events we expect in the future. it seems incredible to believe but at the moment we generally do not do that as investors. we take it for granted. we have to make sure we encode the value of risk and resilience so we build for the future but the other key thing is we need to ensure we share the risks of these events across populations within the region and beyond. we can do that through building better public and private insurance systems so that when events occur money is distributed automatically to help people together not waiting months with glorified begging bowl hoping people come back but critically if we
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support these communities through public and private insurance it creates governance, it creates rules of activity. a bit like as we drive cars and we have to wear seat belts. we are all going to have to pay a fee like new roles. if we can marry the rules of good economics with the rules of good behaviour to reduce collective risk and share the excess risk we need to support those communities in the caribbean and elsewhere just as we are in britain will need support and we have a global risk—sharing system and we just do not use it as well as we can and we have two. {lin just do not use it as well as we can and we have two.— just do not use it as well as we can and we have two. on the sub'ect of insurance, whether it * and we have two. on the sub'ect of insurance, whether it is h and we have two. on the subject of insurance, whether it is somebody| insurance, whether it is somebody dealing with floods in the uk or a wildfire in california or a bushfire in australia, to getting the insurance industry is going to adapt sufficiently to make it fit for purpose to provide people with affordable insurance to cover the risks of climate change? that affordable insurance to cover the
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risks of climate change?- affordable insurance to cover the risks of climate change? that is a ireat risks of climate change? that is a great point- _ risks of climate change? that is a great point. there _ risks of climate change? that is a great point. there is _ risks of climate change? that is a great point. there is some - risks of climate change? that is a great point. there is some greatl great point. there is some great research coming out from the university of cambridge being released on the 3rd of november here in glasgow and it sees insurance is much more thanjust in glasgow and it sees insurance is much more than just an industry. in glasgow and it sees insurance is much more thanjust an industry. it seesit much more thanjust an industry. it sees it as an institution of society. yes we will need to expanded private insurance markets and when we pay our insurance we are collectively putting into a global port called the insurance which supports around the people in exposed locations will need support. they may need subsidies, they may need governments to help make their towns and cities little more resilient to reduce the risk, make insurance viable, that insurance being viable are those investment to flow and because investors know if disaster strikes debts will be repaid, so we have to marry these things together but insurance broadly defined as the ultimate community product. in britain we sometimes collect welfare, social
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insurance, we are going to have this continuing from the state to private sector but ultimately it is all of us as citizens as taxpayers or customers sharing these risks together locally but also globally. it is really interesting to talk to you today. thank you so much for your time. you today. thank you so much for yourtime. saying you today. thank you so much for your time. saying that if paris were for politics he believes in ten years when people talk about glasgow it will be for what this has done on the economy and financial aspects of dealing with climate change. a small community in the outer hebrides is facing immediate risk from the effects of climate change and coastal erosion. now, children living on the uist islands have sent messages to world leaders in glasgow, hoping to be heard on the big stage. our scotland correspondent lorna gordon has more. on the edge of the atlantic, islands which in part to seem
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as much water as they are land. experts say the uists are on the front line of climate change. and some of those who call this home are already adapting to their shifting landscape. as you can see, it's disappearing into the dune, it's getting built up. so, you're having to move yourfence further and further inland? yes. basically. donald mcphee's croft has been in his family for generations. we seem to be getting a lot more rain. very unpredictable, whereas back in my father's day you could guarantee that he would have plenty of dry weather in august—september. but now it's very unpredictable. and that's not the only challenge facing these islands, which are so exposed to wet and stormy weather. climate change has the potential to have profound impact on uist. a lot of the land actually lies below the level of the sea for much of the tidal cycle. secondly, you have rising sea levels. thirdly, you have rising
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rainfall in winter, and you have the difficulty, in a very low lying environment, of getting rid of that water. the airport here provides a lifeline service to islanders. £1 million has been spent on the latest work to protect the runway, which ends just metres from the shore. the problem around here was, over the years, we were losing up to five metres at a time, during a storm event, off the dunes. so, the solution we had was designers came up with a system called gabion baskets, which meant you got mattresses and filled them with rock, and then embedded them into the dunes. if this hadn't been done, what was the worst case scenario? worst case scenario, it would have eaten into the end of the runway. this low—lying, watery landscape is vulnerable to changes in our climate, with predictions that the sea level here could rise by as much as half a metre over the next few decades.
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at the island's art centre, a visual reminder of what the long—term effects could be. so, the line represents a nominal level that the sea will rise to, when the sea level rises, and the predicted storm surge in the future. i hope that it does make people think about what we're doing, and that we need to make changes. whoa, what is this? and from the children here, out taking care of their local beach, messages in english and gaelic of their hopes and fears are being sent to the climate summit in glasgow. what do you think about climate change? well, bad, because i am a crofter myself. j and we are losing our land, and it's quite emotional. i we need help now. because if we don't do this soon, there's probably going to be no world left.
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stop sea levels rising, _ or we could be underwater soon. these small islands, hoping for big commitments from world leaders to mitigate the worst that climate change might bring. lorna gordon, bbc news, in the uists in the outer hebrides. world leaders are still taking to the stage. borisjohnson and antonio guterres left the stage but they have been replaced by liz truss and the united nations representative than they are continuing to meet and greet around 120 world leaders who are here in glasgow for these initial two days of the world leaders summit. lots of people
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saying why do so many people need to travel to glasgow with lots and lots of private planes? around a00 private planes have arrived into glasgow, bringing these world leaders and other delegates, but the politicians are arguing that it is absolutely critical that they meet face—to—face to make real progress on climate change. we will have much more for you. this isjust on climate change. we will have much more for you. this is just day two of cop26, a two—week event. yesterday was the present show opening entity is the first day of the leaders summit and we will be back here very soon but right now i will hand you over to rebecca in london. the boss of barclastes staley has stepped down over an investigation by uk regulators into alleged links with the disgraced financier and sex offenderjeffrey epstein. a statement from the bank said it should be noted that the investigation makes no findings that mr staley saw, or was aware of, any of mr epstein's alleged crimes.
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epstein was first convicted and jailed for sex offences in 2008, then arrested again in 2019, and died in his cell two months later. mr staley has said that his relationship with epstein ended in late 2015. our business presenter ben thompson has the details. that line from the bank is the most crucial part of the statement, suggesting that mr staley knew nothing of the offences. this comes out after an investigation by the bank of england and the financial regulator into the nature of that relationship which dates back many years to when staley was the boss ofjpmorgan's bank and jeffrey epstein was a client.
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the bank very keen to point out that he knew nothing of the offences but they question the evidence that he gave to the bank and the regulator over the nature of that relationship. there are big questions because it is not the first time thatjes staley has been in trouble. in 2018 he was fined £6a0,000, barclays was fined £15 million, over the pursuit of a whistle—blower within the bank who had raised some concerns about the running of barclays. then it was seen to be a major offence but it was given a reprieve and he was able to stay at the bank. now we are told in the light of this latest investigation he will leave the bank. we are told it is at his request. he has chosen to step down. he has not been fired but nonetheless he will receive 12 month pay which totals
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about 2.a million, he will get a pension allowance of £120,000 and other benefits, so this marks the end of an era forjes staley at the bank. the market investors are not too thrilled. he was seen as a good force within the bank at restructuring and changing it and changing the investment bank from the private retail banking division and delivering some good returns within the bank, but nonetheless it seems that this latest investigation is enough to prompt him to step down and he will leave with immediate effect and he will be replaced by mr venkatakrishnan who will step up and there is clearly a lot for him to do. the bank pointing out that jes staley knew nothing of the offences ofjeffrey epstein. fully—vaccinated australians will finally be free to leave the country from today when one
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of the strictest covid—19 travel bans in the world ends after 18 months. australians have been restricted from leaving and coming in for 590 days, since march 20th, 2020. travellers will be allowed to visit any country from november 1st but there are many rules in place depending on where you are going. quarantine—free inbound travel for new south wales also begins today. here's our australia correspondent shaimaa khalil. a very emotional day here at sydney airport today. lots of hugs and embraces and flowers and welcome home signs. in fact, there was a sign just behind me saying, "g'day, it is good to have you back." and of course, tears ofjoy and relief. this is a day that so many families have been waiting more than 18 months for, reuniting with loved ones. as fully vaccinated australians and residents now are able to come home from overseas without quarantine but also able to travel abroad without having to ask for an exemption. i'm actually at the departures gate now. i've been speaking to some people who have come back but also people
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who are on their way to london to see loved ones. they told me they have not seen them for ages and it is just so good to be able to make travel plans. this has been quite an exciting day as well for the travel industry, for the national carrier qantas. i've been speaking to their ceo alanjoyce who said the last 18 months have been devastating for the industry and for qantas and they are hoping that their staff is going to come back. they are hoping that their fleet is going to go back to full schedule by december and january. but not everyone is reuniting, not everyone is able to do this because while new south wales and victoria families are able to come now and reunite things are not the same in the rest of the country. we know that queensland, south australia and tasmania have said they may open their international borders before christmas. but western australia, for example, there is no timeline to do so. so while it has been quite emotional here seeing all those family reunions, it is going to be a longer wait for so many more across australia.
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with me now is chris orr ? a scottish ex—pat and owner of wee man's kitchen — a restaurant in melbourne. great to have you with us. you are out of lockdown. i was going to ask you what it was like. i cannot believe you are inside talking to us. it believe you are inside talking to us. . believe you are inside talking to us. , ., . ., , believe you are inside talking to us. it is actually really amazing to be here and _ us. it is actually really amazing to be here and not— us. it is actually really amazing to be here and not be _ us. it is actually really amazing to be here and not be an _ us. it is actually really amazing to be here and not be an lockdown. | be here and not be an lockdown. lucky me it has been a really nice day, 23, 20 four degrees, sunny. i am looking forward to getting away from melbourne and seeing the rest of victoria and possibly the rest of australia and possibly even coming back to the uk, scotland, and seeing my beautiful mum and dad and all my wonderfulfriends if i get a chance. what has the last 18 months to write because you mr brother's wedding? yeah, because he got married in
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september and my mum and dad also missed that, they are from glasgow. it has been really glam. it is not just the fact i have missed the wedding. there has been a lot of bad stuff like my uncle died at christmas time and a lot of my friends have gone through hard struggles back in scotland and just not being able to be there for my friends and family, i have my own family here as well which is the most important thing in the world, but distance plays a big part of it. it has been really hard just trying to survive. you have to stick by routines. you have to have a daily routine. you have to make sure you are driven enough just to get out of the house if you are getting out of the house if you are getting out of the house, because we only had a five kilometre radius of lucky for me i had to park next to me and i could stretch my legs a little bit but there were times because it was winter it was cold and there were
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days that... i will put it out there because i think it is important, i have been depressed. it has been hard. . , . have been depressed. it has been hard. ., , ., , ., . ., , hard. family and friends are clearly the most important _ hard. family and friends are clearly the most important thing. - hard. family and friends are clearly the most important thing. you - the most important thing. you mention your business. what impact has the pandemic add—on that and are up has the pandemic add—on that and are up and running? i am has the pandemic add-on that and are up and running?— up and running? i am up and running and running — up and running? i am up and running and running and _ up and running? i am up and running and running and it _ up and running? i am up and running and running and it is _ up and running? i am up and running and running and it is all— up and running? i am up and running and running and it is all systems - and running and it is all systems go. i have amazing customers and amazing people that support me. melbourne is a people person like place. it is full of amazing restaurants and amazing live arts. it has so much going for it and it is a massive tourist place so when the tourists are not there and the people are not about melbourne suffers and my business suffered as well. i was probably about 90% of my business. i am lucky because the government supported me and having grants but not to have my business and open up every day and see those
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wonderful faces that come through the door was really hard, you know. good luck with it all. we have to leave it there because time is tight. great to chat to you. the foreign secretary, liz truss, has told the bbc that the uk is prepared to take legal action against the eu because of the row with france about fishing rights. ms truss said the french had behaved unfairly, and the uk would not roll over in the face of unwarranted threats. lets have a listen to what she said earlier on bbc breakfast. france has made completely unacceptable threats to our fishermen and to the channel islands in terms of their energy supply and we need them to withdraw those threats. if they do not withdraw those threats we are prepared to use the dispute resolution mechanism in the trade deal we signed with the eu to take action against the french.
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they have behaved unfairly. the fishing licences were awarded entirely in accordance with the trade deal we negotiated and we need them to withdraw those unreasonable threats they have made. thailand is welcoming its first tourists today as it drops almost all quarantine requirements for foreign visitors from more than sixty countries as it tries to revive its vital tourism industry. i'm joined now by yuthasak supasorn, head of the thailand tourism authority. very good to have you with us. i imagine you are rather pleased that this news. ., , ., ., ., imagine you are rather pleased that this news. ., , ., , this news. yeah. it is good to be back in london. _ this news. yeah. it is good to be back in london. we _ this news. yeah. it is good to be back in london. we are - this news. yeah. it is good to be back in london. we are opening | back in london. we are opening thailand today. tell back in london. we are opening thailand today.— back in london. we are opening thailand toda . ., ., , , , thailand today. tell me what happens at the visitor — thailand today. tell me what happens at the visitor does _ thailand today. tell me what happens at the visitor does arrive _ thailand today. tell me what happens at the visitor does arrive and - thailand today. tell me what happens at the visitor does arrive and tests -
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at the visitor does arrive and tests positive for coronavirus, because before they had to quarantine and there were quite strict rules. bier? there were quite strict rules. very simle. if there were quite strict rules. very simple- if you _ there were quite strict rules. very simple. if you are _ there were quite strict rules. - simple. if you are positive you have to stay in isolation in hospital and a couple of days you can go out and travel in thailand but if you get positive, negative, on the first day you arrive you no longer quarantine in thailand, you can go everywhere in thailand, you can go everywhere in thailand. the in thailand, you can go everywhere in thailand-— in thailand. the rules as i understand _ in thailand. the rules as i understand it _ in thailand. the rules as i understand it apply - in thailand. the rules as i understand it apply to - in thailand. the rules as i - understand it apply to travellers aged 12 and over. a lot of children in that age group in the uk have not been vaccinated, so i wondered why you have chosen the age of 12. there are some reports _ you have chosen the age of 12. there are some reports that _ you have chosen the age of 12. there are some reports that many - you have chosen the age of 12. ii—urr are some reports that many children have the vaccine so we tried to impose restriction, but i think we are trying to allow others to go to
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thailand soon but keep waiting, i think we were relaxing. goad thailand soon but keep waiting, i think we were relaxing. good luck with everything- _ think we were relaxing. good luck with everything. very _ think we were relaxing. good luck with everything. very good - think we were relaxing. good luck with everything. very good to - think we were relaxing. good luck| with everything. very good to have you with us. i want to take it over to glasgow and show you pictures of air force one arriving ahead of the cop26 conference with the us presidentjoe biden and his team on board. he will be heading towards the conference centre in glasgow. i am being told he is arriving at edinburgh airport and he will travel to glasgow where he will be greeted by borisjohnson, the uk prime minister, who is welcoming all the world leaders to the summit of cop26. no doubt we
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will be bringing you those pictures here on bbc and so stay with us for that. we can go over to the conference centre in glasgow and there you have the uk prime minister borisjohnson welcoming world leaders to the summit alongside antonio guterres secretary general of the united nations. they have been welcoming world leaders during the course of the morning. around 120 of them will be the for the next two days. the opening ceremony, described as being a significant, symbolic and impactful moment. throughout today and tomorrow leaders from across the world will be coming together in glasgow to give national statements and an important event taking place this
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afternoon, the first leaders event, action and solidarity the critical decade. we will bring you all the key news from that conference here. now it's time for a look at the weather. this week is set to be blustery, windy at times, cool by day. the low pressure that brought all the heavy rain and strong winds yesterday, you can see it is still pretty windy especially in the north and west. we have this band of rain fragmenting england and wales. persistent rain continuing across northern scotland. stronger winds prevailing as well. across northern ireland,
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north of england, winds easing through the afternoon and we are looking at sunshine and showers. same can be said for the rest of england and wales, sunshine and showers, some of them heavy with hail and thunder. temperatures today ten to 1a degrees. through this evening and overnight we see a return to some clear skies. also some showers. the rain persisting across the far north of scotland where it will be windy but when we have clear skies in sheltered parts we could see temperatures low enough for a touch of frost. it will be a chilly start to the day tomorrow but for many of us it is going to be a day of sunny spells and showers. a lot of the showers will be in the north and west. some of them will drift over towards the east as well and like today some of them could be heavy but by the end of the day we are looking at some of those turning wintry on hills and mountains in the north of scotland. into wednesday we have a straight northerly which is going to make it
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feel cool but once again there will be a lot of dry weather, still some showers coming in on the exposed areas to the northerly wind and temperatures seven to 13 degrees north to south. into thursday high pressure tries to build in from the atlantic. a northerly component but a lot of dry weather with a bit more cloud moving in from the northwest and sinking south through the course of the day. temperatures eight to 12. as we move on through friday and into saturday we hang on to high pressure for a time. there will still be some showers around. it will be windy at times but sunday is looking more unsettled and windy.
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this is bbc news, i'mjoanna gosling. the headlines at 11... world leaders gather in glasgow for the cop26 climate change summit. its host, borisjohnson, warns humanity has "run down the clock" on climate change and says urgent action is needed. very, very urgent not just for our country, but the whole world. if i had to give a comparison i would say it was a one minute to midnight moment and the clock is ticking. un scientists warn that extreme weather events are the new normal and the past seven years are on course to be the hottest on record. but the leader of china — the world's biggest polluter — will not attend the summit in glasgow. president xi will address the conference by a written statement instead.
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in other news this morning — police continue their investigation into what casued two trains to collide in salisbury last night, injuring thirteen people. the boss of barclays steps down over an investigation by uk regulators into alleged links with the disgraced financier and sex offender, jeffrey epstein. and in sports, tottenham hotspur sack their manager nuno espirito santo afterjust 17 games in charge. good morning and welcome to bbc news. world leaders gathering in glasgow for the un climate conference are being urged to put aside their differences and agree urgent action to limit dangerous rises in temperature. around 120 heads of state are attending the conference, including the us presidentjoe
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biden. but the leaders of both china and russia, two of the world's biggest greenhouse gas producers, won't be there. the summit is being seen as the moment when countries must deliver on pledges to limit temperature rises to one point five celsius above pre—industrial levels. the prime minister borisjohnson says the world is at "one minute to midnight" having run down the clock on waiting to combat climate change, and the prince of wales who is due to address the leaders today says a "war like footing" is needed to deal with the crisis. ahead of today's events borisjohnson spoke to our climate editor, justin rowlatt. would you say you're now an environmentalist, mrjohnson? i've always been a passionate lover of the natural world. was always very, very conscious of the loss of habitats and nature, and appalled by the loss of forests. but it was only really on becoming prime minister, seeing the, you know,
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the upward spike in temperature change. there is absolutely no doubt about it, we have to fix this thing. to what extent does your wife carrie, does she influence your views? because she brings a lot of passion to these issues, doesn't she? well, i've always been very passionate about the issue. i discuss it with lots... your father? yes. your brother? all my friends and family, of course. i'm not going to hide it from you, there are some very committed environmentalists in my family. that is absolutely true. but i don't want you to think that i'm the black sheep of the family, ok? i am also, i have been for a long time, very, very determined to fix some of these issues. i suppose one of the things that really attracts me about it is the possibility of technological change. and progress to drive the economy.
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so, a kind of new industrial revolution? i think there is a huge opportunity to do things better in our country, and to be at the cutting edge of new technology. that is the way i think the country should go. i also think it's the way people want to go. the big change in all this is, it's not what governments think any more, it's not what the corporations think, it's what their punters think. and the people watching, they want to change. on the big issue, the cop26 summit, it isn't brexit that in the long term you're going to be remembered for. you're going to be remembered for the deal that you bring back from glasgow because that is the one that's going to affect the climate that we all endure or live in for decades, centuries, thousands of years, possibly. at this stage, we have had a decent g20, but it is nothing like enough. heading for 2.7!
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exactly. you're quite right, justin. that is the tragedy of it. look, i don't think people realise the difference between 1.5, getting it, restraining it to 1.5 degrees, the difference between 1.5 degrees and two degrees is the difference between losing 70% of the world's coral reef at 1.5 degrees and losing all of it at two degrees. that is an appalling prospect. not to mention desertification, storms, heatwaves. all that. and the consequences, to say nothing of the natural disaster, the consequences for humanity, are enormous. and they will manifest themselves in movements of people, in conflicts over resources. huge instability and uncertainty. but the point is, you are asking developing nations to make really
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tough decisions their future. tough decisions about their future. yes. and at the same time, you're saying you want to turn aspiration into action, aspiration into action. you're not delivering action on short—haulflights in britain, are you? with great respect, everybody knows that it's the uk that's out in front. when i was a kid, 80% of our power came from coal. when i was mayor of london it was a0%, it's now 1%. let's talk about coal. that's an amazing, that's an amazing... i know everybody asks you this question. but you're going to china, you're going to india, you're going to developing world saying, phase out coal. at the same time as not ruling out a new coal mine in britain, a new coal mine in britain. we started the industrial revolution, we should... i just gave you the statistics. but why don't you just say, we're not going to open... i've just given you the statistics, we have no... the chinese will say, we can't take this guy seriously. well, sorry, what absolutely everybody finds incontrovertible is the progress the uk has already made.
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i'm sorry to bang on about the coal. but the point is it makes you look... it makes you look a little bit weaselly, not answering the coal question. because they're going to go and you're talking about coal. sorry, i have answered the coal question. directly, directly. let me say to you directly. yes or no on the coal mine, you personally, what do you reckon? i'm not in favour of more coal, let's be absolutely clear, but it's not a decision for me, it's a decision for local planning authorities. one last thought, you're about to go to glasgow. how confident are you about the outcome? i've told you, i think it's in the balance. i think that we've had a decent outcome at the g20 so far. but everybody�*s got a lot more to do. borisjohnson, boris johnson, and right borisjohnson, and right now he is with the us secretary general in glasgow, greeting delegates as they
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arrive. next to arrive will be the french president emmanuel macron. you can't see him in these pictures, but we saw him behind the scenes, making his way to that area where borisjohnson and antonio guterres are waiting. also heading their way is us presidentjoe biden. he arrived in edinburgh a little earlier on air force one. he is actually based in edinburgh for the duration of the talks, but he will be going to glasgow and is due to be meeting borisjohnson. let's go back because emmanuel macron has now arrived and they are now having their official greeting. a touch of the arm between the two men who had those talks about fishing. there is a bit of a discrepancy about whether there was an agreement or not. there does not seem to have been an agreement. it
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was said from the french side that there was. that is something that is off the agenda for these talks but it will be an issue that will no doubt get touched upon. i suspect they don't have microphones, so that we could listen in, but i don't think we will be able to hear a word. this is obviously an important moment for what happens going forward on climate change. it has been described by borisjohnson as the world being a minute to midnight, having ran down the clock on waiting to combat climate change. we will leave those pictures. they are just having this moment, we will leave those pictures. they arejust having this moment, that all of the leaders arriving will have. the british prime minister and the un secretary general will be greeting 120 leaders, not china or russia. xijinping is submitting a
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written statement to the conference. we will leave those pictures and go back as soon as there are other arrivals. we are expecting president joe biden shortly. it's been called "the world s best last chance to get runaway climate change under control", but what does this actually mean and how did we get here? the bbc�*s science correspondent victoria gill has the details. over the years, we've witnessed and reported the impacts of climate change around the world. we've seen deforestation on a vast scale contribute to carbon emissions. and you no longer have to travel to the deserts to see the impact of global temperature rise. the effects of climate change are playing out everywhere. we've been here 20 years, we've got a beautiful home, and just look at it. but while its impact can be painfully dramatic, the process that brings countries together to tackle the issue can be painfully slow. there have been moments of triumph, though, in this long negotiation. at the cop in 2015 in paris, 196 countries signed a global treaty agreeing to limit global warming
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to well below two celsius and to aim for 1.5. that's the threshold scientists agree beyond which the most dangerous impacts of global warming play out. so now it comes down to here in glasgow. to keep that 1.5 celsius target alive, emissions need to halve within the next decade, and to reach net zero, where the world is taking out as much carbon from the atmosphere as it's putting into it, by the middle of the century. so the 200 countries being represented here at cop26 are being asked for their specific plans to meet that goal. the success of this conference will be based partly on countries' willingness to outdo each other when it comes to emission reduction. the uk's net zero strategy has been widely praised. the government has promised to fully decarbonise our electricity supply by 2035, and to phase out the sale of petrol and diesel cars by 2030. but some countries have much more ambitious goals. costa rica, a country that has committed to phasing out
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fossil fuels completely, is urging richer nations to do more. the fact that costa rica is a small country with limited resources, and yet has been able to put forward very ambitious plans. if we are doing it, you countries that are larger than us, larger economies, better resources, there is no excuse, you have to do it too. there's a great deal of work to do here. countries�* current pledges have us on a path towards a 2.7 degrees temperature increase by the end of the century. if negotiations over the next two weeks can't nudge that down significantly, we'll be facing a very uncertain future. victoria gill, bbc news, glasgow. damilola ogunbiyi is the special representative of the un secretary—general for sustainable energy for all. shejoins us now. thank you she joins us now. thank you very much forjoining us. i want to read
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out first of all the description of what your organisation is tasked with, because it is such a complicated picture. there are so many targets, so many different elements of it. i would like to read it out and then for you to explain what you are tasked with. it is an international organisation that works in partnership with the united nations and leaders in government, the private sector, financial institutions, civil society and philanthropy is to drive faster action towards the achievement of sustainable development goal seven, which is access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030 in line with the paris agreement on climate. if you could just tell us exactly what that means. it sounds like an enormousjob. it that means. it sounds like an enormous job.— that means. it sounds like an enormousjob.— that means. it sounds like an enormous job. that means. it sounds like an enormous 'ob. ., , ~ ., enormous 'ob. it does sound like an enormous job. it does sound like an enormous job _ enormous job. it does sound like an enormous job and _ enormous job. it does sound like an enormous job and that _ enormous job. it does sound like an enormous job and that is _ enormous job. it does sound like an enormous job and that is because i enormous job. it does sound like an enormous job and that is because it| enormous job and that is because it is. but energy is that force that unlocks all type of economic growth and it is really needed if the rest
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is going to be achieved. we take energy for what it is. as we are talking about climate change and energy transition, what does it mean for developing countries? what does it also mean for 759 million people around the world who have no access to electricity at all 22.6 billion people have no access to clean cooking. when we are talking about these things and these climate promises we seem to sometimes forget about developing countries and the fact that in terms of energy the continent of africa will need more energy instead of less moving forward, so we have to work with civil society and financial institutions and governments to make sure that we have energy for economic growth, energy for development, energy to really get people out of poverty whilst still forcing richer nations to transition
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into a cleaner energy and increase the use of renewables in line with the use of renewables in line with the paris agreement. $5 the use of renewables in line with the paris agreement.— the use of renewables in line with the paris agreement. as you say, it is a picture — the paris agreement. as you say, it is a picture where _ the paris agreement. as you say, it is a picture where there _ the paris agreement. as you say, it is a picture where there are - the paris agreement. as you say, it is a picture where there are a - is a picture where there are a number of sustainable development goals and they all interact and everything needs to work for the overall picture to work. and when it comes to those impoverished nations you talk about going forward and needing more energy, at what stage are things in terms of ensuring that that increasing energy supply is going to be clean and sustainable? well, we are not at the best stage now, which is why this cop26 is so important. we need to raise ambition when we are talking about sustainable energy and access to affordable and clean energy. we have to make sure first that finance is on the table, that there is enough finance to make sure people can be connected and countries that need to transition get enough financial aid
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to make sure that happens. if that is not available, it is very hard to speak to the policy work that has to be done, the capacity work that has to be done, the planning that has to be done, and what is currently going on. what we have done, as part of the un high—level dialogue, the un general assembly, there was a high—level dialogue on energy which was the first time in a0 years where we have companies and multi—stakeholders to sign up to energy contracts. what are you going to do as an organisation, as a country, as an individual, to make sure we achieve sustainable development? when we are talking about climate we cannot achieve our 2015 climate goals if we do not make sure that everybody on earth has access to electricity by 2030. itruiheh access to electricity by 2030. when it comes to — access to electricity by 2030. when it comes to the _ access to electricity by 2030. when it comes to the financing _ access to electricity by 2030. when it comes to the financing on - access to electricity by 2030. when it comes to the financing on the - it comes to the financing on the table can you talk us through what
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the overall requirements are and what is actually there currently? i will split it into two segments. in countries with universal access, something around the region of $a5 billion every single year. however, we are not only talking about the minimal access to energy or clean cooking, we are talking about energy transition, so i will do a deep dive on my own country, nigeria. nigeria is a large oil and gas state and for it to transition and reach the targets by 2050 or 2060, it would need something in the region of around $a00 billion. this is entire electrification of the economy, not just the power sector, transport, agriculture or has to go in there. i just want to give you an idea of the scale of finance needed forjust one nation in africa. it is a big nation but it is one nation. also when you
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do not have enough electricity, telling people to transition out of something, what we should be telling people is that energy access is a firm part of the energy transition story. firm part of the energy transition sto . ~ , ., , ., ., story. when you put that figure out there which — story. when you put that figure out there which is _ story. when you put that figure out there which is for _ story. when you put that figure out there which is for nigeria _ story. when you put that figure out there which is for nigeria alone, i there which is for nigeria alone, there which is for nigeria alone, the amount needed to transition is $400 the amount needed to transition is $a00 billion, multiply it as you indicate by other countries and it is just an enormous figure. is the money coming forward? is the money there? how much of a sense of urgency is there around this? you say it is a key part of the picture, but the figure that is always talked about, the overall headline figure of cutting the temperature rise is what is in the headlines. is it going to be achievable? what is icall going to be achievable? what is typically in _ going to be achievable? what is typically in the _ going to be achievable? what is typically in the headlines -
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going to be achievable? what is typically in the headlines as - going to be achievable? what is typically in the headlines as the | typically in the headlines as the $100 billion that is required and thatis $100 billion that is required and that is still very urgently required for the entire climate crisis, but in terms of energy it goes beyond just what we are seeing with the adaptation or mitigation. we have to make sure that people have adequate energy to develop. no, the money is not efficient and one of the reasons we are here is to get countries to raise their ambitions and understand it is also an opportunity. have more solar panels being sold and creating new parks and jobs for women, they are big opportunities that pay for themselves. renewable energy in developing countries, for every dollar spent you get the gdp equivalent of 93 cents. apart from getting healthier people and more jobs being created. there hasjust been this narrative that it is almost a burden and you are giving away free money, that is not what it is. you are creating economic growth to get people out of poverty and it is very critical in this climate
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conversation.— is very critical in this climate conversation. . ., , , ., conversation. special representative ofthe conversation. special representative of the un secretary _ conversation. special representative of the un secretary general- conversation. special representative of the un secretary general for- of the un secretary general for sustainable energy for all, thank you forjoining us.— you for “oining us. thank you for havin: you forjoining us. thank you for having me- _ let's just take another look at what is happening in glasgow. boris johnson and antonio guterres chatting as they wait for the next world leader to arrive. we saw emmanuel macron arriving a while ago. most of them passed through quickly but he stayed for a while. we cannot hear what is being said there, but they are waiting and greeting all of the leaders and we are expecting joe biden to arrive shortly. i don't know how long it is going to take. he arrived in edinburgh and he is going to glasgow. we will be there as soon as joe biden arrives.
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jeffrey epstein was first convicted and jailed for six offences in 2008. jess staley said his relationship with jeffrey epstein jess staley said his relationship withjeffrey epstein ended in 2015. let's get more from ben thompson. why is he going? good morning. the key point is the statement from barclays, that this is not knowing anything about the offences committed byjeffrey epstein. this is about the nature of the relationship thatjess staley declared to the bank over a number of years. as you said, this is the fallout of an investigation by the financial regulator and the bank of
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england look into that relationship between jess daly, england look into that relationship betweenjess daly, who has been head of barclays betweenjess daly, who has been head of ba rclays for a betweenjess daly, who has been head of barclays for a number of years and the disgraced jeffrey epstein. this investigation found evidence that the nature of the relationship had not been clear. it dates back to when jess staley was the boss had not been clear. it dates back to whenjess staley was the boss of jpmorgan, the private bank, which jeffrey epstein was a client. it has come to pass that there was not clarity over that relationship and therefore jess staley will step down with immediate effect. it is worth saying it is not the first time that jess staley has been in trouble at barclays. back in 2018 he was fined £6a0,000. barclays itself was fined £15 million and that is over the pursuit of a whistle—blower who had tried to highlight what they saw as wrongdoing within the bank on another matter. then the bank decided thatjess
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staley could stay. this time it has been agreed that he will leave. again it is nothing to do with knowing about the offences committed byjeffrey epstein, but the nature of the relationship over a number of years and his declarations to the bank. he is stepping down, he has not been fired, he will leave with 12 months pay, about £2 million, and his pension allowance and a number of other benefits as well. the new boss will take over as the new boss of barclays immediately, but nonetheless investors are looking at this as a dark day for the bank because jes staley this as a dark day for the bank becausejes staley has been credited with turning around the fortunes of barclays. at the height of the financial crisis there was a lot of focus on the banks being too powerful and controlling too much money. they were forced to split their bank into the investment business, which is seen as a bit
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more risky, and the retail business that we may encounter on the high street. those have been separated and he is credited with doing that pretty successfully. shares are down in barclays this morning on the news of his departure. it seems thatjes staley�*s banking career is at an end. rail accident investigators are examining the scene of a collision between two trains in salisbury, which left 13 people needing hospital treatment. officials say the line could be closed for some time while inquiries continue. jon kay reports. one mile from the centre of salisbury. it was here, just before 7pm last night, that a great western railways train hit an object inside the fisherton tunnel. it's believed part of the train derailed, knocking out the signalling. a few minutes later, a south western train, travelling from london to devon, collided with the first. just this massive impact
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and i fell across the table and then the table came off the wall, i ended up underneath another table. there was just suddenly a lot ofjostling, possessions being thrown around. i think a few people went forward and hit their heads. firefighters have carried out a thorough search i of the train carriages i and we've assisted with the evacuation of - approximately 100 people. we do not believe there i were any further casualties on board the train and we can confirm there are _ no fatalities. the more seriously injured passengers were taken to nearby hospitals. as well as one of the drivers who had to be freed from their train. the walking wounded were treated at a church close to the crash site. i could tell that some people were a little bit shaken and some obviously had some minor injuries and i think probably theyjust appreciated a space to be able to pause, really, and to reflect on what had happened to them. after the initial emergency response, things will now move
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to the investigation phase. the question, what caused this sequence of events? what caused these trains to collide? and how will they be removed from the tunnel? one possibility is that heavy rain might have caused some kind of slippage onto the track. serious questions remain. but the overriding sense here is relief. this could've been much, much worse. jon kay, bbc news, salisbury. martin frobisher is the safety and engineering director of network rail. thank you forjoining us. first of all, that point, it could have been so much worse, couldn't it? it could indeed and — so much worse, couldn't it? it could indeed and we _ so much worse, couldn't it? it could indeed and we are _ so much worse, couldn't it? it could indeed and we are hugely _ so much worse, couldn't it? it could indeed and we are hugely relieved l indeed and we are hugely relieved that nobody has been seriously injured. but obviously the passengers must have had a really terrible experience and i am very sorry for the stress and the shock that that will have caused.- that that will have caused. where are thin . s
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that that will have caused. where are things at _ that that will have caused. where are things at in _ that that will have caused. where are things at in terms _ that that will have caused. where are things at in terms of - that that will have caused. where are things at in terms of looking i are things at in terms of looking into what the cause could have been? what are the first thoughts around that? we what are the first thoughts around that? ~ ., �* ~ ., what are the first thoughts around that? ., �* ~ ., , what are the first thoughts around that? ., �* ~ ., y ., that? we don't know yet, we are still in the _ that? we don't know yet, we are still in the very _ that? we don't know yet, we are still in the very early _ that? we don't know yet, we are still in the very early stages - that? we don't know yet, we are still in the very early stages of. still in the very early stages of the investigation. the rail accident investigation branch are on site and they are going through everything in absolute forensic detail. we know that the trains have forward facing cctv cameras, so there is a lot of evidence to review and the rail accident investigation branch are on site working that through. that is the face we are at. we don't know yet, but a very detailed investigation is under way. we heard investigation is under way. we heard in john's report _ investigation is under way. we heard in john's report that _ investigation is under way. we heard in john's report that it _ investigation is under way. we heard in john's report that it could - injohn's report that it could potentially have been caused by heavy rain causing something to go the track. sorry, i need to cough. are you at this stage even able to rule out it was something deliberate or potentially something like that? at this stage we just don't know. i am getting lots of information, but some of it is contradictory and we
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do not want to speculate at this early stage. the rail accident investigation branch are on site and they do their investigation and they will then hand over to the network rail team who will begin with the recovery of the train on site and then we need to repair the track. there is of work to do and at this stage we don't know the cause. once we have been able to assess the damage to the track, only then will we be able to give a reliable estimate time. ibi, we be able to give a reliable estimate time.— we be able to give a reliable estimate time. a matter of no contention _ estimate time. a matter of no contention that _ estimate time. a matter of no contention that there - estimate time. a matter of no contention that there was - estimate time. a matter of no - contention that there was something on the track, whatever it was and however it got there that caused the first train to derail which caused the collision?— the collision? honestly, i really don't know and _ the collision? honestly, i really don't know and at _ the collision? honestly, i really don't know and at this - the collision? honestly, i really don't know and at this stage . the collision? honestly, i really don't know and at this stage it | don't know and at this stage it would be wrong to speculate. there is all sorts of information coming out. but what we do have is huge confidence in the rail accident investigation branch. they are extremely thorough and they do their job very well and once we get a clear statement from them we will know where we are, but at this point
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it would be just speculation. you it would be 'ust speculation. you mentioned — it would be just speculation. you mentioned obviously the trains will need to be removed. how long could that process take? that need to be removed. how long could that process take?— that process take? that again i don't know _ that process take? that again i don't know because _ that process take? that again i don't know because at - that process take? that again i don't know because at the - that process take? that again i - don't know because at the moment the rail accident investigation branch have control of the site. once they have control of the site. once they have finished, because we do not want lots of people trampling over the evidence, once they have finished our engineers will be on—site to do the assessment. it is a very confined site and it quite difficult to access and at least one of the wagons is tilting quite significantly over. the recovery of thatis significantly over. the recovery of that is quite a complicated task. once we have access to the site we will be able to assess that properly and begin the recovery operation. i5 and begin the recovery operation. is it a fair assumption that both trains would have been travelling pretty slowly? we started this conversation by saying it could have been so much worse. presumably they were not going very fast. is that because with the second train would it have had any sort of alert that
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there was danger ahead? both were approaching a junction and the speed at the junction is 20 mph. the trains were going slowly and thatis the trains were going slowly and that is the reason that the damage isn't much more serious. in terms of the precise reasons why it happened, i genuinely do not know at this stage. but the low speed of the railway at this location is the main reason why they have not been serious injuries.— serious in'uries. thank you for “oininu serious injuries. thank you for joining us- _ serious injuries. thank you for joining us. thank _ serious injuries. thank you for joining us. thank you - serious injuries. thank you for joining us. thank you very - serious injuries. thank you for i joining us. thank you very much. serious injuries. thank you for - joining us. thank you very much. i think we can _ joining us. thank you very much. i think we can go — joining us. thank you very much. i think we can go back— joining us. thank you very much. i think we can go back to _ joining us. thank you very much. i think we can go back to glasgow. | joining us. thank you very much. i. think we can go back to glasgow. no, sorry, i thought we were going to seejoe biden arrived. but that was see joe biden arrived. but that was a mistake on my part. let's talk about travel. travellers arriving
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from england from any part of the world will no longer have to quarantine in a hotel. the red list category will remain in place as a precautionary measure and will be brought back if needed. we can talk with sarah bradley, the managing director ofjoni latin america. welcome. thank you forjoining us. how much of a difference for this make for your business?- how much of a difference for this make for your business? well, it is excellent news. _ make for your business? well, it is excellent news. we _ make for your business? well, it is excellent news. we did _ make for your business? well, it is excellent news. we did have - make for your business? well, it is excellent news. we did have some | excellent news. we did have some earlier good news at the beginning of october, on the 7th of october, when the red list was drastically reduced and a number of the destinations in latin america changed. seven nation state and the red list. this finally gets all of destinations off and we can get back
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to building profitability and trading again and sending people throughout our whole region. ilibiheh throughout our whole region. when ou sa throughout our whole region. when you say actually _ throughout our whole region. when you say actually start _ throughout our whole region. when you say actually start trading again. what have the last 18 months been like for you?— been like for you? incredibly tough. it travel industry _ been like for you? incredibly tough. it travel industry has _ been like for you? incredibly tough. it travel industry has had _ been like for you? incredibly tough. it travel industry has had a - been like for you? incredibly tough. it travel industry has had a torrid i it travel industry has had a torrid and difficult time. we have not been able to spend any anywhere from the pandemic start. we brought our final passengers home, many people wear away when we went until the first lockdown, so we brought people who by the end of march last year and until the end of last week, we had not actually been able to get our first passengers away in what would have been 19 months. it first passengers away in what would have been 19 months.— have been 19 months. it has been a difficult time. — have been 19 months. it has been a difficult time. i — have been 19 months. it has been a difficult time. i am _ have been 19 months. it has been a difficult time. i am assuming i have been 19 months. it has been a difficult time. i am assuming for. have been 19 months. it has been a difficult time. i am assuming for a i difficult time. i am assuming for a you going, how did you manage financially through that period? yes, it has been very, very difficult. we are a smaller business
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than we were when we went into the pandemic. we had a summerjob cuts. father was a very useful contribution to wage costs. —— furlough. have remained open throughout. you have always got customers who are booked to depart at some point in the future and with long haul, it is difficult people book along time in advance, six months or even longer. farlow was there for a very useful contribution to wage costs. —— furlough. it did not meet all of them. it did not meet our costs. really, we have been kept going by the fact we knew that once things did open up, our customers wanted to travel. many of our customers have this point rather than cancelled trips. some two, three or four times. than cancelled trips. some two, three orfour times. there is pent up three orfour times. there is pent up demand. our staff have been excellent, really adaptable and incredibly resilient and i am
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delighted now to be able to get back to doing what they do so well, organising amazing trips for people to this fantastic part of the world. on that pent up demand, there are people who tried to pick, were expecting to go, and have shunted that. what about new people coming into the market and looking to book. how much of an appetite do you think there is? even though they are off there is? even though they are off the red list, these countries, international travel is not straightforward any more. ida. international travel is not straightforward any more. no, it is very complex- _ straightforward any more. no, it is very complex. there _ straightforward any more. no, it is very complex. there is _ straightforward any more. no, it is very complex. there is a _ straightforward any more. no, it is very complex. there is a lot - straightforward any more. no, it is very complex. there is a lot of- very complex. there is a lot of demand. you are starting from virtually stand still. we are taking bookings, getting people away. we got people away last week. christmas is quite in demand. the numbers you are looking at compared to normal, pre—pandemic numbers, i still weigh down on what we would be expecting a normal trading.
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down on what we would be expecting a normaltrading. —— down on what we would be expecting a normal trading. —— way down. the rules are complex and it will take a while. countries all across the world have protocols and reels in place. we look forward to helping people, our customers, navigate the different rules for our different destinations, within our region do vary quite significantly. i think capacity is going to be an issue. i am making this sound like an unabashed plug. like the galapagos islands are patagonia, where numbers are always restricted by the remoteness by the fact that numbers have to be kept low to protect these very fragile habitats and with almost two years of no travel, this was a global issue, notjust uk travellers, there is a lot of pent up travellers, there is a lot of pent up demand and i think over the course of the coming months, we will see capacity crunch points. but the fact remains that, you know, consumer confidence also has to come
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back and there is demand, people want to travel, we know that. but it has been a torrid 18 and 19 months for everybody for a variety of reasons. in travel times, there has been a lot of uncertainty, a lot of change. we have seen a gradual return, ratherthan change. we have seen a gradual return, rather than things going back to normal. it is going to take some time. back to normal. it is going to take some time-— back to normal. it is going to take some time. ., �* ., , ., ~' some time. sarah bradley, thank you ve much some time. sarah bradley, thank you very much for— some time. sarah bradley, thank you very much forjoining _ some time. sarah bradley, thank you very much forjoining us _ some time. sarah bradley, thank you very much forjoining us and - some time. sarah bradley, thank you very much forjoining us and i - some time. sarah bradley, thank you very much forjoining us and i am i very much forjoining us and i am glad to hear your business can start to get back on its feet.— sport and for a full round up, from the bbc sport centre, here's sarah mulkerrins. good morning. let's start with the breaking news this morning that tottenham have sacked nuno espirito santo as manager afterjust four months in charge. saturday's loss to manchester united was spurs' fifth defeat in their last seven premier league matches. they're 8th in the table, ten points behind leaders chelsea. let's get more on this now from the bbc�*s simon stone. what have the club had to say then?
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well, the club have announced the departure of nuno espirito santo and his coaching staff. the managing director said that the decision was made with regret but nuno espirito santo was a true gentleman. the brutal truth is though was nuno espirito santo had been sacked after four months in thejob, one of espirito santo had been sacked after four months in the job, one of the shortest managerial reigns. he has only been in charge for 17 matches and ten premier league games. and the tottenham supporter trust says they are concerned about the future direction of the club. it is my understanding the decision was made partly because of results, partly because of the style of football, and partly because of the intense reaction by the tottenham fans to saturday's defeat when the bewdley
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team and nuno espirito santo and the criticised one of his substitutions in particular. it is not a decision that tottenham have reached lightly. it is a major decision and comes very, very early in nuno espirito santo's rain. very, very early in nuno espirito santo's rain-— santo's rain. you suggested a combination _ santo's rain. you suggested a combination of _ santo's rain. you suggested a combination of reasons i santo's rain. you suggested a combination of reasons they i santo's rain. you suggested a i combination of reasons they are. it leads you on to think who will be best placed to take the club forward. what type of manager that they should be looking for. well. forward. what type of manager that they should be looking for.- they should be looking for. well, it is interesting. _ they should be looking for. well, it is interesting. they _ they should be looking for. well, it is interesting. they would - they should be looking for. well, it is interesting. they would have i is interesting. they would have known about nuno espirito santo's counterattacking style before he came to the lab and now he has been sacked because of it. they are going to have to think about this long and hard. graeme proctor is someone they spoke to before in the summer. maybe the brighton manager is one person who could come into the frame. the name i am hearing very strongly at the moment is the former chelsea
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manager, who left inter milan after leading them to the italian title in the summer. tottenham spoke to him in a number of times in the summer. they could not reach an agreement then. he has been linked with manchester united and all the rumour around the manager there. it is my understanding that he is at the top of the tottenham list at the moment. we will see how that works out in the next few days until tottenham get a replacement. they play on thursday night in europe and then they play at everton on sunday. we would expect a decision at some point around then. find would expect a decision at some point around then.— would expect a decision at some point around then. and 'ust quickly, simon, point around then. and 'ust quickly, simon. what — point around then. and 'ust quickly, simon, what does i point around then. and 'ust quickly, simon, what does this, i point around then. and just quickly, simon, what does this, where i point around then. and just quickly, simon, what does this, where does| simon, what does this, where does this leave nuno espirito santo? such a success at wheels and just four months in charge of tottenham. it is interestin: months in charge of tottenham. it 3 interesting because he did really, really well at the previous club. he has a very tight coaching team, he likes to play with three men at the
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back, very much counterattacking team. tottenham wanted a more expansive style, nuno espirito santo tried that and it did not work. he is a really good manager. he has proven that. i suspect he will think he needs to go to a team or a club who are willing to let him manage in the way he sees as being the best way, ratherthan the way he sees as being the best way, rather than coming to a club and being told the way to manage. i think that is the way that nuno espirito santo will look at the situation. it is a brittle way to end a managerial reign afterjust four months. end a managerial reign after 'ust four months.i end a managerial reign after 'ust four months. ., ,, . ., four months. thank you so much for talkin: to four months. thank you so much for talking to us- _ four months. thank you so much for talking to us. plenty _ four months. thank you so much for talking to us. plenty more _ four months. thank you so much for talking to us. plenty more on i four months. thank you so much for talking to us. plenty more on that l talking to us. plenty more on that story and indeed all of the day's sports news on the website. that is it from me for the moment. let's return now to cop26 and the glasgow summit is about doing much more to turn promises into practice, and we talk a lot about a target of 1.5 degrees. what is it and why does it matter? our reality check correspondent chris morris outlined the significance of staying below
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one point five degrees of warming. it was the last big international climate summit in paris in 2015, which produced a legally binding treaty with a clear goal, to limit global warming this century to well below two degrees, and preferably to 1.5 celsius, compared to pre—industrial levels. now, it's important to stress that when we talk about 1.5 degrees of warming, we are talking about the increase in the average temperature across the whole planet. it doesn't sound like a lot, but some places have already seen much bigger increases. and as the earth warms up, extreme weather events are becoming more frequent. climate scientists were alarmed by how extreme some of them have been, such as the soaring temperatures in north america's heat dome injune and july this year, smashing previous records. the comparison to pre—industrial levels a couple of hundred years ago is also important, because nearly all man—made global warming has been caused
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by our use of fossil fuels. coal, oil and gas, which have powered the industrial age. the transition to renewable energy is well under way, but it's going to be really hard to meet the 1.5 degrees target. many experts think it may already be too late to do so. the increase in global temperatures has now reached about 1.1 or 1.2 degrees above pre—industrial levels. so if current trends continue, it's likely we'd pass 1.5 degrees sometime in the 2030s, and even after taking into account most of the recent national pledges to cut carbon emissions further, the un reckons we could be heading for 2.7 degrees of warming by the end of the century, with catastrophic consequences. that is why there is now such a concerted push for action, and of the difference between 1.5 and two degrees may not sound like much. but the intergovernmental panel on climate change has had 1.5, instead of two degrees, would mean, among other things, 10 million fewer people losing
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their homes to rising sea levels. venting some low lying island countries from disappearing together. it would limit the loss of coral reefs and of arctic sea ice and there would be roughly 50% fewer people around the world are struggling to find fresh water. even at 1.5 degrees, it would be big changes to our climate. one of the main goals in glasgow is to keep the target firmly within reach. the world needs to hailii target firmly within reach. the world needs tt ., , , ., , ., world needs to half emissions. that is big changes _ world needs to half emissions. that is big changes to — world needs to half emissions. that is big changes to the _ world needs to half emissions. that is big changes to the way _ world needs to half emissions. that is big changes to the way society i is big changes to the way society and companies _ is big changes to the way society and companies operate. - is big changes to the way society and companies operate. this i is big changes to the way society and companies operate.- is big changes to the way society and companies operate. this is the decade when _ and companies operate. this is the decade when those _ and companies operate. this is the decade when those changes - and companies operate. this is the decade when those changes are i and companies operate. this is the i decade when those changes are going to start happening. let's show you some pictures from glasgow when more than 1000 delegates queued for more than 1000 delegates queued for more than an hourto than 1000 delegates queued for more than an hour to get the opening speeches of the climate conference in glasgow. they are trying to get
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into the blue zone, the area for government delegates, business leaders, and journalists. well, a small community but at up a small community in the outer hebrides is facing immediate risk from the effects of climate change and coastal erosion. now, children living on the uist islands have sent messages to world leaders in glasgow, hoping to be heard on the big stage. our scotland correspondent lorna gordon has more. on the edge of the atlantic, islands which in part to seem as much water as they are land. experts say the uists are on the front line of climate change. and some of those who call this home are already adapting to their shifting landscape. as you can see, it's disappearing into the dune, it's getting built up. so, you're having to move yourfence further and further inland? yes. basically. donald mcphee's croft has been in his family for generations. we seem to be getting a lot more rain.
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very unpredictable, whereas back in my father's day you could guarantee that he would have plenty of dry weather in august—september. but now it's very unpredictable. and that's not the only challenge facing these islands, which are so exposed to wet and stormy weather. climate change has the potential to have profound impact on uist. a lot of the land actually lies below the level of the sea for much of the tidal cycle. secondly, you have rising sea levels. thirdly, you have rising rainfall in winter, and you have the difficulty,in a very low lying environment, of getting rid of that water. the airport here provides a lifeline service to islanders. £1 million has been spent on the latest work to protect the runway, which endsjust metres from the shore. the problem around here was, over the years, we were losing up to five metres at a time,
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during a storm event, of the dunes. so, the solution we had was designers came up with a system called gabion baskets, which meant you got mattresses and filled them with rock, and then embedded them into the dunes. if this hadn't been done, what was the worst case scenario? worst case scenario, it would have eaten into the end of the runway. this low lying, watery landscape is vulnerable to changes in our climate, with predictions that the sea level here could rise by as much as half a metre over the next few decades. at the island's art centre, a visual reminder of what the long—term effects could be. so, the line represents a nominal level that the sea will rise to, when the sea level rises, and the predicted storm surge in the future. i hope that it does make people think about what we're doing, and that we need to make changes. whoa, what is this?
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and from the children here, out taking care of their local beach, messages in english and gaelic of their hopes and fears are being sent to the climate summit in glasgow. what do you think about climate change? well, bad, becausei am a crofter myself. and we are losing our land, and it's quite emotional. we need help now. because if we don't do this soon, there's probably going to be no world left. stop sea levels rising, _ or we could be underwater soon. these small islands, hoping for big commitments from world leaders to mitigate the worst that climate change might bring. lorna gordon, bbc news, in the uists in the outer hebrides. from today, covid boosterjabs in england will be available with no appointments needed. people in the priority groups can turn up at walk—in centres
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across the country but must have had their second dose at least six months ago. people eligible for a boosterjab include those aged 50 and over. nhs england say more than six million people have already had a boosterjab or a third dose. let's get more on this with robert read who's professor of infectious diseases at the university of southampton and a member of the uk joint committee on vaccination and immunisation. welcome. thank you very much for joining us. how much of a difference do you think it will make in terms of the roll out, having these places where people can shore up now? it will make it more efficient and make it easierfor people will make it more efficient and make it easier for people to get along and have their booster dose when they are eligible for it. i think it is going to make a big difference for the nhs as we go into the winter months. so, yes, it is great that people are able to do this now. do ou people are able to do this now. do you think it is still great to have
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the timeframe of six months? there are some people who are itching to get it and it seems like there has been capacity that has not been fully used, for some reason. it is the ritht fully used, for some reason. it is the right point — fully used, for some reason. it is the right point to _ fully used, for some reason. it 3 the right point to get it at six months. if you have your third dos to long before that six—month point, the us response of your body is not as efficient. the maximum efficiency is at six months. you know, if it is operationally needed to vaccinate people at five months, we are doing that. for example, in care homes. for the general population who are eligible, those over 50 or who have underlying diseases, six months is the right point to do it. you may be wondering why do we need a booster jab? we need the bisto because all vaccines do win in their efficacy and this vaccine is all like the
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others. if you cut your finger or go to casualty and get a tetanus shot, it is like the covid vaccine. it is boosting your efficiency. where does it to from boosting your efficiency. where does it go from here _ boosting your efficiency. where does it go from here and _ boosting your efficiency. where does it go from here and what _ boosting your efficiency. where does it go from here and what is - boosting your efficiency. where does it go from here and what is the i boosting your efficiency. where does it go from here and what is the time | it go from here and what is the time frame that you would like to see this roll out for the most vulnerable, the over 50s, completed? well, as you said, now we have done about 7 million people already. it is 2 million in the last week. we would like this as fast as possible between now and the winter. the special thing about winter is there is this confluence with respiratory viruses and that together with covid gives you a complex picture of hospitalisation and populations. when we talk about winter, i am never very good about remembering
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when the seasons begin, but i think it begins in the middle of november. not far away. what are you thinking in terms of the timeframe? you not far away. what are you thinking in terms of the timeframe?- in terms of the timeframe? you are tuite in terms of the timeframe? you are quite right. — in terms of the timeframe? you are quite right, winter— in terms of the timeframe? you are quite right, winter estates - in terms of the timeframe? you are quite right, winter estates in - quite right, winter estates in mid—december. the hit happensjust after christmas. that is when the flu season kicks in. then it goes all the way through to january and february. by getting the doses in now, we will get down through our 50—year—old is pretty soon and we will give them the maximum protection needed. we will also be offered the influenza jab and i had may influenza jab at the same time as my covid jab. we now know that is very safe for vaccinations. itibiith very safe for vaccinations. with immunity waning, _ very safe for vaccinations. with immunity waning, that - very safe for vaccinations. with immunity waning, that will happen with all age groups, what would happen in terms of boosterjabs for younger ones? if happen in terms of booster “abs for younger _ younger ones? if you look at how ouickl younger ones? if you look at how quickly vaccines _ younger ones? if you look at how
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quickly vaccines or _ younger ones? if you look at how quickly vaccines or wayne, i younger ones? if you look at how quickly vaccines or wayne, the i younger ones? if you look at how i quickly vaccines or wayne, the wayne more quickly in older populations. here we have a situation where it wins most largely in the older people. they are most likely to be affected by it covid. we are starting with the older people. it is the most obvious thing to do. we do not know if we need to boost this winter anybody younger than 50. we are discussing the age group below that and we should make a decision. thank you very much forjoining us. robert reid there. let's take you back to glasgow. the indian prime minister hasjust been back to glasgow. the indian prime minister has just been meeting boris johnson and antonio guterres. the latest of the world leaders to arrive to get a official greeting from the two of them. we will go back as and when more people arrive.
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travel has been significantly disrupted across britain, following a weekend of strong winds and heavy rain. there were reports of a tornado in northamptonshire, and hundreds of people were unable to travel by train from london to glasgow, for the first day of the climate conference, after overhead power lines were damaged. frankie mccamley has the details. passengers and trains brought to a standstill at euston station yesterday, all services suspended as rail networks warned people not to travel. many here trying to get to glasgow for the cop 26 climate summit. others are simply trying to get home. fortunately my son lives in london so we we'll go and stay at his house but if it wasn't for that, i don't know what we would do. i left my house 13 hours ago in south—west london. i'm going to edinburgh for one last train journey to glasgow. hoping to get to my airbnb by 10:30pm. total travel, ten hours, eight hours on trains, twice i left london euston and twice
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arrived back, so ten hours travelling and eight hours on a train to get nowhere. and this is the reason for the disruption — strong winds battering parts of the country including here in northampton outside richard osborne's house. the trees to the right were blowing left, the trees to the left were blowing right, leaves were spinning in the air and forjust a brief moment i wasn't sure if i had woken up, it didn't seem real. nearby, hail was added to the mix, calling off this old boys�* rugby match, the storms leaving around 15,000 people in the area without power. trees were torn down on the althorp estate. owner earl spencer, sharing this video, said luckily no animals were hurt. others blocked roads around the country with police reporting multiple incidents and more than 200 emergency calls. the bbc presenter reverend richard coles tweeted this picture of a tree outside st mary's church that was hit by what he described as a tornado.
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this is what we call straight line wind damage where heavy bursts of rain bring down very strong winds from higher up in the atmosphere and that causes the damage. i wouldn't rule out a couple of brief tornadoes in there but most places probably didn't see a tornado, just very strong winds for a few minutes as that came through this morning. many are pointing out the irony — severe weather preventing travel to a climate conference. we will be live in glasgow at the top of the hour. now it is time for a weather update. hello. this week looks set to be one of sunshine and blustery showers, windy at times. cool by day, that she fog at night. the pressure that brought the heavy rain yesterday moving north. it is still windy, especially in the north
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and west with exposure. this band of rain is fragmenting across england and wales through the course of the afternoon. persistent rain across northern scotland. the stronger winds will prevail as well. it comes south across the west of scotland, and england. using through the afternoon. sunshine and showers. wales, sunshine and showers. some of the showers could be heavy. the odd rumble of thunder and hail. temperatures, ten to 1a celsius. overnight, a return to clear skies. also some showers. the rain persisting across the north of scotland. where we have the clear skies in sheltered parts of england, wales and central scotland, a touch of frost. a chilly start to the day tomorrow. it is going to be a day of sunny spells and showers for many of us. a lot of the showers will be in
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the north and the west. some were drift of the east as well. some of them could be heavy. some of them turning wintry in the hills of scotland. wednesday, is straight northerly. that is going to make it feel cool. a lot of dry weather. temperatures seven to 13 celsius north to south. an area of high pressure tries to build in from the atlantic. in a lot of dry weather, with more cloud moving in from the north and sinking south through the course of the day. temperatures, eat in the ninth to 12 as we push down to jersey. in the ninth to 12 as we push down tojersey. ? make it in the north. towards a saturday, we hold on to the high pressure and windy at times. sandy is looking more unsettled and wet and windy. ——
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sunday.
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this is bbc news, i'm annita mcveigh in glasgow where world leaders are gathering for the cop26 climate summit. borisjohnson and un secretary general antonio guterres have been greeting the leaders as they arrived for the summit. us presidentjoe biden has arrived in scotland but chinese leader xi jinping and russian president vladimir putin are not attending. un scientists warn that extreme weather events are the new normal — and the past seven years are on course to be the hottest on record.
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hello and welcome to glasgow, where world leaders gathering for the un climate conference are being urged to put aside their differences and agree urgent action to limit dangerous rises in temperature. the opening ceremony of cop26 is about to start. it is just it isjust a it is just a few minutes away, the start is slightly delayed. it is just a few minutes away, the start is slightly delayed. it will be a direct call to action for world leaders. in the coming hour we ll be hearing from british prime minister borisjohnson and united nations secretary general antonio guterres. the prince of wales and environmentalist sir david attenborough will also address the summit in this opening ceremony.
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prince charles is expected to say that a "war—like footing" is needed to tackle the climate crisis. it's been called "the world s best last chance to get runaway climate change under control", but what does this actually mean and how did we get here? the bbc�*s science correspondent victoria gill has the details over the years, we've witnessed and reported the impacts of climate change around the world. we've seen deforestation on a vast scale contribute to carbon emissions. and you no longer have to travel to the deserts to see the impact of global temperature rise. the effects of climate change are playing out everywhere. we've been here 20 years, we've got a beautiful home, and just look at it. but while its impact can be painfully dramatic, the process that brings countries together to tackle the issue can be painfully slow. there have been moments of triumph, though, in this long negotiation.
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at the cop in 2015 in paris, 196 countries signed a global treaty agreeing to limit global warming to well below two celsius and to aim for 1.5. that's the threshold scientists agree beyond which the most dangerous impacts of global warming play out. so now it comes down to here in glasgow. to keep that 1.5 celsius target alive, emissions need to halve within the next decade, and to reach net zero, where the world is taking out as much carbon from the atmosphere as it's putting into it, by the middle of the century. so the 200 countries being represented here at cop26 are being asked for their specific plans to meet that goal. the success of this conference will be based partly on countries' willingness to outdo each other when it comes to emission reduction. the uk's net zero strategy has been widely praised. the government has promised to fully decarbonise our electricity supply by 2035, and to phase out the sale of petrol and diesel cars by 2030. but some countries have much more ambitious goals.
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costa rica, a country that has committed to phasing out fossil fuels completely, is urging richer nations to do more. the fact that costa rica is a small country with limited resources, and yet has been able to put forward very ambitious plans. if we are doing it, you countries that are larger than us, larger economies, better resources, there is no excuse, you have to do it too. there's a great deal of work to do here. countries�* current pledges have us on a path towards a 2.7 degrees temperature increase by the end of the century. if negotiations over the next two weeks can�*t nudge that down significantly, we�*ll be facing a very uncertain future. victoria gill, bbc news, glasgow. our science correspondent victoria gill is with me.
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landed at edinburgh airport a little while ago we think around a00 private planes have landed in glasgow. lots of people will be asking that we justify? can the carbon footprint of that be justified by having all these people in this place together face to face? it is a very good question. it is something that is fundamental to this process, the ongoing negotiations, these gatherings year after year, apart from last year, that everyone having the same platform is in the same room and the un a levelling of the playing field so people can come together and have a voice. that is a fundamental part of this whole procedure. but it is a huge question and not one i know the answer to. what is the carbon cost of this? it is being billed available conference and what will that cost and what kind of a picture
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with paint when we are telling economies to move away from fossil fuels and to decarbonise and to stop costing that much carbon in the future? ~ ., ., costing that much carbon in the future? ., ., ., ., . future? we had an announcement earlier today _ future? we had an announcement earlier today from _ future? we had an announcement earlier today from the _ future? we had an announcement earlier today from the uk - future? we had an announcement i earlier today from the uk government on some more finance for developing countries and it struck me that this event might be like a climate top jobs and when you see one nation and another nation or prime minister announcing more and more initiatives in a bid to grab the headlines and parade their eco credentials in front of the world. but you mentioned something yesterday, there is a lot of peer pressure and that could be productive. that is a lot of peer pressure and that could be productive.— is a lot of peer pressure and that could be productive. that is kind of the enoine could be productive. that is kind of the engine behind _ could be productive. that is kind of the engine behind this, _ the engine behind this, the engine not being a useful metaphor, but this is about that peer pressure process, everyone bringing their a—game to the table, about what strategy they will put in place in order to cut emissions, half emissions by 2030, net zero x 2050,
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these are the targets we need to hit in order to avoid catastrophic climate change. so it is part of the process, every single contributor has to try and outdo each other and some of those developing nations that have done the least to cause climate change have less to pay up when it comes to decarbonising. but really it is how good can you be? what is your a game when you come to the table at this un event? outdoing each other is part of the process. let�*s run through a few key concepts and important words and phrases we will be hearing lots of over the next two weeks. 1.5 degrees, stopping global warming, global temperatures getting 1.5 degrees above preindustrial levels. why is that figure so important? that fioure is that figure so important? that figure is so — that figure so important? that figure is so important - that figure so important? tryst figure is so important because that is what scientists have predicted and what of the evidence is telling us will avoid the most catastrophic
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impacts of climate change. currently we are on a trajectory if all of the pledges that have been put on the table so far since the paris agreement add to a 2.7 degrees temperature rise, our activity has warned the earth. 1.5 is a threshold. it is still pretty damaging, you are still talking about hundreds of millions of people facing climate change, starvation and severe drought. we are still talking about a loss of most of our coral reefs, but beyond that it ratchets up and gets worse and worse. it is the difference between losing all of our coral reefs and still having some left. and hundreds of millions of people versus the billions of people facing starvation are linked to climate change and facing those dangerous heatwaves. this is the crucial threshold. it is not a cut—off point, we cannot stop climate change, it is happening. explain the concept of net zero, we will be hearing a lot about it. ioibie will be hearing a lot about it. we will be hearing a lot about it. we will hear a _ will be hearing a lot about it. - will hear a lot about it and we will be hearing that we are not getting
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their as fast as we need to and countries are not promising enough. net zero means we are taking out as much carbon from the atmosphere as we are putting in. this is the key thing, the science is showing us that we need to stay in that window of being able to limit climate change, to keep to that 1.5 threshold because carbon dioxide saysin threshold because carbon dioxide says in the atmosphere for a long time and we will build residual and historical effects of it and we need to get to net zero by the middle of the century. that is a key date that has been put in place. in the century. that is a key date that has been put in place.— has been put in place. in order to achieve that _ has been put in place. in order to achieve that by _ has been put in place. in order to achieve that by the _ has been put in place. in order to achieve that by the middle i has been put in place. in order to achieve that by the middle of i has been put in place. in order to achieve that by the middle of the | achieve that by the middle of the century a lot of work needs to happen between now and the end of this decade, and this is another key phrase which our viewers will hear a lot about, that is why this decade that we are in right now is being called the decisive decade. yes. called the decisive decade. yes, exactl . called the decisive decade. yes, exactly- it _ called the decisive decade. yes, exactly- it is _ called the decisive decade. yes, exactly. it is about _ called the decisive decade. yes, exactly. it is about bending i called the decisive decade. lei: exactly. it is about bending that curve and bending it as quickly as possible because at the moment we are overshooting. all of the pledges
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according to the scientists who have crunched the numbers and gathered all of their data to model the trajectory we are on, the temperature increase we are heading towards, we are overshooting two degrees and we are heading towards 2.7 and that is if everybody meets their targets. 2.7 and that is if everybody meets theirtargets. it 2.7 and that is if everybody meets their targets. it is about bending their targets. it is about bending the curve down and we need to do that quickly. tbs, the curve down and we need to do that quickly-— the curve down and we need to do that quickly. a really big theme for the summit. _ that quickly. a really big theme for the summit, and _ that quickly. a really big theme for the summit, and we _ that quickly. a really big theme for the summit, and we are _ that quickly. a really big theme for the summit, and we are seeing i that quickly. a really big theme for the summit, and we are seeing a l that quickly. a really big theme for. the summit, and we are seeing a lot of frustrated voices from the developing world, it is the tension between developed countries and the developing world and those developed countries have not lived up to promises in previous summits to bring forward enough money, enough climate finance, to help those poor nations transition to a greener infrastructure. this idea of climate justice is really important for glasgow, isn�*t it? it justice is really important for glasgow, isn't it?— justice is really important for glasgow, isn't it? it is. beyond that financial _ glasgow, isn't it? it is. beyond that financial help, _ glasgow, isn't it? it is. beyond that financial help, and - glasgow, isn't it? it is. beyond that financial help, and this i glasgow, isn't it? it is. beyond that financial help, and this is l glasgow, isn't it? it is. beyond. that financial help, and this is not helped, it is a fundamental moral obligation the richer nations have
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to fund those poorer nations that have done the least to cause climate change to adapt to what is already a changing climate. it change to adapt to what is already a changing climate.— changing climate. it was the president — changing climate. it was the president of _ changing climate. it was the president of malawi - changing climate. it was the president of malawi who i changing climate. it was the | president of malawi who said changing climate. it was the i president of malawi who said this changing climate. it was the - president of malawi who said this is not an act of charity, pay up or we all perish together.— all perish together. yes, exactly. in order all perish together. yes, exactly. in order to _ all perish together. yes, exactly. in order to help _ all perish together. yes, exactly. in order to help those _ all perish together. yes, exactly. in order to help those economiesj in order to help those economies move to this a more sustainable future and this needs to happen. what are the key things do you think we should be looking at? i willjust pause in the middle of that question, victoria, because i believe we are about to see presidentjoe biden. there he is, emerging from his motorcade, arriving in glasgow fresh from the g20 in rome. well, you know, at the end of the g20 yesterday, the official communiqu was released, but there was disappointment from a
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lot of environmental groups that the g20 did not go further, especially on the language around net zero, the balancing of emissions, so that no more images are going into the air than are being taken from it. it was disappointed that the g20 did not say 2050 as a firm date for net zero. they said it would be around mid century. a little bit woolly, a little bit of wriggle room, more wriggle room than a lot of people would like to see.— wriggle room than a lot of people would like to see. exactly, and that is a disappointing _ would like to see. exactly, and that is a disappointing foundation i would like to see. exactly, and that is a disappointing foundation on i is a disappointing foundation on which to start this cop26 because that target has already been set by the science. i said yesterday the physics of climate change doesn�*t care about the difficulty of this economic and political process. this is happening anyway and it is running beyond the time and we are on. having that target in place would have been the foundation that they would have wanted to start this conference. ,., . ,, ., they would have wanted to start this conference. . ,, ., ., conference. going back to that ouestion conference. going back to that
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question i— conference. going back to that question i was _ conference. going back to that question i was about _ conference. going back to that question i was about to - conference. going back to that question i was about to ask i conference. going back to that l question i was about to ask you conference. going back to that i question i was about to ask you when joe biden arrived, at the end of these two weeks, what do you think would represent a successful cop26? it is not going to look like paris in 2015, it is not going to be the moment of triumph or the world comes together in a treaty and a concrete agreement. this is going to look a little bit more woolly and hopefully not some wishy—washy, down the road declaration that says we are getting there but we need to do more, because we are in this critical moment in this critical decade. essentially success would look like the scientist crunching the numbers and saying the strategies are there. there we have borisjohnson, the uk prime minister, and antonio guterres, secretary general of the united nations, greeting president joe biden on his arrival in glasgow. let�*s see what the us has to say. obviously a really big hitter in all of this. what will it do? what
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initiatives will it announce to try to set the right tone for cop26 in glasgow? much more coming up from the conference as we await the opening ceremony. just now we are saying goodbye to viewers on bbc two. so, president biden, his plane landed in edinburgh and he has then travel to glasgow after g20 in rome, of course. we have been talking a lot about china as the world�*s biggest polluter and politically obviously over the last few years, certainly under the trump administration, and there has been a bit of a hangover from that, very different between china and the us, are more difficult relationship, but what environmentalists and scientists and so many people want to see is governments are putting aside national interests, vested
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interests, in the interest of the planet, and it is going to be really interesting to see how much we hear from all of these leaders in the speeches which we are expecting very soon, and later on today as well, about how they are going to try to overcome that. it is about how they are going to try to overcome that.— overcome that. it is part of the -olitical overcome that. it is part of the political tension _ overcome that. it is part of the political tension in _ overcome that. it is part of the political tension in that - overcome that. it is part of the i political tension in that conference centre across the clyde from us. everyone is going to bring their national interests to the table as well as their targets to be involved in what is a truly global problem, solving a truly global problem, and bringing hopefully their best strategies to solve it. but certainly that tension between the us and china, they are in a very different place to when they came together in paris and when we had that moment of a real global togetherness in 2015. we have been hearing about fishing rows between the uk and france as well, all of that political tension is going to be brought to bear in that room
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because ultimately every single nation wants to be able to keep the economic engine going, particularly as economies have to rebuild after the covid pandemic and as we still live through the covid pandemic. the former governor of the bank of england, mark carney, talked about this being a real opportunity to reset, because we have had to stop, for every economy to start again greener, betterand more greener, better and more sustainably. greener, betterand more sustainably. but whether that can actually happen through this drawn—out process of negotiation where all those national interests are there, that is what will be put to the test during the next two weeks. it to the test during the next two weeks. ., . . . to the test during the next two weeks. ., , , , ., weeks. it has been interesting to hear in the _ weeks. it has been interesting to hear in the last _ weeks. it has been interesting to hear in the last hour _ weeks. it has been interesting to hear in the last hour or— weeks. it has been interesting to hear in the last hour or so - weeks. it has been interesting to hear in the last hour or so that i hear in the last hour or so that president eric of turkey, who we were expecting, is not going to be here because he is not happy with the security arrangements put in place by the uk. will governments be prepared to put those things aside, where security or something else, in the interest of the planet? that is
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the interest of the planet? that is the big question for all of us hoping for a positive and concrete outcome from all of this. i will pause my chat with you transition to green energy. that means they could struggle to commit to key targets to commit to carbon emissions. nigeria�*s is almost entirely reliable on coal extraction. it almost entirely reliable on coal extraction-— almost entirely reliable on coal extraction. , ., ., , ., ., extraction. it is already going to be very challenging, _ extraction. it is already going to be very challenging, nigeria i extraction. it is already going to be very challenging, nigeria has committed to reducing emissions by 20% will stop it aims to do that by taking up solar power and reducing gas flaring, a by—product of its massive oil industry. but over the weekend the president wrote an opinion piece in newsweek where he highlighted the fact that many
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renewable energy technologies are not yet at the level where they can be used in africa without back—up diesel generators. he says the use of fossil fuels are still going to be necessary here, particularly when it comes to generating enough electricity to fuel development in this country of 200 million people. it is currently slated to be the third most populous country in the world by the end of the century. so the authorities here are incredibly concerned with how to develop the country enough and turn it into an industrialised nation to provide enough employment for all these people. they say transitioning to renewables is too quick and it will not allow them to do this. our reality check _ not allow them to do this. our reality check chris _ not allow them to do this. our reality check chris morris joins me and he will be busy over the next couple of weeks looking at all the facts and the statistics and digging down into what the leaders are saying. he is with me now. we are
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just waiting, to remind our viewers, on the opening ceremony of cop26. we had the procedure will start yesterday. give us a sense of beyond all this that we are seeing in front of the cameras, when those leaders and the many thousands of delegates peel off into various rooms to get down to business and talk, what exactly will be going on behind those doors? you have hundreds of nations trying to make their views heard, so it is a wonder, many people will think, how anything concrete can ever come out of that? when you think what they are trying to do as well, in effect they are trying to reconstitute and reimagine every single economy on the planet and the way the global economy works as well, moving from a fossil fuel based industrial economy to a renewable economy right around the world. it is a massive thing to do. it is important that leaders are here, partly because it promotes equality between different countries, everyone is important, and also because it is political
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leaders who make decisions, so they need to be seen to be here, which is why it is disappointing there are some absentees like president putin and president xi of china and the turkish president is not coming either. an awful lot of global leaders here to set the tone. presidentjoe biden, the most powerful man in the world, coming to glasgow to make his speech. but when the ceremonials are over it is down to the people who have been working on this conference for months, if not years, and the data they look at and the individual sentences in documents, and they go through them line by line, and it is about them taking the promises and pledges and aspirations that were made at previous summits, particularly the paris summit in 2015, and turning them into the action that the scientists are telling us we need to see during this coming decade. jae see during this coming decade. joe biden there. we saw alok sharma, who is the cop26 president for the uk.
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we saw narendra modi before that and they are just across the river and we are in the green zone and they are in the blue zone where all of this is happening. one of the guests i spoke to earlier was saying that paris was known for the politics, the coming together, the unity around some very crucial aims on climate change, but he was arguing that glasgow will be remembered for the economics and finance. you touched on that briefly, but how much of a driver is this going to be if this conference is judged to be a success? it if this conference is 'udged to be a success? . ., , if this conference is 'udged to be a success? , ., , ., success? it is really important because many _ success? it is really important because many countries i success? it is really important. because many countries around success? it is really important i because many countries around the world, particularly the poorest countries, literally cannot do anything about climate change unless they are given the finance to do so. it is important what kind of finance it is as well. if you look at the money that has been given so far, by 2018, 2019, and three quarters was in loans rather than in grants, so thatis in loans rather than in grants, so that is money that has to be paid
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back. that is very difficult for countries that are already struggling, a lot of them, with severe debt problems which have intensified because of the covid pandemic. they have looked at what happened during covid, when the richest countries in the world spent a phenomenal amount of money in a very short space of time, and then they think, hang on, can you really not live up to the pledge you made 12 years ago in 2009 to deliver $100 billion every year to enable us to fundamentally make sure our economy is growing in the future and protect against climate change we are already seeing, which are often worse in the that can least afford deal with them?— deal with them? reminding our viewers that — deal with them? reminding our viewers that we _ deal with them? reminding our viewers that we are _ deal with them? reminding our viewers that we are probably i deal with them? reminding our viewers that we are probably a l deal with them? reminding our. viewers that we are probably a few minutes away from the opening ceremony, from the start of the opening ceremony here. we will have speeches from borisjohnson, the prime minister of the united kingdom, as hosts of cop26 in
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glasgow. we will hear from antonio guterres... glasgow. we will hear from antonio guterres- - -— guterres. .. ladies and gentlemen, lease guterres. .. ladies and gentlemen, please take — guterres. .. ladies and gentlemen, please take your _ guterres. .. ladies and gentlemen, please take your seats. _ so it may be just a few moments until the opening ceremony gets under way, until the opening ceremony gets underway, but until the opening ceremony gets under way, but we are certainly now very close indeed, the call going out for officials to take their seats. there isjohn kerry on the right of your screen, joe biden�*s climate envoy, the signatory for the united states in paris for the paris climate accord. he has been incredibly vocal, chris. clearly not obe int incredibly vocal, chris. clearly not obeying the _ incredibly vocal, chris. clearly not obeying the instruction _ incredibly vocal, chris. clearly not obeying the instruction to - incredibly vocal, chris. clearly not obeying the instruction to take i incredibly vocal, chris. clearly notj obeying the instruction to take his seat, but i am sure they will be sitting down fairly soon. angela merkel there. in her last few days.
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i was thinking yesterday of the floods in the us and the floods resort in the netherlands, a few months ago, the destruction that they caused, the numbers of people killed in those. leaders like this will be coming to this summit with those thoughts very clearly in their minds, how climate change is directly impacting on the citizens they lead. directly impacting on the citizens the lead. . ., ~ directly impacting on the citizens the lead. , ., they lead. yes, and the link between climate change _ they lead. yes, and the link between climate change and _ they lead. yes, and the link between climate change and extreme - they lead. yes, and the link between climate change and extreme weather is certainly there, exactly how it works is still a matter of some scientific debate, but there is no question it has influenced public opinion. climate change in the developed world is no longer something that happens far away. we had record heat in north america this year, rememberjune and july when temperatures soared beyond 50 celsius in parts of canada and the north—west of the united states. those extraordinary flash floods in germany. these are not things that
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happen in far—away lands anymore for people in the richest countries in the world and that does have an impact on opinion and the way perhaps people are willing to say we need to make some changes in order to decarbonise economies, if these are some of the effects that the current weight produces. eeeh are some of the effects that the current weight produces. even since paris the role _ current weight produces. even since paris the role of _ current weight produces. even since paris the role of environmental i paris the role of environmental activists has grown and grown. we have seen greta thunberg. she was clearly born and alive when paris was happening, a young girl down, and she is a young woman now in her late teens and the role of activists and the role of social media in activism has really grown in the years since paris, hasn�*t it? ijust wonder how much those voices will be making an impact on all the leaders here today because sometimes we talk about politicians who say they are listening to the people, but when it comes to the crunch, are they really?
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comes to the crunch, are they reall ? ., , , ., , really? not 'ust greta thunberg, ouno really? notjust greta thunberg, young activists _ really? notjust greta thunberg, young activists across _ really? notjust greta thunberg, young activists across the - really? notjust greta thunberg, j young activists across the world, really? notjust greta thunberg, i young activists across the world, in south america and africa, really making their voices heard, saying this is our future, making their voices heard, saying this is ourfuture, it making their voices heard, saying this is our future, it is our future that you are messing with. we will hear the leaders saying we owe it to the next generation.— the next generation. prince charles takino his the next generation. prince charles taking his seat. _ the next generation. prince charles taking his seat. let's _ the next generation. prince charles taking his seat. let's listen - the next generation. prince charles taking his seat. let's listen in i taking his seat. let�*s listen in again to the opening ceremony of cop26. ., , . ., ., again to the opening ceremony of cop26. ., , _, ., , , ., cop26. please welcome a piper from the isle of cop26. please welcome a piper from the isle of skye _ cop26. please welcome a piper from the isle of skye performing - cop26. please welcome a piper from the isle of skye performing her i cop26. please welcome a piper from the isle of skye performing her own i the isle of skye performing her own arrangement of the traditional tunes from the _ arrangement of the traditional tunes from the isle of harris.
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opening two cop26, the official opening ceremony. sir david attenborough there, who will be making a speech later on today. no one the need to protect our natural world, to listen to what the climate is telling us and to protect the planet.
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images of the isle of harris being shown as we listen to the scottish small pipes. there is going to be a short film are played the performance of a poem called earth to cop. and all of this is preceding the first speech that we are expecting, which is from boris johnson, although we expect the prince of wales to also speak to leaders before their key speeches get under way. chris, the atmospherics around this, it strikes me that big events like this, they
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are great at creating an atmosphere, or telling a story, but ultimately it comes down to our leaders and are they prepared to act on all of this? some of it is hard political bargaining and one of the difficulties in acting on climate change is we are talking about long—term changes when politicians often act on short—term, electoral cycles. in every country it is perhaps only natural that there is this demand where we have to think much longer term and that is why it is so important at this conference to talk about that rise in global temperature over and above what it was before the industrial era began. that level is important because it was the industrial age in which we started to pour out all these greenhouse gases into the air through the use of fossil fuels. that is what people are now saying has got to stop and it has got to stop quickly. getting to net zero, virtually zero emissions of
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greenhouse gases by 2050 is one thing, but it is how quickly you can make a change on that 30 year rd to 2050 in the next few years. if nothing changes in the next few years professor brian cox narrating this short film that the world leaders are watching right now. i wonder, chris, over the course of the two weeks the world is watching glasgow and the uk wants to set the tone, set the lead. it has made a number of claims about being world leading in terms of tackling climate change in terms of tackling climate change in many areas. does this go back to theissue in many areas. does this go back to the issue that an event like this can create peer pressure that can lead to significant process and
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concrete actions?— lead to significant process and concrete actions? yes, i think that is what summits _ concrete actions? yes, i think that is what summits do, _ concrete actions? yes, i think that is what summits do, on _ concrete actions? yes, i think that is what summits do, on climate i concrete actions? yes, i think that is what summits do, on climate or| is what summits do, on climate or other issues, it brings political leaders together who all have busy schedules back in their home countries. this is a global issue. while there is criticism, why do you have to fly people in for a summit thatis have to fly people in for a summit that is about protecting the climate? but it is important to get people together in one room and i think it does create a pressure, it creates a moment in which change can happen. you talk to climate scientist and they say progress has made since paris but it has not been quick enough. i guess the unexpected nature of a global pandemic that no one could have forecast, or no one knew was coming at that time, has not helped matters. now is the time that we are going to hear from boris johnson and others that we are going to have to step on the accelerator in terms of making change. it has to happen in this decade. this
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in terms of making change. it has to happen in this decade.— happen in this decade. this poor we are hearing — happen in this decade. this poor we are hearing at _ happen in this decade. this poor we are hearing at the _ happen in this decade. this poor we are hearing at the moment - happen in this decade. this poor we are hearing at the moment that i happen in this decade. this poor we are hearing at the moment that is l are hearing at the moment that is happening at the opening ceremony is from a poet from jamaican and nigerian heritage who grew up in northern england. i am nigerian heritage who grew up in northern england.— nigerian heritage who grew up in northern england. i am talking to ou toda northern england. i am talking to you today and — northern england. i am talking to you today and earth _ northern england. i am talking to you today and earth has - northern england. i am talking to you today and earth has plenty i northern england. i am talking toj you today and earth has plenty to say. the architects of something new, protectors of the day. be shining final hopes, designers of chance and change. the hour is crimson, toning, turning. the hour is bruising, blue ink blue. we are human and we all our home. let�*s pay our home dues. these are the implications so we have to end with the facts. anything less then your best is too much to pay. anything later than now is too little, too
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late. nothing will change without you. applause powerful, eloquent words. earth has plenty to say, we or our home. let�*s listen in as the speeches get under way. borisjohnson, prime minister of the host nation, he is up first. good afternoon, everybody. welcome to glasgow and to scotland, whose most globally famous fictional son is almost certainly a man called james bond, who generally comes to the climax of his films strapped to
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a doomsday device, desperately trying to work out which coloured wire to peel to turn it off, while a digital clock ticks down remorselessly to a detonation that will end human life as we know it. and we are in roughly the same position, my fellow global leaders, as james bond today. except that the tragedy is this is not a movie. and the doomsday device is real. and the clock is ticking to the furious rhythm of hundreds of billions of turbines and furnaces and engines with which we are pumping carbon into the airfaster and with which we are pumping carbon into the air faster and faster, record outputs, quilting the earth in an invisible and suffocating blanket of co2. raising the
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temperature of the planet with a speed and an abruptness that is entirely man—made. and we know what the scientists tell us and we have learned not to ignore them. two degrees more and we jeopardise the food supply for hundreds of millions of people, as crops weather, locusts swarm, three degrees and you can add more wild and cyclones, twice as many, twice as times many droughts and heat waves. four degrees and we say goodbye to all cities, miami, alexandria, shanghai, all lost beneath the waves. and the longer we fail to act, the worst it gets and the higher the price when we are eventually forced by catastrophe to
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act. because humanity has long since run down the clock on climate change. it is one minute to midnight and we need to act now. if we do not get serious about climate change today, it will be too late for our children to do so tomorrow. i was there with many of you in cup and years ago when we acknowledged we had a problem. i was there in paris six years ago when we agreed to net zero and to try to restrain the rise in the temperature of the planet to 1.5 degrees. and all those promises will be nothing but to coin a phrase, and the anger of the world will be uncontainable unless we make this cup 26 in glasgow at the moment
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when we get real about climate change. —— corp 26. we can. we can get real on cash and cheese. it is too late for that, one by one and with ever greater speed and efficiency we can begin to change it back close down those chambers that you find currently in every corner of the planet. we can phase out the use of cars with combustion engines by 2025. we can do that, we are leading in the uk by ending new sales by 2030. we can end the use of coal fired sales by 2030. we can end the use of coalfired power sales by 2030. we can end the use of coal fired power stations. we sales by 2030. we can end the use of coalfired power stations. we can sales by 2030. we can end the use of coal fired power stations. we can do it. by 2040 in coal fired power stations. we can do it. by 20a0 in the developing world, 2030 in the richer nations. we can plant hundreds of millions of trees,
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1 trillion. it is not technologically difficult. and halt and reverse deforestation by 2030. notjust because it is a spiritually uplifting and beautiful thing to do, but because that is the way to restore the balance of nature and to fix carbon in the air. and as we look at the green industrial revolution that is now needed around the world, we in the developed world must recognise the special responsibility we have to help everybody else to do it. because it was here in glasgow 250 years ago that james watt came was here in glasgow 250 years ago thatjames watt came up was here in glasgow 250 years ago that james watt came up with a machine that was powered by steam, that was produced by burning coal. yes, my friends, we have brought you to be very place where the doomsday machine began to take. even though for 200 years, the industrialised
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countries were in complete ignorance of the problem they were creating, we now have a duty to find those funds. $100 billion per year that was promised in paris by 2020, which we won�*t deliver until 2023. to help the rest of the world to move to green technology, but we cannot, and will not succeed by government spending alone. we in this room could deploy hundreds of billions, no question. but the market has hundreds of trillions and the task now is to work together to help our friends to decarbonise, using our funds, the funds we have in development assistance, and using the multilateral development banks so that in the key countries, they need to make progress, we can jointly identify projects that we
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can to de—risk, so that the private sector money can come in. injust the same way that it was the private sector that enabled the uk to end our dependence on coal, and become the saudi arabia of wind. we have the saudi arabia of wind. we have the technology. we can find the finance and we must. and the question for us all today is whether we have the will. and my fellow leaders as i look around this room, i don�*t want to put too fine a point on it, we all talk about what we are going to do in 2050, or 2060, i don�*t think it will escape the notice of the crowds of young people outside, the billions who are watching around the world, half of the population of the world under 30, that the average age of this conclave of world leaders, i�*m afraid to say, is over 60. i fully
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intend to be alive in 2060. i will be a mere 9a years old, even if i am not still in downing street, but the children who willjudge us our children who willjudge us our children not yet born, and their children, and we are now coming centrestage before a vast and uncountable audience of posterity and we mustn�*t fluff our lines or miss our queue. because if we fail, they will not forgive us. they will know that glasgow was the historic turning point when history failed to turn. they willjudge us with bitterness and with a resentment that eclipses any of the climate activists of today. and they will be right. this conference will not and cannot be the end of the story on
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climate change. even if this conference ends with binding global commitments for a game changing, real—world action, two weeks from now, smokestacks will still belch in industrial heartlands, howes will still belch in their pastures, even if some brilliant scientists are teaching them how to be more polite, —— towers, cars powered by petrol and diesel is will still chalk the world�*s great cities. no one conference can ever change that. if summits alone solve climate change then we would not have needed all then we would not have needed all the previous summits to get to where we are today. but while this summit will not be the end of climate change, it can and must mark the end
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of the beginning of the end. in the years since paris, the world has slowly, and with great effort and pain, built a life for humanity. and now it is time to give that life bought a shove into the water, like a great liner running down the slipways of the clyde, a sighting of 1.5 degrees and set off on a journey to a cleaner, greenerfuture. let us in the next days devote ourselves to this extraordinary task so that we not only continue with a programme thatis not only continue with a programme that is of green industrial revolution that is already creating high wage, high skilled jobs in power and technology, taking our economies forward, let us also do enough to save our planet and our way of life. as we work, let us
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think about those billions of beady eyes that are watching us around the world. they are increasingly edgy and disenchanted and let us think of the billions more, the unborn his anger will be even greater if we fail. we cannot let them down. we have the ideas, the technology, the bankers, the corporations and the ngos, the interpreters, the meeting rooms, if all else fails, we have the unbeaten girl —— unbeatable hospitality of glasgow. we might not feel like james bond and we might not look like james bond, but we have the opportunity and we have the duty to make this summit the moment when humanity finally began, and i stress began, to defuse that bomb. and to make this the moment when we
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began irrefutably to turn the tide and to begin the fight back against climate change. yes, it is going to be hired. but, yes, we can do it. and so let�*s get to work, with all the creativity and imagination and goodwill that we possess. thank you very much and good luck to all of us. thank you. applause borisjohnson referencing greta thunberg in his speech, saying they have to move beyond saying nothing to stop that is something greta thunberg said that world leaders were doing, not enough action. boris
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johnson saying they had to make this at the beginning of the end of climate change. we are now going to hear, before the un secretary general, for a of global climate and planers. but general, for a of global climate and olaners. �* ., , ., ~ planers. but words remain. a lesson in knowin: planers. but words remain. a lesson in knowing how— planers. but words remain. a lesson in knowing how words _ planers. but words remain. a lesson in knowing how words can _ planers. but words remain. a lesson in knowing how words can be - planers. but words remain. a lesson | in knowing how words can be loaded, text can change everything, each word you use is weighted. how switching one word or number can reframe worlds, how climate action can be vastly different from climate justice. how to degrees could mean the end and one word or number can reframe worlds, how climate action can be vastly different from climate justice. how to degrees could mean the end and 1.5 could you all have the end and 1.5 could you all have the power here today to be better, to remember that in your meeting rooms and drafting documents are more thanjust rooms and drafting documents are more than just black and white objects, to remember that in your words, you wield the weapons that
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can save us or sell us out. i do not need to remind you the reality of vulnerable communities. if you are here today, you know what climate change is doing to us. you don�*t need my pain or tears to know we are in a crisis. the real question is whether you have the political will to do the right thing, to wield the right words and to follow it up with long overdue action. if you are looking for inspiration on this, looking for inspiration on this, look no further than the climate leadership of young pacific people. we are notjust a victims to this crisis, we have been resilient beacons of hope. pacific youth have rallied behind the cry. we are not drowning, we are fighting. this is our warrior cry to the world. we are not drowning, we are fighting. this is my message from earth to cop, i
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hope you remember my words today because... thank you. applause iam2a i am 2a but my people have been living in the amazon forest for at least 6000 years. mr; living in the amazon forest for at least 6000 years.— living in the amazon forest for at least 6000 years. my father, the treat least 6000 years. my father, the great chief. _ least 6000 years. my father, the great chief, taught _ least 6000 years. my father, the great chief, taught me _ least 6000 years. my father, the great chief, taught me that i least 6000 years. my father, the great chief, taught me that we i least 6000 years. my father, the i great chief, taught me that we must listen to the stars, the moon, the wind, the atmosphere and the trees.
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the climate is warming, the animals are disappearing and our plants do not flower like they did before. the earth is speaking. she tells us that we have no more time. ourfriend asked me will be continued to think that today�*s endurance is can be resolved with ointments and painkillers, even though abbott winds only run deeper. we need a different path. we need global changes. it is not 2030 or 2050, it is now. while you are closing your eyes to reality, my friend since i was a child was murdered for
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protecting the forest, indigenous people are in the front line of the climate emergency and we must be at the centre of the decision is happening here. apologies for the loss of images they are from the opening ceremony. hopefully we will be back very shortly. let�*s take a moment with chris morris to reflect on what borisjohnson was saying. i am glad we have the pictures back for you. he talked about scientists and we have learned not to ignore them, was what he said. many people will say thatis what he said. many people will say that is actually what politicians have been doing, ignoring scientists are not really following what they have been saying. it is something that has come _ have been saying. it is something that has come to _ have been saying. it is something that has come to a _ have been saying. it is something that has come to a head - have been saying. it is something that has come to a head and i - have been saying. it is something i that has come to a head and i think politicians have realised they need to listen to the science and we now have the secretary general, who has
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made strong speeches this year saying it is time to listen, time to act. let's listen in. dear prime minister borisjohnson, i want to thank you and to thank the president of a conference for your hospitality, your leadership and your tireless efforts in the preparation of this conference. your royal finances, excellencies, preparation of this conference. your royalfinances, excellencies, ladies royal finances, excellencies, ladies and royalfinances, excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, the six years since the paris climate agreement have been the six hottest years on record. ouraddiction been the six hottest years on record. our addiction to fossil fuels is pushing humanity to the brink. we face a stark choice. either we stop it or it stops us. it is time to say, enough. enough of
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brutalising biodiversity, killing ourselves with carbon, enough of treating nature like a toilet, enough of burning and drilling and mining ourway enough of burning and drilling and mining our way deeper. we are digging our own graves. our planet is changing before our eyes, from the ocean to mountaintops, from melting glaciers to extreme weather events. sea level rise is double the rate was 30 years ago, oceans are hotter than ever and getting warmer faster. parts the amazon rainforest now emit more carbon than the absorber. recent climate action announcements might give the impression we are on track to turn things around. this is an illusion. the last published report on national determined contributions showed that they would still condemn
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the world to a calamitous 2.7 degrees increase. and even if the recent pledges were clear and credible, and there are serious questions about some of them, we are still careering towards climate catastrophe. even in the best case scenario, temperatures will rise well above two degrees. as we open this much anticipated climate conference, we are still heading for climate disaster. young people know it. every country sees it. small island developing states and other vulnerable ones live it. for them, failure is not an option. failure is a death sentence. we face a moment of truth. we are fast approaching
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tipping points that will trigger escalating global heating. but investing in the net zero climate economy will create sustainable growth, jobs and opportunity. we have progress to build upon. a number of countries have made credible commitments to net zero emissions by mid—century. many have pulled the plug on international financing of call. 0ver pulled the plug on international financing of call. over 700 cities are leading the way to carbon neutrality and the private sector is waking up. the gold standard for credible commitments and transparent targets is managing 10 trillion us dollars in assets and capitalising change. the climate action army, led
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by young people, is unstoppable. they are larger, louder and they assure you they are not going away, and i stand with them. excellencies, the science is clear. we know what to do. first we must keep the goal of 1.5 celsius alive. this requires greater ambition and the concrete reduction of emissions by 2030. 620 countries have a particular responsibility as they represent around 80% of emissions. according to the principle of common responsibilities, in light of national circumstances, developed countries must live the efforts. developing economies must go the extra mile as the contribution is
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essential for the effective reduction of emissions. we need maximum dedication from all countries to make glasgow the success. i urge developed countries and the emerging economies to build coalitions to create the financial and technological conditions to accelerate the carbonisation of the economy, as well as the phase of call. these coalitions are meant to support the large emitters that face more difficulties in the transition from pre—to green, for them to be able to do it. let's have no illusions. if commitments fall short by the end of this conference, countries must revisit the national climate plans and policies. not every five years. every year. every moment. and keeping to 1.5 degrees
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is assured until subsidies to fossil fuels and. until there is a price on carbon. until call is phased out. we need greater clarity. there is a deficit of credibility and a surplus of confusion over emissions reductions and zero targets, with different meanings and different metrics. that is why, beyond the mechanisms already established in the paris agreement, i am announcing today that we will establish a group of experts to propose clear standards to measure and analyse net zero commitments from non—state actors. second, we must do more to protect vulnerable communities from the clear and present dangers of climate change. 0ver the clear and present dangers of climate change. over the last decade, may nearly four billion people suffered climate —related disasters. that devastation will only grow. early warning systems
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save lives. climate smart agriculture and infrastructure save jobs. all of us must allocate climate finance to allocation and multi—development banks should start as soon as possible. this conference must be a moment of solidarity. i billion us dollars per year climate commitment and support of developing countries must become a 100 billion finance reality. this is critical to restoring trust and credibility. i welcome the efforts led by canada and germany to help us get there. it is an important first step but it delays the largest support for years and it does not give clear guarantees. and beyond 100 billion,
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developing countries need far greater resources to fight covid, to build resilience and produce sustainable development. those suffering the most, namely least developed countries and small island developing states, need urgent funding, more public finance, more overseas development aid, more grants, easieraccess overseas development aid, more grants, easier access to funding. and multilateral development banks must work more seriously in mobilising greater investment through public and private finance. excellencies, the sirens are sounding. 0ur planet is talking to us and telling us something. and so are people everywhere. climate action tops the list of people post my concerns across countries, age and gender. we must listen and we
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must act and we must choose wisely. 0n must act and we must choose wisely. on behalf of these and future generations i urge you, choose a mission, choose solidarity, choose to save humanity. and i thank you. applause the secretary—general antonio guterres chat with chris morris, our reality check corresponded. some
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interesting and what seem to be

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