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and extreme events more frequent and more severe. some recent extremes such as heatwaves in the last ten years would have been extremely unlikely to occur without human influence on the climate system. global warming of 1.5 degrees to 2 will be exceeded during this century unless immediate, rapid and large—scale reductions in greenhouse gas emissions especially of carbon dioxide and methane occur in the nearfuture. we also bring a wealth of understanding about climate change at the regional level which is critically relevant for shaping policies. i encourage everyone to seize the moment, seize the opportunity this gathering offers.
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we, the scientific community, are ready to work with you on the understanding of scientific evidence of climate change, its impacts, adaptation and how these translate into reality into climate action. we share one atmosphere, one climate system. it knows no borders. the true measure of effectiveness of our collective efforts will be the state of its condition. and science will attest to that. thank you very much for your attention. thank you, mr lee, it is now my pleasure to invite his excellency the president of the united states nation general assembly to address the plenary. excellency, you have
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the plenary. excellency, you have the floor. excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, dearfriend, allow me excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, dear friend, allow me to excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, dearfriend, allow me to be candid for you ourfamily. we are dearfriend, allow me to be candid for you our family. we are facing dearfriend, allow me to be candid for you ourfamily. we are facing an exit essential crisis. we have the capacity and resources to... we are simply not doing enough. we must be honest about this, with ourselves, with each other and with the rest of the world. we have had decades to argue the facts about climate change. but the power of renewables, about the fine details of monitoring or cost—sharing, yet we have still failed to act with the conviction and determination required. that may
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be a hard truth, but it is the truth. another truth, we are entirely capable of turning this around if we so choose. excellencies, since assuming the role of the president of general assembly, i have heard more about climate change than any other subject. i heard it from every single world leader and delegate at the high level. i heard it from my travels from the use, from civil society, from local leaders and from women's groups. i heard it last tuesday at the general assembly meeting on climate change that i convened ahead of cop26. while the intensity of their talks married, the messages were one in the same, the messages were one in the same, the urgency of keeping with 1.5 degrees target, the need to support
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vulnerable populations, that you responsibility of not capitalising on technological innovations and the importance of empowering women and youth. i promised the membership that i would bring this message here to glasgow. first, renewable technologies are some of the cheapest on the planet. and command strong public support. with the news that climate finance will not reach the promised goal of 100 billion annually until 2020 theory, we must accelerate our efforts to ensure that all countries have access to the latest technological innovations. second, nearly hundred trillion dollars have been pledged to net zero target by the private sector, yet, it is unclear how they will be utilised. 0r prioritised or
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measured. it is imperative that their contributions are as efficient and impactful as possible. third, we must maintain focus on adaptation, particularly for vulnerable countries. we must ensure there is an even 5050 split in adaptation and mitigation finance. fourth, green jobs are the future. promising economy possibility and environmental sustainability. we alter —— we owe it to the world's use to blue and green economies, but also to invest in their skills and tap into their energies to make that transition viable. excellencies, six years ago we celebrated in agreement that committed us to keeping global temperatures from rising above 1.5 degrees. we pledged to protect those
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most vulnerable and we acknowledged that this was a planetary problem that this was a planetary problem that no country could go alone. yet since paris, it has rained for the first time on greenland summit. the amount of c02 in the atmosphere has reached record levels. heat waves have scorched countries around the world. droughts, storms, forest fires and floods have all become more intense, more recurrent and more intense, more recurrent and more commonplace. and sea levels are rising threatening small island states and bigger countries alike. we have the science and resources and the urgency, what then is holding us back? my dearfriends, only one variable remains and it is us. we have to make the choice to address this. we have to choose but
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necessary actions. we have to listen to the science and increasingly the global population who are demanding action. my dear, dearfriends, we have run out of excuses. it is time to do the right thing. in the words of frankie the dinosaur who addressed the general assembly, let us not choose extinction let's work together as one global family and use the capacities... you together as one global family and use the capacities. . ._ use the capacities... you are watching _ use the capacities... you are watching bbc _ use the capacities... you are watching bbc news - use the capacities... you are watching bbc news and - use the capacities... you are watching bbc news and this | use the capacities... you are i watching bbc news and this was use the capacities... you are - watching bbc news and this was some of the opening speeches from cop26. 0ne of the opening speeches from cop26. one common theme, i suppose from lots of those speakers on the first day of the conference is this call to action. a lock sharma the president of cop26 gave the opening speak talked about turning the
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promises of paris into action. in glasgow. it is about turning those into action. —— alok sharma is now the president. we will get back into glasgow later. lots of people in glasgow, 25,000 delegates will be arriving over the next couple of weeks from about 200 countries. some of the big leaders are not there yet because they are still in rome for the 620 because they are still in rome for the g20 conference. we have been building up to these two major conferences, huge emphasis on climate change in both of them. let's catch up with what has been happening in the g20 in rome. 0ur correspondent is there. 0ver happening in the g20 in rome. 0ur correspondent is there. over to you, mark. hello, it has been a very busy second final day of the g20 summit. it also produce about 80% of global greenhouse gases getting agreement
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between these countries is seen as a vital stepping stone reaching meaningful action and agreements in glasgow at climate summit. alok sharma the president of the cop26 climate conference has said that the 620 in climate conference has said that the g20 in rome is make or breakfor glasgow. in that regard, we are getting some lines coming out about a final communiqu which is still in the draught form and has not yet been formally released. these are the lines that the news agencies are releasing that there should be meaningful and effective action by all countries to keep 1.5 degrees within reach. that is the aim of capping global warming. also calling for action this decade to update and advance where necessary national emission reduction targets. that is hugely important. for countries to
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try achieve goals and put forward their goals in reducing carbon emissions because if they cannot do that by the middle of the century that by the middle of the century that aim of that by the middle of the century thataim of1.5 that by the middle of the century that aim of 1.5 degrees is not in reach. plenty more to come from rome as a talks continue. i will hand you back. mark, great to have you on. we will let you go. thank you for that. prince charles has been speaking at the 620 prince charles has been speaking at the g20 in rome where mark was about climate and environmental issues. let's take a quick listens about what he had to say.— let's take a quick listens about what he had to say. cop26 begins in glasaow what he had to say. cop26 begins in glasgow tomorrow, _ what he had to say. cop26 begins in glasgow tomorrow, quite _ what he had to say. cop26 begins in glasgow tomorrow, quite literally i what he had to say. cop26 begins in glasgow tomorrow, quite literally it | glasgow tomorrow, quite literally it is a last chance saloon. we must now translate fine words into still finer actions. as the enormity of the climate challenge dominates people pass our conversations from
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newsrooms to living rooms and as the future of humanity and nature herself are at stake, it is surely time to set aside our differences and grasp this unique opportunity to launch a substantial green recovery by putting the global economy on a confident sustainable trajectory and thus save our planet. that confident sustainable tra'ectory and thus save our planet.— thus save our planet. that was prince charles _ thus save our planet. that was prince charles speaking - thus save our planet. that was prince charles speaking in - thus save our planet. that was prince charles speaking in the | thus save our planet. that was - prince charles speaking in the last few hours. g20 is hosted in rome this year. the prime minister there has been in charge of the event. this is what he had to say. some of us are asking _ this is what he had to say. some of us are asking why _ this is what he had to say. some of us are asking why we _ this is what he had to say. some of us are asking why we moved - this is what he had to say. some of us are asking why we moved our i us are asking why we moved our goalpost from two degrees to 1.5 degrees. why? because science says so. we must listen to the warnings
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coming from the global scientific community. we must tackle the climate crisis this decade and honour the paris agreement and the 2030 sustainable agenda. there you are, ou 2030 sustainable agenda. there you are. you are — 2030 sustainable agenda. there you are, you are up-to-date _ 2030 sustainable agenda. there you are, you are up-to-date with - 2030 sustainable agenda. there you are, you are up-to-date with the - are, you are up—to—date with the events going on in rome at the g20 summit. we will go back to glasgow now because as the events in rome are wrapping up, we are ramping up in cop26. 0urscience are wrapping up, we are ramping up in cop26. 0ur science correspondent is in glasgow. hello there. great to see you. i know you have lots of in—depth knowledge on everything to do with this and so forgive me for the most basic questions, but because this is the first day i want to get some really basic things clear because we have been talking about cop26 for weeks now. it is finally here, for the avoidance of doubt, first in the name, what does cop26 mean? what did is that about?
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after shivering outside in the glasgow rain, i'm quite glad for the basic questions. it is the conference of the parties and this is the 26th one. this process started in 1995 when signatories to the un climate change basically said they would tackle this issue. and it has been a long drawn out process and since then. a lot of scientists would have said too long and too slowly. these conferences have happened over almost every year. except for last year. this is the one year delayed 26th one happening here. starting ceremonially today. it will kick off in earnest tomorrow.— it will kick off in earnest tomorrow. ., ~ , ., ., , it will kick off in earnest tomorrow. ., ~ ., , tomorrow. thank you. really basic thin i tomorrow. thank you. really basic thing i want _ tomorrow. thank you. really basic thing i want to _ tomorrow. thank you. really basic thing i want to clear _ tomorrow. thank you. really basic thing i want to clear up _ tomorrow. thank you. really basic thing i want to clear up because i tomorrow. thank you. really basic| thing i want to clear up because we have heard already a couple of times just on this programme is 1.5 degrees. what does that actually mean. from what, from where? that is the average _ mean. from what, from where? that is the average temperature _
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mean. from what, from where? that is the average temperature rise _ mean. from what, from where? that is the average temperature rise by - mean. from what, from where? that is the average temperature rise by the i the average temperature rise by the end of this century and it is the trajectory that we are on in terms of the increased average global temperature. that does not play out in an equal way around the world. there are parts of the world that are already beyond a 1.5 in terms of the average temperature in their country. we have had a lot of reports on bbc world looking at places where it is too hot to sleep. people are facing dangerous levels of climate change. and madagascar we have what some are calling the world's first climate —induced famine. that1.5 world's first climate —induced famine. that 1.5 is about the global temperature increase by the end of the century. the scientists is currently with all of the pledges that were made post—parrots, we are currently on a trajectory if everyone lives up to that to a 2.7 degrees celsius rise and it is about increasing those pledges. getting everyone around the table to make their strategies about the mission reductions clear. to slash in half
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these emissions by 2030 and bend the curve down. you will be hearing keep 1.5 alive a lot.— 1.5 alive a lot. we have heard some ofthe 1.5 alive a lot. we have heard some of the opening _ 1.5 alive a lot. we have heard some of the opening speeches _ 1.5 alive a lot. we have heard some of the opening speeches now. i 1.5 alive a lot. we have heard some of the opening speeches now. the | of the opening speeches now. the uniting theme is a call to action, which is exactly what you were talking about. could you give us a flavour about what some of the specifics could be here? what are some of the things that they will be negotiating and trying to get agreement on?— negotiating and trying to get aareement on? ., ' agreement on? there are different themes to put _ agreement on? there are different themes to put a — agreement on? there are different themes to put a bit _ agreement on? there are different themes to put a bit of— agreement on? there are different themes to put a bit of structure i agreement on? there are different themes to put a bit of structure to | themes to put a bit of structure to themes to put a bit of structure to the talks. essentially the big picture is getting every single country to bring up their strategy in line with bending the curve on global temperature increase. that means sending out exactly how they are going to reduce their emissions. every country that signed the paris agreement... we had this amazing moment of triumph in this long drawn
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out process in paris when we had this global agreement on tackling climate change to keep the global temperatures below two degrees. this is existential for some countries. essentially while you will hear themes around that that will be coming out. like finance, richer countries stepping up to help poor countries stepping up to help poor countries facing the brunt of climate change, like low—lying island nations, sub—saharan african nations which are suffering severe consequences of climate change and have done the least to because it. we will hear a lot about finance and deforestation. ultimately the whole process is geared towards getting everybody to put their strategies together so that when we crunch the numbers, we can see that we are getting closer to bending that curve down to 1.5 celsius increase. thahk down to 1.5 celsius increase. thank ou ve down to 1.5 celsius increase. thank you very much- _ down to 1.5 celsius increase. thank you very much. stay _ down to 1.5 celsius increase. thank you very much. stay there - down to 1.5 celsius increase. thank you very much. stay there for i down to 1.5 celsius increase. thank you very much. stay there for us. l down to 1.5 celsius increase. thank. you very much. stay there for us. we will be back in just a you very much. stay there for us. we will be back injust a moment. i want to bring everyone up to speed
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who has been watching. the opening speeches and we have heard from the person in charge of the whole think thatis person in charge of the whole think that is alok sharma, the president of cop26. he gave his opening speech just within the last hour. the raidl just within the last hour. the rapidly changing _ just within the last hour. tue: rapidly changing climate just within the last hour. tte: rapidly changing climate is just within the last hour. tt2 rapidly changing climate is sounding an alarm to the world to step up on adaptation, to address loss and damage and act now to keep 1.5 alive. and we know that this cop26 is our last best hope to keep 1.5 in reach. ., ., ., reach. you were right, we are going to hear 1-5 — reach. you were right, we are going to hear 1.5 alive _ reach. you were right, we are going to hear 1.5 alive quite _ reach. you were right, we are going to hear 1.5 alive quite a _ reach. you were right, we are going to hear 1.5 alive quite a lot. - reach. you were right, we are going to hear 1.5 alive quite a lot. what i to hear 1.5 alive quite a lot. what is the overall feeling here? clearly, there is no underplaying the seriousness of what needs to be achieved. is there a level of optimism that actually, our countries can get quite close together or is there a real fear that when i can get anywhere near it? i
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that when i can get anywhere near it? 4' that when i can get anywhere near it? ~ , that when i can get anywhere near it? 4' , �*.,. ., it? i think it is both. a balance of the two. there is... _ it? i think it is both. a balance of the two. there is... scientist i it? i think it is both. a balance of the two. there is... scientist say| the two. there is... scientist say it is still a possibility of keeping within that all—important 1.5 threshold. which is why... that window is closing because essentially climate change is happening now. we already live in a world that is about 1.1 above global increase of temperature. and that is having severe impacts particularly in the low—lying island nations. it looks very different in the uk and the us and it does in africa sub—saharan africa or the slow lolling island. we need to cut in half hour emissions by 2030. it is possible, but it is just a case that we are not on that trajectory yet with the pledges that we currently have. the window is open, but there
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is also a lot of nervousness that it is also a lot of nervousness that it is closing rapidly and there is a lot of work to do here. that is where this role of the cop presidency and the fact that everybody has been able to come here and kind of have an even part in this talk, that it has been able to take place in person and that even during the covid pandemic there was a lot of emphasis on that being possible. everybody being around the table and having a voice in this is crucial to this whole negotiation. thank you very much victoria. we are going to go straight to rome where the g summit is still under way. i think we can hearfrom the g summit is still under way. i think we can hear from the the g summit is still under way. i think we can hearfrom the us president, president biden. think we can hear from the us president, president biden. workers are an essential _ president, president biden. workers are an essential part _ president, president biden. workers are an essential part of— president, president biden. workers are an essential part of the - are an essential part of the solution. building on our close partnership with our shared values of the united states and european union, we have committed to negotiating a carbon —based arrangement on steel and carbon
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—based —— aluminium trade. this will lift up aluminium and steel which is among the greatest steel in the world. it will incentivise emission reductions in one of the most carbon intensive sectors in the global economy. restrict access to our markets for dirty steel from countries like china and counter countries like china and counter countries that dump steel on our markets, hammering our workers and harming them badly along with the industry and our environment. today, it is a testament to the power of american diplomacy and strong partnerships to deliver tangible benefits for american workers and the middle class workers in america. i would like to thank everyone involved in this to get this done. i want to think the european
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commission president for her team and her partnership. she has been straightforward from the very beginning as we work to come up with a creative solution that benefits all of our people. 0ver a creative solution that benefits all of our people. over the past nine months the united states and the european union have come together to take on major global challenges by looking to all that unites us and the shared interest we have both in europe and the united states. we have resolved the 17 year boeing airbus dispute and we are close partners to address covid—19 and combat climate change. as we move forward, we are going to continue together to update the rules of the road and the 21st century economy and prove to the world that democracies, democracies are taking on hard problems and delivering sound solutions. the european union and the us will continue to be the closest of friends and partners as we work together to solve 21st century
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challenges. i thank you again, president vander line and i turn the podium over to you. think you. i think i am over there. —— thank you. thank you very much, mr president. i am also _ thank you very much, mr president. i am also very— thank you very much, mr president. i am also very pleased to announce that mr_ am also very pleased to announce that mr president you and i have today— that mr president you and i have today agreed to suspend the tariffs on steel_ today agreed to suspend the tariffs on steel and aluminium. and to start the work_ on steel and aluminium. and to start the work on — on steel and aluminium. and to start the work on the new global sustainable steel arrangement. this marks— sustainable steel arrangement. this marks a _ sustainable steel arrangement. this marks a milestone in the renewed eu, us partnership. and it is our global first in_ us partnership. and it is our global first in our— us partnership. and it is our global first in our efforts to achieve the decarbonisation of the global steel production and trade. it is a big step— production and trade. it is a big step forward in fighting climate change — step forward in fighting climate change. the arrangement is of course open to— change. the arrangement is of course open to all— change. the arrangement is of course
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open to all like—minded partners. steet— open to all like—minded partners. steel manufacturing is one of the highest _ steel manufacturing is one of the highest carbon emission sources globally— highest carbon emission sources globally and for steel consumption and trade — globally and for steel consumption and trade to be sustainable, we must address— and trade to be sustainable, we must address the _ and trade to be sustainable, we must address the carbon intensity of the industry _ address the carbon intensity of the industry. we must also address problems— industry. we must also address problems of overcapacity. this is what _ problems of overcapacity. this is what the — problems of overcapacity. this is what the global sustainable steel arrangement is all about. we will work— arrangement is all about. we will work together with the united states to ensure _ work together with the united states to ensure the long—term viability of our industry — to ensure the long—term viability of our industry and to encourage the production— our industry and to encourage the production and trade of low carbon steei~ _ production and trade of low carbon steei~ this— production and trade of low carbon steel. this new global initiative will add — steel. this new global initiative will add in new powerful tool in our quest _ will add in new powerful tool in our quest for— will add in new powerful tool in our quest for sustainability. it will be a major— quest for sustainability. it will be a major step forward in achieving climate _ a major step forward in achieving climate neutrality and it will ensure _ climate neutrality and it will ensure a _ climate neutrality and it will ensure a level plugging field —— a level— ensure a level plugging field —— a level playing field for our industries. it is another key
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initiative _ industries. it is another key initiative for our transatlantic agreement with the united states. as you said. _ agreement with the united states. as you said, mr president, we have restored — you said, mr president, we have restored our trust. we have put an end to _ restored our trust. we have put an end to the — restored our trust. we have put an end to the dispute on the airbus disagreement. we created a vaccine partnership, we reached an agreement on global— partnership, we reached an agreement on global minimum tax and now we have found — on global minimum tax and now we have found a solution on eu, us steel— have found a solution on eu, us steel and — have found a solution on eu, us steel and aluminium trade. i thank you mr_ steel and aluminium trade. i thank you mr president for your announcement that the united states will remove us tariffs on eu steel and aluminium up to previous trade levels _ and aluminium up to previous trade levels this — and aluminium up to previous trade levels. this will alleviate a major part of— levels. this will alleviate a major part of the — levels. this will alleviate a major part of the existing trade irritants. it will allow trade, our transatlantic trade between us to come _
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transatlantic trade between us to come back to the levels recorded before _ come back to the levels recorded before these tariffs were put in place — before these tariffs were put in place. and following this us decision, i am place. and following this us decision, lam pleased place. and following this us decision, i am pleased to announce that the _ decision, i am pleased to announce that the commission will also propose _ that the commission will also propose to suspend the tariffs that we had _ propose to suspend the tariffs that we had introduced. i propose to suspend the tariffs that we had introduced. lam also propose to suspend the tariffs that we had introduced. i am also pleased tojoin_ we had introduced. i am also pleased tojoin president biden in announcing the pausing of our dispute — announcing the pausing of our dispute on this issue in the wto. and as _ dispute on this issue in the wto. and as you — dispute on this issue in the wto. and as you did, mr president, i would — and as you did, mr president, i would like _ and as you did, mr president, i would like to thank the secretary of commerce — would like to thank the secretary of commerce and everyone else involved specifically— commerce and everyone else involved specifically with this for their tyler's — specifically with this for their tyler's efforts for the last months. this is— tyler's efforts for the last months. this is a _ tyler's efforts for the last months. this is a major step forward in our
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renewed _ this is a major step forward in our renewed relationship and many thanks for that _ renewed relationship and many thanks forthat. looking renewed relationship and many thanks for that. looking forward to working more _ for that. looking forward to working more on _ for that. looking forward to working more on this deal. thank you. thank ou, more on this deal. thank you. thank you. folks- — why did it take so long? you heard there from both _ why did it take so long? you heard there from both of _ why did it take so long? you heard there from both of these _ why did it take so long? you heard there from both of these world i there from both of these world leaders on this good news on both sides. they have settled a three year dispute on tariffs. you may remember a few years ago tax was introduced by donald trump and they will be suspended in part. the spirited cooperation shining through i suppose. that was the g20 in rome. it is wrapping up. we are expecting to hear more and more statements for the conclusion of those talks. as well as talking about the sideline deals between different countries. we will hear different announcements in the hours ahead. next, let's move on. the glasgow summit is doing much
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more to turn promises into practice. we talked a lot about the target of 1.5 degrees, what it is and why it matters. 0ur reality check correspondent outlined the significance of staying below 1.5 degrees. it was the last big international climate summit in 2015. with a clear goal. to limit global warming at the century to well below two degrees and preferably to 1.5 celsius compared to preindustrial levels. now it is important to stress that when we talk about 1.5 degrees of warming, we are talking about the increase in the average temperature across the whole planet. it does not sound like a whole lot, but for some places they've already seen much bigger increases. as the earth warms up, extreme weather events are becoming more frequent. climate scientists were alarmed by how extreme.
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such as the soaring temperatures in north america's heat dome injune and july this year smashing previous records. the comparison to preindustrial levels a couple of hundred years ago is also important because nearly all man—made global warming has been caused by our use of fossil fuels, coal, oil and gas which have powered the industrial age. the transition to renewable energy is well under way but it will be really hard to meet the 1.5 degree target. many experts think it may already be too late to do so. the increase in global temperatures has now reached about 1.1 or 1.2 degrees above preindustrial level. so if current trends continued, it is likely we would pass 1.5 degrees sometime in the 2030s, and even after taking account of most of the recent national pledges to cut carbon emissions further, the un reckons we could be heading for 2.7 degrees of warming by the end of the century with catastrophic consequences. that is why there is now such a concerted push for action. the difference between 1.5 and 2 degrees may not sound like much but the intergovernmental panel on climate change have said 1.5 instead of 2 degrees would mean among other things 10,000,000 fewer
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people losing their homes to rising sea levels, potentially preventing some low—lying island countries from disappearing altogether. it would limit the loss of coral reefs, of endangered species and of arctic sea ice. and there would be roughly 50% fewer people around the world struggling to find fresh water. even at 1.5 degrees there will be big changes to our climate but one of the main goals in glasgow is to keep the target firmly within reach. to do that the world needs to half greenhouse gas emissions over the next decade and reach net zero emissions by the middle of the century. that all means huge and rapid changes to the way base society and companies operate and this is the decade when those changes are going to have to start happening. 0ur our thanks to chris morris for talking us through the bit of the science there with the background. plenty of more on the website. do
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check that out and here on bbc news we will keep you right up to date with the g20 summit which is wrapping up as well as the cop26 glasgow summit that is under way. this is bbc news. goodbye. this glasgow summit that is under way. this is bbc news. goodbye.- this is bbc news. goodbye. this is bbc news with _ this is bbc news. goodbye. this is bbc news with ben _ this is bbc news. goodbye. this is bbc news with ben brown. - this is bbc news. goodbye. this is bbc news with ben brown. the i bbc news with ben brown. the headlines. the crucial cop26 climate change summit gets underway. 25,000 delegates will attend — from about 200 countries — to announce how they plan to cut emissions by 2030. alok sharma assumes presidency of cop26 climate change conference — and says that the conference "is our last, best hope" to keep global warming limited to 1.5c by the end of the century. if we act now and we act together,
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we can protect our precious

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