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tv   BBC News  BBC News  October 25, 2021 2:00pm-5:01pm BST

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this is bbc news. lam ben i am ben thompson. the headlines add 2m... the un warns millions of people in afghanistan are facing starvation this winter, as the bbc has found evidence that some families are even selling their children to get money forfood. the desperation and the urgency of the situation is hard to put into words. there is no more time left to reach the people of afghanistan. the bbc is told the national living wage is set to rise to £9.50 per hour in this week's budget. the nhs in england is promised almost £6 billion to help clear the record backlog of people waiting for tests, scans and treatments. meanwhile, the health secretary, sajid javid, says he's leaning towards making vaccinations mandatory for all nhs staff in england. i think our nhs would be a safer nhs
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if the people who worked on it were open to taking the vaccinations that are necessary to protect them and their patients. global greenhouse gas emissions rose to record levels last year, despite the pandemic. the prime minister says he's worried next week's cop26 climate summit may not reach agreement on solutions. and facebook whistleblower, frances haugen, is set to give evidence to mps, as they plan legislation which would impose new rules on social media networks — we'll bring that to you live just after half past. good afternoon.
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welcome to bbc news. the united nations says afghanistan is heading for catastrophe with millions facing starvation, and the harsh winter months still to come. the world food programme has warned 22 million people — about half the population — are suffering hunger on a daily basis. and the bbc has found evidence that some families are even selling their children to make ends meet. international aid has dried up since the taliban seized power in august, while the world debates how to deal with the new regime. our correspondent yogita limaye reports from afghanistan — a warning, her report contains distressing images and details from the start. this is what starvation does to a country. to its tiniest lives. six—month—old baby. this one born three months ago. afghanistan was barely surviving before the taliban took over, but now foreign funds which propped up this
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country have been frozen. putting at leasti million children at risk of dying. babies cry. in this ward, one in five will not make it. this baby weighs less than half of what he should. his father is among millions who have no work. his mother told us his twin is in a room next door. this hospital is full.
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some babies are already sharing a bed. while we were there, six more children were brought in. it is the only facility for hundreds of miles. babies cry. because without foreign money, most hospitals are collapsing. doctors and nurses among masses of government workers who have not been paid for months. a third of the country's people don't know where their next meal will come from. we travelled out of herat to a rural settlement. tens of thousands displaced from remote provinces by decades of war and severe drought. no means of income, barely any food. some days, families here don't eat. they have sold whatever
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little they had. and now some are forced to do the unthinkable. this baby girl has been sold by her family. we are hiding their identity to protect them. her husband used to collect rubbish, but even that earns him nothing now. once the baby is able to walk she will be taken away by the man who bought her.
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he has paid more than half of the £400 she has been sold for. that will get the family through a few months. they have been told the girl will be married to his child, but no one can be sure. we know there are other families here who have sold their children and even while we have been here another person came up to one of our team and asked if we would like to buy their child. the desperation and the urgency of the situation is hard to put into words. there is no more time left to reach the people of afghanistan. it cannot wait while the world debates whether or not to recognise a taliban government. nearby, aid agencies hand out parcels that might save some children from hunger. alone, they can't provide for the staggering needs. giving the taliban money without guarantees on human rights and how the funds will be used is dangerous.
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but afghanistan is sinking fast. millions here will not survive the winter. yogita limaye, bbc news, herat. survive the winter. let's survive the winter. bring you up—to—date with som| of let's bring you up—to—date with some of the other stories this afternoon. it could soon be compulsory for nhs staff in england to be vaccinated for coronavirus. the health seceratry, sajid javid, says he's "leaning towards" such a policy, though no final decision has been taken. it comes as the government announces an extra £5.9 billion for the nhs in england — with the money being used to help clear the backlog of people waiting for tests and scans, and to buy equipment and improve it. 0ur health corrrespondent, dominic hughes, reports. the nhs is facing a huge backlog of non—urgent diagnostic tests and procedures. this new money, known as capital funding, that pays for equipment and infrastructure, is designed to clear by the end of this parliament most of that backlog.
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nearly £6 billion will be used in part to fund a big expansion of diagnostic tests. that means more ct, mri and ultrasound scans. the government aims to create 100 one—stop shop community diagnostic centres across england, including more than a0 already announced. what that really means is investment in physical things that are really going to make a difference in tackling that waiting list, things like the community diagnostic centres, buying ct scanners, for example, for more checkups and tests, investment in equipment, in beds, buildings, surgical hubs, and investment in it. as part of the uk's funding formula for the nhs, a proportionate amount of money will also go to the health services in scotland, wales and northern ireland. health experts have welcomed the extra money, but they point to the persistent problems around staffing. extra scanners are no good if you don't have the trained staff to operate them and interpret the results. without the staff, we can't
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deliver these services and deliver on this investment. and we have to remember, this isn'tjust about waiting lists, it's also about the demand in mental health services, the pressure on ambulances, a&e departments. those pressures show no sign of easing as nhs staff across the uk face the ongoing impact of the pandemic. the health secretary says around 100,000 health workers are still not yet fully vaccinated, and he's actively looking at making jabs compulsory for staff in england, bringing them in line with care home workers. it's a move some experts believe could backfire. when we speak to our members, they say, "you know, it's really "tricky, because in some ways mandating the vaccine for covid—i9 "could be helpful in increasing the number of people vaccinated, "but on the other hand, what if it leads to some staff "wanting to leave their roles and that would be "really challenging." staffing remains the single biggest
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challenge the health service faces, but given the time it takes to train people, that's a problem that will take years to solve and there is a danger the extra money in wednesday's budget may be wasted if the staff aren't available to use it properly. dominic hughes, bbc news. let's talk some more about that with nigel edwards, who is the chief executive of the nuffield trust health think tank. welcome to bbc news. what do you make of these proposals announced this morning? 0n proposals announced this morning? on paper it sounds like a lot of money, but i wonder what you make of the announcements and where that money will be spent? announcements and where that money will be spent?— will be spent? unfortunately the nhs is, in will be spent? unfortunately the nhs is. in common _ will be spent? unfortunately the nhs is, in common with _ will be spent? unfortunately the nhs is, in common with quite _ will be spent? unfortunately the nhs is, in common with quite a _ will be spent? unfortunately the nhs is, in common with quite a lot - will be spent? unfortunately the nhs is, in common with quite a lot of- is, in common with quite a lot of other bits of government, actually, is not spent would probably should have been spending on the so—called capital items probably for a couple of decades. we lag way behind of foreign neighbours in terms of how much we spend on scanners and other types of equipment, so the amount of
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money that is going in brings us up to probably what we should have been spending before and, in fact, these diagnostic hubs were recommended in 2019, but there was no money available at that point. your correspondence also makes it really important point that we need to staff these and there is a major shortage of radiologists, notjust in the people who read and interpret x—ray and ct and mri images, that is a world shortage, but we have a particular shortage and so, what we haven't heard is an equivalent investment in workforce and the training budget for workforce has been raided over the years, as has capital, just to keep the nhs going, so this puts things right a bit, but there is a lot more to do and it will help that the size of the backlog is going to need more than this to fix it. backlog is going to need more than this to fix it— this to fix it. yes, and your point about staffing — this to fix it. yes, and your point about staffing very _ this to fix it. yes, and your point about staffing very important. i this to fix it. yes, and your point l about staffing very important. and this to fix it. yes, and your point. about staffing very important. and i wonder if you can paint a picture of what these diagnostic centres will look like, what they will provide,
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what services we will find there and to your point about staffing, that might give us an indication of quite how many staff would be neededwell, it is quite common in other european to find that there are these facilities away from hospitals because it means they don't get interrupted by the need to see emergency patients, so you will see ct and mri scanners, other types of x—ray equipment, endoscopy, for doing colonoscopy and other upper gastro— into intestinal —— intestinal tract other investigations and equipment for measurement, for example, measuring people's long outfit. probably some of them, i suspect, will have the ability to do minor surgeries. in the you might have these surgeries, you might do hip replacements with a 23 hour stay, for example, but i don't think we have seen detail on the search carbs yet, but these are
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some high—volume procedures you would normally have in a day or even half a day and they tend to be staffed by a range of technicians, nurses and specialist doctors like gastroenterologists and radiologists for interpreting the images and doing, in some cases, various types of interventional procedure. find of interventional procedure. and some may _ of interventional procedure. and some may wonder why that funding should notjust going to existing facilities to allow them to do more, so talk to me a bit about the benefit of these stand—alone centres, which as you touched on, are high—volume, to get people through the system. are high-volume, to get people through the system.— are high-volume, to get people through the system. well, one of the roblems through the system. well, one of the problems many _ through the system. well, one of the problems many hospitals _ through the system. well, one of the problems many hospitals have - through the system. well, one of the problems many hospitals have is - through the system. well, one of the problems many hospitals have is the | problems many hospitals have is the demand on emergency care tends to trump the planned care, so you may well find that the mri or ct scanners get used by emergencies and the planned care gets bumped. there is also issues about control of infection. it is much easier to keep a planned unit three of covid and
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other infections separately. you can also be putting them in places where it is much easier to park at the many hospitals, so you talk to many people, you will hear horror stories about the length of time it takes to find a parking space in hospital. it sounds like a trivial point, but it is quite a major one. if you spent 40 is quite a major one. if you spent a0 minutes looking for a parking space you may well be late for your appointment, so there may well be advantages to... they may be operated by the existing hospitals, but it is quite common in lots of countries to find these hospital sites that are off the main site, to keep things running smoothly and not interrupted by emergency work. this interrupted by emergency work. as you say, there is very little detail in the proposal is now about exactly how these apps will work and what services are on offer, but i wonder what you would have liked to see in the announcement beyond your very important point about who will starve them?— important point about who will starve them? yes, there is also money for _ starve them? yes, there is also money for if — starve them? yes, there is also money for it and _ starve them? yes, there is also money for it and again - starve them? yes, there is also money for it and again we - starve them? yes, there is also j money for it and again we don't quite have the details of what is
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involved in that. i think the main issue about this capital budget is because these schemes take a long time to plan, particularly the major hospital development schemes, you really need to have certainty over 3-5 really need to have certainty over 3—5 years because you are planning very big developments and if you are having conversations with builders and you are saying, well, i don't know if i'm going to have the money for years three to eight of your construction project, that causes quite a lot of uncertainty. so there is some work to do to provide quite a bit more certainty about what the future of this capital budget looks like, particularly given that it has been so underfunded and, indeed, raided over the last ten years or so. actually having some certainty that we might get a level of investment that is more like 10 billion a year, rather than the six orso billion a year, rather than the six or so we have been having recently, and know that that is available for and know that that is available for a reasonable period of time to come, i think, will be quite important for people to be able to plan properly.
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nigel edwards, it is so good to have your thoughts. thank you for being with us. nigel edwards there, the chief executive of the nuffield trust, thank you. the national living wage is set to rise to £9.50 an hour. the chancellors expected to confirm the rise, which applies to all those aged 23 years old and over, in his budget on wednesday. let's get more from our political correspondent, damian grammaticas. good afternoon to you. it is properly worthless at this point in establishing the difference between the minimum wage and the national living wage because they are different. , ., �* ., living wage because they are different. , . �* ., . different. they are. both are essentially — different. they are. both are essentially what _ different. they are. both are essentially what you - different. they are. both are essentially what you would l essentially what you would understand commonly as a minimum wage, the national minimum wage applies to anyone 22 and under, so that his apprentices, those who are working from teenagers, eighteens, 20-21, 22. at 23, it working from teenagers, eighteens, 20—21, 22. at 23, it becomes called the national living wage and that is
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what we are talking about the minute, so the national living wage, set at the minute at £8.91 per hour it is going to go up, we understand, to £9.50 per hour from it is going to go up, we understand, to £9.50 per hourfrom april it is going to go up, we understand, to £9.50 per hour from april next year, it is worth saying. this is on the regulation of the low pay commission, who look into this and they advise the government. they had been looking already at around £9.a0 —ish, but now it looks like it is going to go at £9 50 p. that is an increase of about 6.5% and for younger age groups, so the national minimum wage, will also go up by a similar amount. that is what we are expecting more details. and similar amount. that is what we are expecting more details.— expecting more details. and the oint here expecting more details. and the point here is _ expecting more details. and the point here is that _ expecting more details. and the point here is that that _ expecting more details. and the point here is that that is - expecting more details. and the point here is that that is in - expecting more details. and the i point here is that that is in excess of inflation, so that means a real terms pay rise for those people and thatis terms pay rise for those people and that is the crucial point and will pay to the government's policy of levelling up and helping those on the lowest incomes. we will get more detail on the budget on wednesday, but we are also expecting to hear
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from the chief secretary to the treasury this afternoon. what we to say? 50 treasury this afternoon. what we to sa ? ,, ., , treasury this afternoon. what we to sa ? , ., , ., say? so 'ust initially some more outline say? sojust initially some more outline of what _ say? sojust initially some more outline of what we _ say? sojust initially some more outline of what we have - say? sojust initially some more outline of what we have been i say? so just initially some more - outline of what we have been hearing because of course the budget will confirm these things and rishi sunak talks on wednesday, so what we do know, expect then or we will wait to see our some of the important knock—on effects from this. so one thing, of course, is going to be where the level is set, but what are the implications and from that? what does the chancellor say about other pay awards, particularly public sector pay? so the national living wage, we are talking about a couple of million people for whom this could apply. the public sector pay, 2.5 million or so people, who have had their pay frozen during parts of the pandemic. there now may be pressure to increase that as well because, of course, if they see public —— if sector workers see the
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national living wage going up it will increase their desire to see their own pay packet going up. that then feeds into higher costs for businesses and employers who have to pay this and possibly then higher costs for consumers and purchasers, people buying things, so it can push prices up, so there are many ways this could feed through, but the essential thing here is when it comes to the national living wage, the government has a target already that it the government has a target already thatitis the government has a target already that it is trying to force that upwards to rewards roughly £10 something. £10.30 or £10.a0 in two years' time and we are sort of on track to that, this is trying to push push up those wages at the bottom. . , ., ., ., ~ bottom. damian grammaticas, thank ou ve bottom. damian grammaticas, thank you very much- _ bottom. damian grammaticas, thank you very much. annual— bottom. damian grammaticas, thank you very much. annual you _ bottom. damian grammaticas, thank you very much. annual you will - you very much. annual you will follow this throughout the afternoon, but thank you very much for the time being. petrol prices have reached their highest ever price. motoring organisations say the average price paid
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for a litre of petrol is now nearly £1.a3, beating the previous record set in 2012. diesel prices remain a little below its all time high. analysts say its due in part to a doubling of the oil price since last year. joining me now is the rac�*s fuel spokesperson, simon williams. welcome to bbc news. why are prices so high right now?— so high right now? hello, ben. it is a combination _ so high right now? hello, ben. it is a combination of— so high right now? hello, ben. it is a combination of the _ so high right now? hello, ben. it is a combination of the fact _ so high right now? hello, ben. it is a combination of the fact that - so high right now? hello, ben. it is a combination of the fact that not l a combination of the fact that not least the price of oil, oil has doubled in the last 12 months and obviously it hit a low of about $13 early on in the pandemic. we are now “p early on in the pandemic. we are now up to $85 and fewer oil is also trading dodgers, so the true exchange rate is important and the exchange rate is important and the exchange rate is weaker than it was in 2012 and the oil rate is actually far lower than it was in 2012, but the exchange rate makes a difference. then we have the switch to e ten petrol, 5% more for petrol now is ethanol and ethanol is really expensive on the wholesale market, over 1000 euros at a time, that is adding 9p a litre to the price we
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are paying at the pump. then you have the duty at 58p and then you have the duty at 58p and then you have the duty at 58p and then you have the retailers. the retailers have the retailers. the retailers have been taking more margin, probably prior to the pandemic, but more now since the pandemic. they are taking around 9p per litre. and of the sea then you have got the vat at the end of that transaction, at 2ap, which gives us a record high of £1.a3, which is a lot for drivers. given everything you have said they're coming in the week we will hear from the chancellor on the budget, i wonder whether he will be minded to do anything about that price and maybe the tax take that the judge takes from a litre of fuel. . . ~ the judge takes from a litre of fuel. . ., ~ , ., ., j~f the judge takes from a litre of fuel. . .,~ , ., ., j~f ., fuel. the tax take is around 5896 at the moment _ fuel. the tax take is around 5896 at the moment and _ fuel. the tax take is around 5896 at the moment and duty _ fuel. the tax take is around 5896 at the moment and duty 58p - fuel. the tax take is around 5896 at the moment and duty 58p a - fuel. the tax take is around 5896 at the moment and duty 58p a litre i fuel. the tax take is around 5896 at i the moment and duty 58p a litre has been frozen since 2011, so we don't want the chancellor to do anything to that. we have called on normally for people to reduce it, but that wouldn't perhaps go down well politically at the moment with our
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move toward zero carbon. so cutting duty to three and a half percent would save lots of p per litre at the moment, the benefit of that could be if you were to cut duty there is a danger that could be swallowed up by retailers and then everyone pin ends up paying the same price, but if you cut duty it would save around 3p per litre and that would be good for drivers. we know how important it is to drive for the economy. everyone is moving around now driving their cars more depending on the moor, and of course this hits people on low incomes than most. they can't buy petrol very easily, it is too expensive, and if they have no choice but to use their car and they have an incompatible car and they have an incompatible car with then they could be paying a lot more full super unleaded. find lot more full super unleaded. and when ou lot more full super unleaded. and when you drive — lot more full super unleaded. and when you drive or not you will feel this as well because most things are transported around the country on the back of a truck, as has been made all too apparent with this hgv driver shortage, made all too apparent with this hgv drivershortage, means made all too apparent with this hgv driver shortage, means prices will go driver shortage, means prices will 9° up driver shortage, means prices will go up as a result in the shops as well. , ., ., , , ., , ,
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well. unquestionably and diesel is onl a well. unquestionably and diesel is only a penny _ well. unquestionably and diesel is only a penny and _ well. unquestionably and diesel is only a penny and a _ well. unquestionably and diesel is only a penny and a half _ well. unquestionably and diesel is only a penny and a half on - well. unquestionably and diesel is only a penny and a half on the - only a penny and a half on the record price at one point 79 ? one had 79p and that will increase prices across the board. price are really trading up today and things don't look good, almost $90 a barrel by the end of the year and prices could still go higher. if we were to hit $100 for oil we could be looking at £1.50 per litre of petrol and that will really hit the economy and homes across the country. absolutely. simon, we will keep an eye on that, as i am sure you will too. simon williams there, spokesperson at the rac. thank you. the facebook whistleblower and former data scientist, frances haugen, is giving evidence to mps shortly on government plans for social media regulation. she worked at facebook for two years, and met the campaigner, ian russell, whose1a—year—old daughter molly took her own life after viewing disturbing content on instagram — which is owned by facebook. angus crawford reports.
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she is the former facebook insider who revealed its most closely—guarded secrets. ia—year—old molly russell... he is the father who lost his daughter to suicide. now campaigning to protect other children online. nice to meet you. so lovely to meet you. here, meeting for the first time. so what do you think the impact of molly's story was on instagram as a platform and how it approaches safety? facebook is full of kind, conscientious, well—meaning people. the real question is around can we as a public change the incentives such that it makes more sense for facebook to invest more money in safety on instagram? and so i am sure that molly's experience caused them to look at these questions more. so one of the things that lead us to find out more about molly was some notes that she left, that were found after she died and in one of them, she wrote, "i keep a lotto myself and it keeps "building up inside.
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"you get addicted to it and you don't even realise you have "spun out of control, you are living in "a trap, in a circle." what is so dangerous about having children under the age of 16, under the age of 18, using systems like instagram is that facebook�*s own research shows that a startlingly high fraction of them exhibit what is known as problematic use, which means that they can't regulate their own usage of the product. it is kind of like cigarettes in that way. and they know it is hurting their physical health, their school work or their employment. facebook says it has never allowed content that promotes or encourages suicide or self—harm and it works with experts to continually update its policies. as time goes on, as a parent bereaved by the suicide of his 14—year—old, i look at a huge corporation with massive resources and say, "there must be "more you can be doing." unquestionably, facebook could be investing more resources in making the platform safer. they have made a series of choices
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to prioritise profits over people. what do you think regulators can do to persuade those big tech companies to behave differently? there's no company in the world that has as much power as facebook and as little transparency. in a statement, facebook said, "our deepest sympathies "are with the russell family. "as a company, we have invested $13 billion on safety "and security since 2016, and have more than a0,000 people "working in this area". the whistle—blower and the campaigner, working to make social media a safer place. angus crawford, bbc news. i'm joined now by edleenjohn, director of corporate affairs and co—partner for equality, diversity and inclusion at the football associaton. welcome to bbc news. i hope you can hear some of angus�*s report they're looking at some of the problems that have been highlighted. a wonderfrom
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your point of view, what is wrong with the way that social media companies currently operate? i with the way that social media companies currently operate? i think the oint companies currently operate? i think the point that _ companies currently operate? i think the point that was _ companies currently operate? i think the point that was made _ companies currently operate? i think the point that was made around - the point that was made around making a series of decisions that have prioritised profit over safety is a really critical one and i think from the abuse that we see across a number of constituents across the game, actually for us there isn't a focus on making sure that the platform is safe for every user. there are some users who clearly are prioritised and those tend to be those who are anonymous and can go on and spout all types of abuse to individuals. we have got here a real—life example of the impact of that type of abuse and how that can lead to a young person or indeed any individual taking a life. it has got to get to a point where social media organisations recognise their moral responsibility and do more to make sure that all users on their platforms are protected. yes, that we have that _ platforms are protected. yes, that we have that call _ platforms are protected. yes, that we have that call to _ platforms are protected. yes, that we have that call to remove - platforms are protected. yes, that we have that call to remove the i we have that call to remove the anonymity many times. it has been a quarrel that has been going on for many years. the social media companies appear reluctant to change it. how would you like to see that
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work? what checks and balances, as far as anonymity are concerned, should be put in place? irate far as anonymity are concerned, should be put in place?- should be put in place? we are really clear _ should be put in place? we are really clear there _ should be put in place? we are really clear there is _ should be put in place? we are really clear there is not - should be put in place? we are really clear there is not going l should be put in place? we are| really clear there is not going to be just one single silver bullet that solves but anonymity is actually absolutely part of the problem because individuals at the moment are empowered to go online, but i'd discover niddrie abuse or put on abuse more broadly, notjust any sense of disconnection towards individuals, then they can go on, delete their profile, reregister another profile and do so within minutes with no trace of who they are, where they are from, what their background is or any other additional information which would be required to make sure law enforcement or somebody can take action so there are real world consequences for the actions are taken online. that could be in the mechanism of verification, be that i deem verification, be that other mechanisms of verification. for me it is about making sure that actually there is a mechanism in place where people recognise if they are going to go online and abuse individuals, they can'tjust do that
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without there being a mechanism by which they can be traced, contacted by law which they can be traced, contacted bylaw enforcement and by which they can face real—world consequences. yes, and as you touched on, anonymityjust yes, and as you touched on, anonymity just one yes, and as you touched on, anonymityjust one of the issues that will be looked at under these proposed new laws. iwonder what else would be key, what would you like to see included in it? yes. else would be key, what would you like to see included in it?— like to see included in it? yes, i think there _ like to see included in it? yes, i think there are _ like to see included in it? yes, i think there are a _ like to see included in it? yes, i think there are a number- like to see included in it? yes, i think there are a number of- like to see included in it? yes, i i think there are a number of things that the online safety bill can really bring into play. it is about making sure there is transparency reporting across the board. you will see from various reports we have had over the past 12 months that the picture social media presents all the experience and data we from a pit bull perspective have collated is quite different. for me there is also the option of making sure default settings are put in place that provide the mechanism and protection we think are important for keeping our users safe. you can have things like cooling off periods to make sure that actually if an individual registers a new account they have a certain period in which they have a certain period in which they are not able to interact or engage with a user who they do not have a relationship with and there are a number of these things we think the online safety bill really
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needs to address, making sure the equality act and the intention of that act, to protect people from discrimination, is also followed through as it relates to the online safety bill. at the moment we think there are opportunities available to be enhancements, as it relates to the online safety bill, for there to be mechanisms put in place to create production across users, but we have seen from the example you just shared that right now in office not being done and we have to call on social media organisations to do more and if we can't the government should effectively legislate them so they are held to account for what is happening on the platforms every day at the moment. happening on the platforms every day at the moment-— at the moment. edleen john, really aood to at the moment. edleen john, really good to have _ at the moment. edleen john, really good to have your— at the moment. edleen john, really good to have your thoughts, - at the moment. edleen john, reallyj good to have your thoughts, thanks for being with us this afternoon and you might want to stay there because we are going to go straight to the house of commons because that is where frances haugen, the former facebook employee, is giving evidence at the joint committee on the draft of the online safety bill. we are expected to hear some accusations. she has already been speaking the us senate in washington, dc, giving evidence and
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looking at some of the flaws in the algorithms that she has highlighted that says there is simply not enough transparency over the control facebook has over what we see on a new state. let's have a listen. there is a pattern of behaviour at facebook which is they are very good at dancing with data. if you go and read the transparency report the fraction that they are presenting is not total hate speech could divided by total hate speech that exists which is what you might expect given what they said. the fraction they are actually presenting is the stuff that robots got, divided by stuff robots got, plus what humour is reported and we take down. it is true that 97% or something of what they take down happens because of their robots but that is not actually the question we want answered. it is did you take the hate speech down? the number i have seen is 3—5% but i wouldn't be surprised if there is some variation. i
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surprised if there is some variation.— variation. i think it is very important _ variation. i think it is very important point _ variation. i think it is very important point is - variation. i think it is very - important point is essentially what we're _ important point is essentially what we're looking at here is the creation _ we're looking at here is the creation of an independent regulator for the _ creation of an independent regulator for the tech sector that not only do need _ for the tech sector that not only do need answers but we need to know what the _ need answers but we need to know what the right questions are as well because _ what the right questions are as well because the official statistics are so misleading.— because the official statistics are so misleading. part of why i came forward is i _ so misleading. part of why i came forward is i know _ so misleading. part of why i came forward is i know that _ so misleading. part of why i came forward is i know that i _ so misleading. part of why i came forward is i know that i have - so misleading. part of why i came forward is i know that i have a - forward is i know that i have a specific set of expertise, i have worked at four social networks, i have an algorithm specialist so i worked at such quality at google, and ranking for b compete on interest, i have an understanding of how ai can unintentionally behave, facebook never set out to prioritise the rising content itjust happened to be a side about choices they did make. part of i came forward as i am extremely worried about the conditions of our societies, the condition, the interaction of the choices facebook has made and how it plays out more broadly. things i am specifically worried about our engagement by striking which facebook has said before, mark
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zuckerberg put out white paper in 2018 saying engagement with writing is dangerous unless the ai can take out about things and eat there getting 3—5% of things like hate speech. no .8% of violent society content. engagement—based ranking prioritises that kind of extreme content. i am deeply concerned about underinvestment in non—ridges and how they can mislead the public, but they are supporting them. facebook says things like we support 1500 is when in reality because of those i would just get a tiny fraction of the safety systems that english gets. i don't think this is widely known. uk english is sufficiently different that i would be unsurprised if the safety systems that developed for american english were actually under enforcing in the uk. i wouldn't be unsurprised. facebook should have to disclose dialectical differences. i am deeply concerned about the full stresses that facebook presents. they
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routinely try to reduce the discussion to things like you can either have transparency or privacy, which do you want to have? for if you want safety you have to have censorship. in reality they have lots of content —based choices that would sliver off half a percentage point of growth, and facebook is unwilling to give up those slivers for our safety. unwilling to give up those slivers for oursafety. i unwilling to give up those slivers for our safety. i came forward now because now is the most critical time to act. when we see something like an oil spill, that oil spill doesn't make it harder for society to regulate oil companies. but right now the failures of facebook are making it harderfor us now the failures of facebook are making it harder for us to now the failures of facebook are making it harderfor us to regulate facebook. fin making it harder for us to regulate facebook. ., , making it harder for us to regulate facebook. .,, ., , ., ., ~' facebook. on those failures, looking at the way the _ facebook. on those failures, looking at the way the platform _ facebook. on those failures, looking at the way the platform is _ facebook. on those failures, looking| at the way the platform is moderated today, _ at the way the platform is moderated today, do _ at the way the platform is moderated today, do you think, unless there is change. _ today, do you think, unless there is change. do — today, do you think, unless there is change, do you think it makes it more _ change, do you think it makes it more likely— change, do you think it makes it more likely we will see events like the insurrection in washington on the insurrection in washington on the 6th— the insurrection in washington on the 6th of— the insurrection in washington on the 6th ofjanuary this year, more violent— the 6th ofjanuary this year, more violent acts — the 6th ofjanuary this year, more violent acts that have been driven by facebook systems, do you think it
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is more _ by facebook systems, do you think it is more likely we will see more of those _ is more likely we will see more of those events as things stand today? i those events as things stand today? i have _ those events as things stand today? i have no— those events as things stand today? i have no doubt that the events we are seeing around the world, things like myanmar and ethiopia are the opening chapters because engagement—based ranking does two things, it prioritises and amplifies divisive polarising extreme content and it concentrates it. if facebook comes back and says only a tiny sliver of the platform is hate or violence, they can protect very well so i don't know about russell's numbers, but it gets hyper concentrated in 5% of the population. you only need 3% of the population. you only need 3% of the population on the streets to have a revolution. that is dangerous. i revolution. that is dangerous. i want to ask a bit about hyper concentration particularly an area he worked — concentration particularly an area he worked on a particular and that is facebook— he worked on a particular and that is facebook groups. error being told several— is facebook groups. error being told several years ago by facebook executive that the only way you could _ executive that the only way you could drive content platform is arising — could drive content platform is arising. that is untrue. grids are increasingly— arising. that is untrue. grids are increasingly used to take that experience. we talk a lot about the
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impact _ experience. we talk a lot about the impact of— experience. we talk a lot about the impact of algorithmic based recommendation towards news feed. to what extent _ recommendation towards news feed. to what extent do you think groups are shaping _ what extent do you think groups are shaping the experience for many people _ shaping the experience for many people on— shaping the experience for many people on facebook?— shaping the experience for many people on facebook? those by a huge and critical role _ people on facebook? those by a huge and critical role in _ people on facebook? those by a huge and critical role in driving _ people on facebook? those by a huge and critical role in driving the - and critical role in driving the extremes on facebook. when i worked on silicon information as this is based on a college and i don't have a document, i believe it was up more like 60% of the content in the news feed was groups. i think what is important that is good to know is facebook has been trying to extend sessions, get you to consume longer sessions, get you to consume longer sessions and more content and the only way they can do that is by multiplying the content that already exist on the platform. they way they do that is things like groups and shares, if i put one posting to have a million person group that can go out to have a million people. combined with engagement by striking, that might produce 500 or a thousand pieces of content today but only three get delivered. if you haven't biased algorithm towards extremely polarising and divisive content it is like viral variants. those giant groups are producing lots of content and only the ones most likely to spread are the ones
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that go out. it most likely to spread are the ones that go out-— that go out. it is reported as your the wall street _ that go out. it is reported as your the wall street journal _ that go out. it is reported as your the wall street journal that - that go out. it is reported as your the wall street journal that 6096 | that go out. it is reported as your. the wall street journal that 6096 of the wall street journal that 60% of people _ the wall street journal that 60% of people thatjoin the wall street journal that 60% of people that join facebook groups thatjoin— people that join facebook groups thatjoin facebook group people that join facebook groups that join facebook group stuttered extreme _ that join facebook group stuttered extreme as content are promoting extenors— extreme as content are promoting exteriors content did so at facebook's active recommendation so this is— facebook's active recommendation so this is clearly something facebook is researching. what action is facebook— is researching. what action is facebook taking about groups that actions _ facebook taking about groups that actions content? | facebook taking about groups that actions content?— actions content? i don't know the exact actions _ actions content? i don't know the exact actions that _ actions content? i don't know the exact actions that have _ actions content? i don't know the exact actions that have been - actions content? i don't know the l exact actions that have been taken in the last six months or a year, actions regarding extremist groups are recommended actively to users is things that facebook should be able to just say this is a problem we are working on it and they should have to articulate here is our 5—point plan and here is the data that would allow you to hold us accountable because facebook acting in a non—transparent and unaccountable non—tra nspa rent and unaccountable way non—transparent and unaccountable way will just lead to non—transparent and unaccountable way willjust lead to more tragedies. d0 way willjust lead to more tragedies-— way willjust lead to more tracedies. , ., ~ ., tragedies. do you think that i quite like this? i don't _ tragedies. do you think that i quite like this? i don't know _ tragedies. do you think that i quite like this? i don't know if _ tragedies. do you think that i quite like this? i don't know if i - tragedies. do you think that i quite like this? i don't know if i have - like this? i don't know if i have had one point. _ like this? i don't know if i have had one point. any _ like this? i don't know if i have had one point. any plan? - like this? i don't know if i have had one point. any plan? i- like this? i don't know if i have. had one point. any plan? i don't know, i didn't _ had one point. any plan? i don't know, i didn't work _ had one point. any plan? i don't know, i didn't work on _ had one point. any plan? i don't know, i didn't work on them. i had one point. any plan? i don't know, i didn't work on them. to j had one point. any plan? i don't- know, i didn't work on them. to what extent should — know, i didn't work on them. to what extent should we _ know, i didn't work on them. to what extent should we be _ know, i didn't work on them. to what extent should we be considering - extent should we be considering groups— extent should we be considering groups or— extent should we be considering groups or should a regulator be
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asking — groups or should a regulator be asking these questions about facebook ribs, from what you're saying _ facebook ribs, from what you're saying they are a significant of engagement, if engagement as part of output _ engagement, if engagement as part of output they have decided groups must be a problem to. part}r output they have decided groups must be a problem to-_ be a problem to. party what is that we talk about _ be a problem to. party what is that we talk about sometimes - be a problem to. party what is that we talk about sometimes as - be a problem to. party what is that we talk about sometimes as idea i be a problem to. party what is that| we talk about sometimes as idea of it is an individual problem or is this a societal problem? one of the things that happens in aggregate is the algorithms take people who have very mainstream interests and they'd push them towards extremely stressed, centre left and you can push the radical left, you can be centre—right and pushed the radical right, looking for healthy recipes and you'll be pushed to anorexia content, there are examples of all this on facebook research. another thing that happens with great and with networks of groups is that people see echo chambers that create social norms. if i am in a group that has lots of covid misinformation and icy over and over again that if someone gives covid
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vaccine, things that encourage people to get vaccinated bigger completely passed upon is that report. i learn certain ideas are subtle and unacceptable. when that context is around hate, now you see a normalisation of hate and a normalisation of dehumanising others and that is what leads to violent incidents. ~ . , and that is what leads to violent incidents. , , ., incidents. many people take that particularly _ incidents. many people take that particularly large _ incidents. many people take that particularly large groups - incidents. many people take that particularly large groups and - incidents. many people take that i particularly large groups and some of these _ particularly large groups and some of these have hundreds of thousands of these have hundreds of thousands of members in them they have had to be much _ of members in them they have had to be much easier for the patent are moderate — be much easier for the patent are moderate because people are gathering in complex? i strongly recommend _ gathering in complex? i strongly recommend that _ gathering in complex? i strongly recommend that above - gathering in complex? i strongly recommend that above a - gathering in complex? i strongly recommend that above a certain| gathering in complex? i strongly - recommend that above a certain size group they should be required to provide their own moderators and moderate every post. this would naturally in a content agnostic way regulate the impact of those large groups. because if that group is actually valuable enough they will have no trouble recruiting volunteers but if that group is just an application point, like we see foreign information operations using groups like this in finality hacking is the practice of borrowing viral content from other places to build a
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group. we see these places as being, if you want to launch an advertising campaign with misinformation, we at least have a credit card to track you back. if you want to start a group and invite 1000 people every day, the limit is 2200 people you can invite every day, you can build up can invite every day, you can build up that group and your content will land in the news feed for a month and if they engage it will be considered valid. things like that make them very dangerous and they drive outsized impact on platform. if a bad actor or agency wanted to influence — if a bad actor or agency wanted to influence what a group of people on facebook— influence what a group of people on facebook would say you probally set ”p facebook would say you probally set up facebook is to do that more than you would _ up facebook is to do that more than you would expect pages and advertising. is you would expect pages and advertising-— advertising. is definitely a strate: advertising. is definitely a strategy currently - advertising. is definitely a strategy currently used i advertising. is definitely a strategy currently used by information operations. another one use which i think is great interest as you can create a new account and within five minutes post it to a million person group. there is no accountability, no trace. you can
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find a group to target any interest you want to. even if you remove micro—targeting people would micro—targeting people would micro—target via groups. what micro-targeting people would micro-target via groups. what do you think the company _ micro-target via groups. what do you think the company strategy _ micro-target via groups. what do you think the company strategy is - micro-target via groups. what do you think the company strategy is for - think the company strategy is for dealing _ think the company strategy is for dealing with this because there were changes— dealing with this because there were changes made to facebook ribs i think— changes made to facebook ribs i think in— changes made to facebook ribs i think in 2017, 2018, to create more of a community experience i think what _ of a community experience i think what mark— of a community experience i think what mark zuckerberg z of a community experience i think what mark zuckerberg 2 which is given— what mark zuckerberg 2 which is given engagement but it will seem similar— given engagement but it will seem similar to — given engagement but it will seem similar tojust over given engagement but it will seem similar to just over works given engagement but it will seem similar tojust over works in terms of content — similar tojust over works in terms of content that it prepares and favours. — of content that it prepares and favours, these are reforms accompany put in _ favours, these are reforms accompany put in place _ favours, these are reforms accompany put in place that have been given engagement have been terrible for harm? _ engagement have been terrible for harm? , ., , ., ., engagement have been terrible for harm? , ., ., ., harm? there needs to be a move away from binary — harm? there needs to be a move away from binary choices. _ harm? there needs to be a move away from binary choices. there _ harm? there needs to be a move away from binary choices. there is _ harm? there needs to be a move away from binary choices. there is a - harm? there needs to be a move away from binary choices. there is a huge i from binary choices. there is a huge continuum of options that exist. coming in and saying, "groups are under 1000 people are wonderful and great community and create solidarity and help the people that can influence" if you get above a certain size or 10,000 people, you need to start moderating that group because that alone, that naturally
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limits it. the thing we need to think about is where do we add selective friction to these systems so that they are safe in every language, you don't need the ais so that they are safe in every language, you don't need the ms to find the content? in language, you don't need the ais to find the content?— language, you don't need the ais to find the content? in your experience is facebook — find the content? in your experience is facebook testing _ find the content? in your experience is facebook testing systems - find the content? in your experience is facebook testing systems over i is facebook testing systems over time, _ is facebook testing systems over time, does facebook experiment with the way— time, does facebook experiment with the way it— time, does facebook experiment with the way it systems work around how you increase — the way it systems work around how you increase engagement and obviously in terms of content on the news _ obviously in terms of content on the news feed _ obviously in terms of content on the news feed we know the aches permitted around election time around — permitted around election time around the news that should be favoured, — around the news that should be favoured, so how does facebook work in experimented with these tools critical— in experimented with these tools critical facebook is continually running — critical facebook is continually running many experiments in parallel and little _ running many experiments in parallel and little slices and running many experiments in parallel and little slice— and little slices and little slices ofthe and little slices and little slices of the date _ and little slices and little slices of the date they _ and little slices and little slices of the date they have. - and little slices and little slices of the date they have. i - and little slices and little slices of the date they have. i am - and little slices and little slices of the date they have. i am a i and little slices and little slices - of the date they have. i am a strong proponent that facebook should have to publish a feed of all the threads they are running, they don't have to tell is at the extremities, just an id and even just seeing the results that it would allow us to establish patterns of behaviour because the real thing we are seeing here is facebook accepting tiny additions of harm. when they way off how much harm. when they way off how much harm is worth how much good for us, right now we can benchmark and so
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you're running all these expense, are you acting in the public good? but if we had at that and we could see patterns of behaviour and see whether or not trends are going. you work in the — whether or not trends are going. you work in the civic integrity team at facebook— work in the civic integrity team at facebook so if you saw something concerning — facebook so if you saw something concerning youth who would you put to? , , ., ., ~' concerning youth who would you put to? , to? this is a huge weak spot. if i drove a bus _ to? this is a huge weak spot. if i drove a bus in _ to? this is a huge weak spot. if i drove a bus in the _ to? this is a huge weak spot. if i drove a bus in the united - to? this is a huge weak spot. if i drove a bus in the united states| drove a bus in the united states they would be a phone number in my bedroom that i could call that would say did you see something that endanger public safety ? micro—break room. sony will take you seriously and listen to you. when i worked on counter espionage i saw things i was concerned about national security and i have no idea how to escalate those because i didn't have faith in the chain of command at that point. they had to solve civic integrity. i didn't see that they were taken seriously and we were told just to accept under resourcing. seriously and we were told 'ust to accept under resourcing. although in theo ou accept under resourcing. although in theory you would _ accept under resourcing. although in theory you would report _ accept under resourcing. although in theory you would report to _ accept under resourcing. although in theory you would report to the - accept under resourcing. although in theory you would report to the line i theory you would report to the line manager, — theory you would report to the line manager, would it be up to them whether— manager, would it be up to them whether they choose to escalate that? _ whether they choose to escalate that? ., whether they choose to escalate that? . , ., , ., ~ that? flag repeatedly when i worked on civic integrity _ that? flag repeatedly when i worked on civic integrity that _ that? flag repeatedly when i worked on civic integrity that i _ that? flag repeatedly when i worked on civic integrity that i felt _ on civic integrity that i felt critical teams were understaffed and
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i was told at facebook we accomplish unimaginable things with far fewer resources than anyone would think possible. there is a culture that ionisers a start—up ethic that is in my opinion irresponsible. the idea the person who can figure out how to move the metric by cutting the most goners is good. the reality is it doesn't matter if facebook is spending $1a billion in safety a year, they should be spending 25 billion or 35 billion, that is a real question. right now there is no incentives internally that if you make noise saying we need more help, people will not, you will not get right around, because everyone is underwater. right around, because everyone is underwater-— right around, because everyone is underwater. ., ., , ., underwater. many organisations that ultimately failed, _ underwater. many organisations that ultimately failed, i _ underwater. many organisations that ultimately failed, i think _ underwater. many organisations that ultimately failed, i think that - underwater. many organisations that ultimately failed, i think that sort i ultimately failed, i think that sort of culture — ultimately failed, i think that sort of culture exists, there is a culture _ of culture exists, there is a culture where there is no external audit— culture where there is no external audit and — culture where there is no external audit and people inside the organisation don't share problems with the _ organisation don't share problems with the people at the top. what you people _ with the people at the top. what you people like mark zuckerberg know about _ people like mark zuckerberg know about these things? i
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people like mark zuckerberg know about these things?— about these things? i think it is im ortant about these things? i think it is important that _ about these things? i think it is important that all— about these things? i think it is important that all facts - about these things? i think it is important that all facts are - about these things? i think it is i important that all facts are viewed through a lens of interpretation. there is a patent across a lot of people who run the company or senior leaders which is may be the onlyjob i have ever had, mark came in when he was 19 and he is still a ceo. there are a lot of people who are vips or directors where this is the onlyjob i have ever had. there is a lack of people, who have been promoted, the people who could focus on the goals they were given and not necessarily the ones that asked questions around public safety. i think there is a real think that people are exposed and they say look at all the good we are doing. yes it is free but we didn't invent hate or ethnic violence. that is not a question, the question is what is facebook to exemplify or expand hate, what is it doing to amplify or expand ethnic violence? find hate, what is it doing to amplify or expand ethnic violence? and facebook didn't invent — expand ethnic violence? and facebook didn't invent hate _ expand ethnic violence? and facebook didn't invent hate but _ expand ethnic violence? and facebook didn't invent hate but do _ expand ethnic violence? and facebook didn't invent hate but do think- expand ethnic violence? and facebook didn't invent hate but do think it - didn't invent hate but do think it is making — didn't invent hate but do think it is making it worse? unquestionably. joinin: us is making it worse? unquestionably. joining us remotely, _ is making it worse? unquestionably. joining us remotely, jim _ is making it worse? unquestionably.
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joining us remotely, jim knight. - joining us remotely, jim knight. thank— joining us remotely, jim knight. thank you — joining us remotely, jim knight. thank you for talking to us. first of all— thank you for talking to us. first of alljust— thank you for talking to us. first of alljust some _ thank you for talking to us. first of alljust some of _ thank you for talking to us. first of alljust some of the _ thank you for talking to us. first of alljust some of the last - of alljust some of the last fascinating _ of alljust some of the last fascinating discussion - of alljust some of the last fascinating discussion youl of alljust some of the last. fascinating discussion you are having — fascinating discussion you are having you _ fascinating discussion you are having, you talked _ fascinating discussion you are having, you talked about - fascinating discussion you are having, you talked about if. fascinating discussion you are i having, you talked about if you fascinating discussion you are - having, you talked about if you are going _ having, you talked about if you are going out — having, you talked about if you are going out for— having, you talked about if you are going out for help _ having, you talked about if you are going out for help he _ having, you talked about if you are going out for help he wouldn't - going out for help he wouldn't necessarily— going out for help he wouldn't necessarily get— going out for help he wouldn't necessarily get the _ going out for help he wouldn't necessarily get the resource, i going out for help he wouldn't - necessarily get the resource, would design _ necessarily get the resource, would design be _ necessarily get the resource, would design be true _ necessarily get the resource, would design be true if— necessarily get the resource, would design be true if you _ necessarily get the resource, would design be true if you are _ necessarily get the resource, would design be true if you are working i necessarily get the resource, would design be true if you are working in| design be true if you are working in pr or— design be true if you are working in pr or illegal— design be true if you are working in pr or illegal within _ design be true if you are working in pr or illegal within facebook? - design be true if you are working in pr or illegal within facebook? [- pr or illegal within facebook? i have pr or illegal within facebook? have never worked in pr or munication so i am not sure. i do know that, i was shocked to hear recently that facebook wants to double down on the net averse and that they are going to hire 10,000 engineers in europe to work on the matter burst because i was like do you know what we could have done unsafely if we had 10,000 more engineers, it would have been amazing. i think there is a view inside the company that safety is a cost centre it is not a grow centre which is a very short—term thinking because facebook does make research has shown that when people have worse integrity expenses on the side they are less likely to retain. regulation could actually be good
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from facebook? long—term success because it would work facebook back into a place where it was more pleasant to be in facebook and that could be good for long—term growth of the company. but could be good for long-term growth of the company-— could be good for long-term growth of the company. but we go back also to the discussion _ of the company. but we go back also to the discussion about _ of the company. but we go back also to the discussion about facebook- to the discussion about facebook groups — to the discussion about facebook groups by— to the discussion about facebook groups by which— to the discussion about facebook groups. by which we _ to the discussion about facebook groups. by which we are - to the discussion about facebook. groups. by which we are essentially talking _ groups. by which we are essentially talking about — groups. by which we are essentially talking about private _ groups. by which we are essentially talking about private groups - talking about private groups clearly _ talking about private groups clearly if _ talking about private groups clearly. if you _ talking about private groups clearly. if you were - talking about private groups clearly. if you were asked i talking about private groups| clearly. if you were asked to talking about private groups . clearly. if you were asked to be talking about private groups - clearly. if you were asked to be the regulator _ clearly. if you were asked to be the regulator of — clearly. if you were asked to be the regulator of a — clearly. if you were asked to be the regulator of a platform _ clearly. if you were asked to be the regulator of a platform like - regulator of a platform like facebook, _ regulator of a platform like facebook, how— regulator of a platform like facebook, how do - regulator of a platform like facebook, how do you - regulator of a platform like facebook, how do you geti regulator of a platform like i facebook, how do you get the transparency— facebook, how do you get the transparency about— facebook, how do you get the transparency about what - facebook, how do you get the transparency about what is - facebook, how do you get the i transparency about what is going facebook, how do you get the - transparency about what is going on in private _ transparency about what is going on in private groups— transparency about what is going on in private groups given _ transparency about what is going on in private groups given that - transparency about what is going on in private groups given that they - in private groups given that they are private? _ in private groups given that they are private? i— in private groups given that they are private?— in private groups given that they are rivate? ~' , ., ., are private? i think there is a real bar. if are private? i think there is a real bar- if we — are private? i think there is a real bar. if we would _ are private? i think there is a real bar. if we would have _ are private? i think there is a real bar. if we would have a _ are private? i think there is a real. bar. if we would have a confirmation in society about how many people, after a certain number of people have seen something is a truly private, is at number 10,000, 25,000, is a really private at that point? because i think there is argument that facebook will make which is that there might be a sensitive group which someone might post into and we wouldn't want to share that even if 35,000 people side which i think is actually more
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dangerous, that if people are lulled into a sense of safety, that no one will either hate speech or no one will either hate speech or no one will see more sensitive things like maybe they haven't come out yet. that is dangerous because those spaces are not safe. when 100,000 people see something you don't know who saw it and what they might do, i am a big proponent of both google and twitter are radically more transparent and facebook, people every day download search results on google and analyse them. people publish papers and because google knows this happens date staff software engineers who work on social quality to write a blog post. twitter knows 10% of all the public tweets end up going out on their fire hose people analysers and and do things i find iteration operation networks. because twitter knows someone is watching they behave better. i think in the case of facebook and even with private groups should be some bar above which we say enough people have seen this it is not private and we should
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have a fire hose just twitter because if we want to catch national security threats like intervention operations we need to have notjust the people on facebook looking at it we need 10,000 researchers get it and i think in addition to that we would have a credibility on things like algorithmic bias or understanding whether or not our children are safe. just understanding whether or not our children are safe.— children are safe. just on twitter and algorithmic— children are safe. just on twitter and algorithmic bias, _ children are safe. just on twitter and algorithmic bias, they - children are safe. just on twitter- and algorithmic bias, they published and algorithmic bias, they published a report— and algorithmic bias, they published a report on— and algorithmic bias, they published a report on friday— and algorithmic bias, they published a report on friday suggesting - and algorithmic bias, they published a report on friday suggesting there i a report on friday suggesting there was an— a report on friday suggesting there was an algorithmic _ a report on friday suggesting there was an algorithmic bias _ a report on friday suggesting there was an algorithmic bias politically. i was an algorithmic bias politically. do think— was an algorithmic bias politically. do think is— was an algorithmic bias politically. do think is unique _ was an algorithmic bias politically. do think is unique to _ was an algorithmic bias politically. do think is unique to twitter- was an algorithmic bias politically. do think is unique to twitter or - do think is unique to twitter or deep _ do think is unique to twitter or deep think— do think is unique to twitter or deep think that _ do think is unique to twitter or deep think that is _ do think is unique to twitter or deep think that is also - do think is unique to twitter or deep think that is also the - do think is unique to twitter or| deep think that is also the case do think is unique to twitter or i deep think that is also the case in facebook, — deep think that is also the casein facebook, is— deep think that is also the casein facebook, is it— deep think that is also the case in facebook, is it something - deep think that is also the case inj facebook, is it something implicit in the _ facebook, is it something implicit in the way— facebook, is it something implicit in the way these _ facebook, is it something implicit in the way these algorithms - facebook, is it something implicit in the way these algorithms and l in the way these algorithms and platforms — in the way these algorithms and platforms with— in the way these algorithms and platforms with all— in the way these algorithms and platforms with all their - in the way these algorithms and i platforms with all their algorithmic are designed — platforms with all their algorithmic are designed to _ platforms with all their algorithmic are designed to optimise - platforms with all their algorithmic are designed to optimise breaks. platforms with all their algorithmic. are designed to optimise breaks and therefore _ are designed to optimise breaks and therefore there _ are designed to optimise breaks and therefore there is _ are designed to optimise breaks and therefore there is something - are designed to optimise breaks and therefore there is something about. therefore there is something about certain— therefore there is something about certain types — therefore there is something about certain types of— therefore there is something about certain types of political— therefore there is something about certain types of political content i certain types of political content that makes _ certain types of political content that makes it _ certain types of political content that makes it more _ certain types of political content that makes it more extreme - certain types of political contentl that makes it more extreme that certain types of political content. that makes it more extreme that is endemic— that makes it more extreme that is endemic towards— that makes it more extreme that is endemic towards the _ that makes it more extreme that is endemic towards the social - that makes it more extreme that is endemic towards the social media i endemic towards the social media companies? — endemic towards the social media companies? i— endemic towards the social media companies?— endemic towards the social media companies? i am not aware of any research that _ companies? i am not aware of any research that demonstrates - companies? i am not aware of any research that demonstrates a - research that demonstrates a political bias on facebook. i am familiar with lots of research that
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says the way engagement by striking was designed ? michael engagement—based ranking, facebook calls it meaningful social interactions, it could have been hate speech or bullying up until 2020 and still be considered meaningful so let's call it social interaction ranking. i have seen lots of research that says that kind of ranking, engagement—based ranking prioritises polarising extreme device of content. it doesn't matter if you're on the left or right, it pushes you to the extremes and advance hate. anger and hate is the easiest way to grow and facebook. there is something called virality hacking where you figure out all the tricks and how to optimise facebook. good actors, good publishers are already publishing all the content they can do. but bad actors have an incentive to play the algorithm and they figure out all the ways to optimise facebook and so the current system is biased towards bad actors and bias towards people who push people to the extremes.—
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and bias towards people who push people to the extremes. thank you. then currently _ people to the extremes. thank you. then currently we _ people to the extremes. thank you. then currently we have _ people to the extremes. thank you. then currently we have a _ people to the extremes. thank you. then currently we have a draft - people to the extremes. thank you. then currently we have a draft bill i then currently we have a draft bill which _ then currently we have a draft bill which is _ then currently we have a draft bill which is focusing _ then currently we have a draft bill which is focusing on _ then currently we have a draft bill which is focusing on individual- then currently we have a draft bill i which is focusing on individual harm rather— which is focusing on individual harm rather than — which is focusing on individual harm rather than societal— which is focusing on individual harm rather than societal harm. - which is focusing on individual harm rather than societal harm. given - which is focusing on individual harm| rather than societal harm. given the work— rather than societal harm. given the work you _ rather than societal harm. given the work you have — rather than societal harm. given the work you have done _ rather than societal harm. given the work you have done around - rather than societal harm. given the i work you have done around democracy as part _ work you have done around democracy as part of— work you have done around democracy as part of your— work you have done around democracy as part of your work— work you have done around democracy as part of your work at _ work you have done around democracy as part of your work at facebook, - work you have done around democracy as part of your work at facebook, do i as part of your work at facebook, do you think— as part of your work at facebook, do you think it— as part of your work at facebook, do you think it is— as part of your work at facebook, do you think it is a _ as part of your work at facebook, do you think it is a mistake _ as part of your work at facebook, do you think it is a mistake to— as part of your work at facebook, do you think it is a mistake to omit- you think it is a mistake to omit societal— you think it is a mistake to omit societal harm? _ you think it is a mistake to omit societal harm? [— you think it is a mistake to omit societal harm?— you think it is a mistake to omit societal harm? i think it is a grave dancer to societal harm? i think it is a grave danger to democracy _ societal harm? i think it is a grave danger to democracy and - societal harm? i think it is a grave | danger to democracy and societies around the world to omit societal harm. to give a core part of why came forward, i looked at the consequences of choices facebook was making and i looked at things the global south and i believe in situations like ethiopia are just part of the opening chapters of a novel that is going to be horrific to read. we have to care about societal harm notjust the global south but our own societies. because like i said before, when the oil spill happens it doesn't make it harderfor us to... spill happens it doesn't make it harder for us to... facebook is closing the door on us acting. we
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have a slight window of time to regain people control over ai. we have to take advantage of this moment. ma; have to take advantage of this moment. ~ , . have to take advantage of this moment. g . , ., ., ., ~ moment. my final question, and thank ou, moment. my final question, and thank you. undoubtedly _ moment. my final question, and thank you, undoubtedlyjust _ moment. my final question, and thank you, undoubtedlyjust because - moment. my final question, and thank you, undoubtedlyjust because you - you, undoubtedlyjust because you are a _ you, undoubtedlyjust because you are a digital— you, undoubtedlyjust because you are a digital company, _ you, undoubtedlyjust because you are a digital company, it _ you, undoubtedlyjust because you are a digital company, it is - you, undoubtedlyjust because you are a digital company, it is unwise| are a digital company, it is unwise in a lot— are a digital company, it is unwise in a lot of— are a digital company, it is unwise in a lot of detail, _ are a digital company, it is unwise in a lot of detail, the _ are a digital company, it is unwise in a lot of detail, the detail- in a lot of detail, the detail around _ in a lot of detail, the detail around how— in a lot of detail, the detail around how different - in a lot of detail, the detail around how different user. in a lot of detail, the detail- around how different userjourneys right, _ around how different userjourneys right, is— around how different userjourneys right, is there _ around how different userjourneys right, is there any— around how different userjourneys right, is there any relation - around how different userjourneys right, is there any relation ship - right, is there any relation ship between — right, is there any relation ship between paid _ right, is there any relation ship between paid for— right, is there any relation ship between paid for advertising i right, is there any relation ship. between paid for advertising and moving — between paid for advertising and moving into _ between paid for advertising and moving into some _ between paid for advertising and moving into some of— between paid for advertising and moving into some of these - between paid for advertising and - moving into some of these dangerous private _ moving into some of these dangerous private groups. — moving into some of these dangerous private groups, possibly— moving into some of these dangerous private groups, possibly then - moving into some of these dangerous private groups, possibly then movingl private groups, possibly then moving into messaging — private groups, possibly then moving into messaging services _ private groups, possibly then moving into messaging services and - into messaging services and encrypted _ into messaging services and encrypted messaging, - into messaging services and encrypted messaging, are i into messaging services and - encrypted messaging, are there used tojourneys _ encrypted messaging, are there used to journeys like — encrypted messaging, are there used to journeys like that _ encrypted messaging, are there used to journeys like that we _ encrypted messaging, are there used to journeys like that we should - encrypted messaging, are there used to journeys like that we should be - to journeys like that we should be concerned — to journeys like that we should be concerned about _ to journeys like that we should be concerned about particularly- to journeys like that we should be | concerned about particularly given that paid — concerned about particularly given that paid for— concerned about particularly given that paid for advertising _ concerned about particularly given that paid for advertising is - that paid for advertising is currently— that paid for advertising is currently excluded - that paid for advertising is currently excluded from i that paid for advertising is i currently excluded from this that paid for advertising is - currently excluded from this bill? i am currently excluded from this bill? am extremely concerned about currently excluded from this bill?" am extremely concerned about paid for advertising being excluded because engagement—based ranking impacts as as much as it impacts organic content. adverts are most partially on the likelihood that
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people like them and share them and do other things to interact. an ad that gets more engagement is cheaper. we have seen that over and over again in the facebook research it is easier to provoke people with anger than compassion or empathy and so we are literally subsidising hate on these platforms. it is cheaper, substantially, to run and angry head full divisive ad that it is to run a compassionate and empathetic dad and i think there is a need for things even disclosing what rates people are paying for ads, having full transparency on the ad stream and understanding what are those biases and comments that have ads are targeted full stop in terms of user journeys from ads to extreme groups, i don't have documents regarding that but i can imagine it happening. thank you very much for being here
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and taking — thank you very much for being here and taking a — thank you very much for being here and taking a personal risk to be here _ and taking a personal risk to be here we — and taking a personal risk to be here. we are grateful. i really wanted — here. we are grateful. i really wanted to— here. we are grateful. i really wanted to ask a number of questions that sort— wanted to ask a number of questions that sort of— wanted to ask a number of questions that sort of speak to the fact that this system is entirely engineered for a particular outcome and maybe you could _ for a particular outcome and maybe you could start by telling us what is facebook optimised for? | you could start by telling us what is facebook optimised for? i think i think that is — is facebook optimised for? i think i think that is not _ is facebook optimised for? i think i think that is not necessarily - think that is not necessarily obvious to us as consumers as facebook is actually a two sided marketplace, about production in addition to consumers. you can consume content on facebook with getting someone producing. facebook's switch over to engagement—based ranking they said the reason you're doing this as we believe it is important for people to interact with each other, we don't want people to mitosis growth. but a large part of what is disclosed in the documents is a large factor that motivates change was people were producing less content. facebook is run things called producers side experiments where they artificially give people more distribution to see what is the
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impact on your future behaviour of getting more like sport re—shares because they know if you get little hits of dopamine you are more likely to produce more content. so right now facebook has said repeatedly it is not in our business interest to optimise per head or to give people bad experiences but it is in their interest to make sure the content production wheel keeps turning because you won't look at ads if you feed doesn't keep you on the site. facebook has accepted the costs of engagement by striking because it allows the wheel to keep turning. ? engagement—based ranking. 1 allows the wheel to keep turning. ? engagement—based ranking. ”1291�*de engagement-based ranking. i was really struck _ engagement-based ranking. i was really struck not _ engagement-based ranking. i was really struck not so _ engagement-based ranking. i was really struck not so much - engagement-based ranking. i was really struck not so much by - engagement—based ranking. iwas really struck not so much by the harm _ really struck not so much by the harm because in a funny way they 'ust harm because in a funny way they just gave — harm because in a funny way they just gave evidence to what a lot of people _ just gave evidence to what a lot of people have been saying for a long time and _ people have been saying for a long time and a — people have been saying for a long time and a lot of people have been experiencing, but what was super interesting was again and again the documents show that that facebook
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employees were saying you could do this, you _ employees were saying you could do this, you could do that, i think a lot of— this, you could do that, i think a lot of people don't understand what you could _ lot of people don't understand what you could do, so i would really love you could do, so i would really love you to _ you could do, so i would really love you to say — you could do, so i would really love you to say to — you could do, so i would really love you to say to the committee, unpack a little _ you to say to the committee, unpack a little bit. _ you to say to the committee, unpack a little bit, what were facebook employees saying we could do about the body— employees saying we could do about the body image issues on instagram, what were _ the body image issues on instagram, what were they saying about ethnic violence _ what were they saying about ethnic violence and what were they saying about _ violence and what were they saying about the _ violence and what were they saying about the democratic currency were 'ust about the democratic currency were just to? _ about the democratic currency were just to? |_ about the democratic currency were 'ust to? . , just to? i have been mischaracterised i just to? i have been - mischaracterised repeatedly just to? i have been _ mischaracterised repeatedly in certain parts of the internet that i am here as i planned to get more censorship. 0ne am here as i planned to get more censorship. one of the things i saw over and over again in the docks are there are lots of solutions that don't involve picking good and bad ideas, about designing the platform for safety, sowing the platform down, and that when you focus, when you give people more content from the family and friends you get for free this hateful device of content. you get less misinformation. the
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biggest part driving misinformation is these hyper distribution notes, the groups where it goes out to 500,000 people. some examples of non—content —based interventions are things like lets imagine alice post something and someone shares it and someone else re—shares it and it lands in another news feed. if dan had to copy and paste that it continues to re—share, that is a two hop research train, it is the same impact as a rate fact checking system but it doesn't allow us to have a language by language system in the global south, itjust loves a pamphlet formed in. meeting to human scale systems instead of ai telling us where the focus is the safest way to design social media and i want my people we like social media before we had an algorithmic feed. and facebook said, if you move to a chronological feed you would like it, and it is through, with groups 500,000 people where it is a spray
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of content people you will not like it but facebook has choices it could do in different ways. groups that were designed like these things called discord servers, where it is all chronological but people break out into different rooms as it gets too crowded. that is a human intervention, human scale solution, not an ai driven solution. so slowing the platform down, content agnostic strategies, human scale solutions, but is the direction we need to go. solutions, but is the direction we need to go-_ solutions, but is the direction we need to go— solutions, but is the direction we need to go. why don't they do it? each one of— need to go. why don't they do it? each one of these _ need to go. why don't they do it? each one of these interventions, l each one of these interventions, re—shares, there are some countries in the world where 35% of all the content on the news feed as a share. the reason why facebook doesn't crack down on re—shares or depiction on them at least is they don't want to lose that growth. they don't want 1% shorter sessions because that is 1% shorter sessions because that is 1% less revenue. so facebook has been unwilling to accept even little slivers of profit being sacrificed
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for safety and that is not acceptable. 1 for safety and that is not acceptable.— for safety and that is not acce table. . ., ., ,~' for safety and that is not accetable. . ., ., acceptable. i wanted to ask you in articular acceptable. i wanted to ask you in particular about _ acceptable. i wanted to ask you in particular about what _ acceptable. i wanted to ask you in particular about what a _ acceptable. i wanted to ask you in particular about what a break - acceptable. i wanted to ask you in | particular about what a break glass measure _ particular about what a break glass measure is — particular about what a break glass measure is if he would tell us. facebook's current security strategy, safety strategy is that in those engagement based ranking is dangerous but ai will pick out the bad things but sometimes the heat on country gets hotter and hotter and hotter, it might be myanmar that didn't have any misinformation classifiers, labelling systems, no hate speech 11 and classify systems because the language wasn't spoken by anna people. they allowed the temperature in these countries to get hotter and hotter and hotter and when the pot starts boiling over they are saying oh no, we need to break the glass and stood platform down. facebook has a strategy of only one crisis has begun it slows the platform down. instead of watching as the temperature gets hotter and making the platform safer as it happens. that is what break glass measures are. i
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as it happens. that is what break glass measures are.— as it happens. that is what break glass measures are. i guess my am askin: glass measures are. i guess my am asking these — glass measures are. i guess my am asking these questions _ glass measures are. i guess my am asking these questions is _ glass measures are. i guess my am asking these questions is if - glass measures are. i guess my am asking these questions is if you - asking these questions is if you could _ asking these questions is if you could slow it down and make the groups _ could slow it down and make the groups smaller, have break glass as a norm _ groups smaller, have break glass as a norm rather than an emergency, these _ a norm rather than an emergency, these are — a norm rather than an emergency, these are all really safety by design — these are all really safety by design strategies, these are all 'ust design strategies, these are all just saying make your product fit for purpose. can you just say if you think— for purpose. can you just say if you think those — for purpose. can you just say if you think those could be mandatory in the build — think those could be mandatory in the build we are looking at? they spoke about now has characterised, the reason why they turned off their break the glass measures after the election was they don't believe in censorship. these measures had largely nothing to do with content. they were questions around how much do we amplify a live video? do go to a six times multiplier or a 60 tonnes mod? little questions whether facebook optimised their settings for growth over safety and i think there's a real thing we need to think about safety by design first and facebook have to demonstrate they have assessed the risks, they must be mandated to
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assess the risks and we need to specify how good is that risk assessment? because facebook will give you a bad one if they can. and we need to mandate that they have to articulate solutions because facebook is not articulating what is the 5—point plan to solve these things. 1 the 5-point plan to solve these thins. . ,., the 5-point plan to solve these thins. ., ,., ., the 5-point plan to solve these thins. . ,., . ., the 5-point plan to solve these thins. . ., ., ., , things. i also want to raise the issue of white _ things. i also want to raise the issue of white listing _ things. i also want to raise the issue of white listing because i things. i also want to raise the | issue of white listing because a things. i also want to raise the - issue of white listing because a lot of the _ issue of white listing because a lot of the bill— issue of white listing because a lot of the bill actually talks about terms — of the bill actually talks about terms and conditions, then being very clear— terms and conditions, then being very clear and upholding terms and conditions — very clear and upholding terms and conditions and having a regulatory sort of— conditions and having a regulatory sort of relationship to upholding them _ sort of relationship to upholding them. but what about white listing, where _ them. but what about white listing, where some people are exempt from terms _ where some people are exempt from terms and _ where some people are exempt from terms and conditions? can you give us your— terms and conditions? can you give us your view— terms and conditions? can you give us your view on that? for terms and conditions? can you give us your view on that?— terms and conditions? can you give us your view on that? for those who are not familiar _ us your view on that? for those who are not familiar with _ us your view on that? for those who are not familiar with the _ us your view on that? for those who are not familiar with the reporting i are not familiar with the reporting by the wall streetjournal, there is a programme called crosscheck, so crosscheck was a system where about 500 people around the world, may 5.7 million, were given special privileges that allowed them to skip the line if you well for safety
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systems, so the majority of safety systems, so the majority of safety systems inside facebook didn't have enough starting to actually manually review... so facebook came this is just about a second check, making sure the rules were applied correctly and because facebook was unwilling to invest enough people to do that second track they just let that those people through. so i think there is a real thing of the less we have more avenues to understand what is going on inside the company, like for example imagine if facebook was required to publish its research on a one year lag. if they have tens of billions of dollars of profit they can afford to solve problems on a one—year lag, right? we should be able to know systems like this because no one knew how bad the system was because facebook lied to their own oversight board about it. the facebook lied to their own oversight board about it.— board about it. the last area i really want — board about it. the last area i really want to _ board about it. the last area i really want to think _ board about it. the last area i really want to think about - board about it. the last area i really want to think about is i really want to think about is obviously the documents you bring come _ obviously the documents you bring come from — obviously the documents you bring come from facebook, but we can't rcatty— come from facebook, but we can't really regulate for this company in this moment. we have to look at the
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sector— this moment. we have to look at the sector as _ this moment. we have to look at the sector as a _ this moment. we have to look at the sector as a whole and we have to look _ sector as a whole and we have to look into — sector as a whole and we have to look into the future and ijust wonder— look into the future and ijust wonder whether you have any advice for that? _ wonder whether you have any advice forthat? because wonder whether you have any advice for that? because we're not trying to kill_ for that? because we're not trying to kill facebook, we are trying to make _ to kill facebook, we are trying to make the — to kill facebook, we are trying to make the digital world better and safer— make the digital world better and safer its — make the digital world better and safer its users.— make the digital world better and safer its users. engagement based rankin: is safer its users. engagement based ranking is a _ safer its users. engagement based ranking is a problem _ safer its users. engagement based ranking is a problem across - safer its users. engagement based ranking is a problem across all- ranking is a problem across all sites. all sites are going to be... it is easier to provoke humans to angen it is easier to provoke humans to anger. engagement based ranking figures out our vulnerabilities and pandas to those things. i think having mandatory risk assessments and monetary remediation strategies, we need ways to hold these companies accountable, is critical because companies are going to evolve, figure out how to sidestep things and we need to make sure we have a process that is flexible and can evolve with the companies over time. fantastic. and finally, really, just. _ fantastic. and finally, really, just. you _ fantastic. and finally, really, just, you think that the scope of the bill, — just, you think that the scope of the bill, its _ just, you think that the scope of the bill, its userand just, you think that the scope of the bill, its user and user and search, — the bill, its user and user and search, do— the bill, its user and user and search, do think that is a wise move or should _ search, do think that is a wise move or should we — search, do think that is a wise move or should we be looking for some systemic— or should we be looking for some systemic solutions for sector more
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broadly? _ systemic solutions for sector more broadl ? , ., , ., systemic solutions for sector more broadl? , ., , ., broadly? user to user and search? that is a great _ broadly? user to user and search? that is a great question. _ broadly? user to user and search? that is a great question. i - broadly? user to user and search? that is a great question. i think i that is a great question. i think any platform that has a reach of more than a couple of million people, the public has a right to understand how that is impacting society because we are entering an age where technology is accelerating faster and faster, right? democratic fasterand faster, right? democratic processes take faster and faster, right? democratic processes take time fasterand faster, right? democratic processes take time if faster and faster, right? democratic processes take time if they are done well and we need to be able to think about how will we know when the next danger is looming? because, for example, in my case, because facebook is a public company i could file with the f cc with whistle—blower protections. if i had worked at tick—tock, which is going very fast, that is a private company and it wouldn't have had any avenue to be a whistle—blower. so i think there's a real avenue for thinking about any company that has a real societal impact, we need to be thinking about how to we get data
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out of that company? because for example you can't take a college class today to understand the integrity and systems inside facebook. the only people who understand and are working inside facebook is. so thinking systematically about for large tech companies how we get the data who had to make these decisions is vital. . ~' , ., had to make these decisions is vital. . ~ , ., had to make these decisions is vital. . ~ . had to make these decisions is vital-_ you i vital. thank you so much. you mentioned — vital. thank you so much. you mentioned the _ vital. thank you so much. you mentioned the oversight - vital. thank you so much. you i mentioned the oversight board, vital. thank you so much. you - mentioned the oversight board, i'm know— mentioned the oversight board, i'm know you're — mentioned the oversight board, i'm know you're going _ mentioned the oversight board, i'm know you're going to _ mentioned the oversight board, i'm know you're going to beat - mentioned the oversight board, i'm know you're going to beat me - mentioned the oversight board, i'm know you're going to beat me to . mentioned the oversight board, i'm know you're going to beat me to bej know you're going to beat me to be the oversight— know you're going to beat me to be the oversight board. _ know you're going to beat me to be the oversight board. they- know you're going to beat me to be i the oversight board. they themselves don't have _ the oversight board. they themselves don't have access _ the oversight board. they themselves don't have access to _ the oversight board. they themselves don't have access to the _ the oversight board. they themselves don't have access to the kind - the oversight board. they themselves don't have access to the kind of - don't have access to the kind of information— don't have access to the kind of information you _ don't have access to the kind of information you have _ don't have access to the kind of information you have been - don't have access to the kind of - information you have been publishing or discussing. — information you have been publishing or discussing, but _ information you have been publishing or discussing, but do _ information you have been publishing or discussing, but do you _ information you have been publishing or discussing, but do you think - information you have been publishing or discussing, but do you think the i or discussing, but do you think the oversight— or discussing, but do you think the oversight board _ or discussing, but do you think the oversight board should _ or discussing, but do you think the oversight board should insist - or discussing, but do you think the oversight board should insist on i oversight board should insist on that transparency— oversight board should insist on that transparency or— oversight board should insist on that transparency or disband - oversight board should insist on - that transparency or disband itself? ialways— that transparency or disband itself? i always reject — that transparency or disband itself? i always reject binary— that transparency or disband itself? i always reject binary choices. - that transparency or disband itself? i always reject binary choices. i- that transparency or disband itself? i always reject binary choices. i am i i always reject binary choices. i am not an a or b person, i love options c or d. i think there is an opportunity for the oversight board to experiment with what are its bounds? you know, this is a defining moment for the oversight board. what relationship does it want to have with facebook? and i hope the oversight board takes this moment to step up and demand a relationship
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that has more transparency because they should ask the question, why was facebook able to lie to them in this way? what enabled that? because if facebook can come in there and just actively mislead the oversight board, which is what they did, i don't know, i don't know what the purpose of the oversight bodies. fir purpose of the oversight bodies. or they hide sideboards and an oversight— they hide sideboards and an oversight board, _ they hide sideboards and an oversight board, isn't - they hide sideboards and an oversight board, isn't it? i they hide sideboards and an oversight board, isn't it? yes. frances haugen, _ oversight board, isn't it? yes. frances haugen, hello. - oversight board, isn't it? yes. frances haugen, hello. you i oversight board, isn't it? yes. i frances haugen, hello. you have oversight board, isn't it?_ frances haugen, hello. you have been very eloquent about the impact of the algorithm. you have talked about ranking. _ the algorithm. you have talked about ranking, pushing extreme content, amplification of that sort of content. _ amplification of that sort of content, and addiction driver, i think— content, and addiction driver, i think you — content, and addiction driver, i think you have used the phrase. and this follows — think you have used the phrase. and this follows on really from talking about _ this follows on really from talking about the — this follows on really from talking about the oversight board or a regulator— about the oversight board or a regulator over here or here, indeed, trying _ regulator over here or here, indeed, trying to— regulator over here or here, indeed, trying to construct a safety by design — trying to construct a safety by design regime. what do we need to know— design regime. what do we need to know about the algorithm and how do
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we get _ know about the algorithm and how do we get that, basically? should it be about— we get that, basically? should it be about the _ we get that, basically? should it be about the output of an algorithm? 0r about the output of an algorithm? or should _ about the output of an algorithm? or should we _ about the output of an algorithm? or should we be actually inspecting the entrails _ should we be actually inspecting the entrails for a code? you know, when we talk— entrails for a code? you know, when we talk about transparency, it is very— we talk about transparency, it is very easy— we talk about transparency, it is very easyjust to say, oh, we need to be _ very easyjust to say, oh, we need to be much— very easyjust to say, oh, we need to be much more transparent about the operation of these algorithms, but what _ the operation of these algorithms, but what does that really mean? i think but what does that really mean? think it is but what does that really mean? i think it is also important to think about facebook as a concert of algorithms. there are many different algorithmic systems and they work in different ways. some are application systems, some are down regulation systems, some are down regulation systems and understanding how all those parts work and how they work together it is important, so i will give you an example. facebook has said engagement based ranking is dangerous unless you have this ai thatis dangerous unless you have this ai that is going to pick out the extreme content. facebook has never published which languages are supported and which integrity systems are supported in those languages. because of this, they are
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actively misleading the speakers most large languages in the world by saying, we 50 languages. but most of those countries have a fraction of the safety systems that english have. when we say, how does the algorithm work? we need to be thinking about what is the experience of the algorithm for lots of individual populations? because the experience of facebook's news feed algorithm in a place that doesn't have integrity systems on is very different than the experience of... park, so i think some of the things that need to happen are... there are ways of doing previously sensitive disclosures of... we call it segmentation, so imagine if you divided the united states up to 600 communities, based on what pages and groups people interact with, their interests. you don't need to say, this group is 35—a0 year old women who live in itself. you don't need
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to say that. you can have a number on that cluster, but understanding some groups disproportionately getting covid info. right now, a% of those segments are getting 80% of all the misinformation. we didn't know that until my disclosure. for hate speech, it is the same way. for violent incitement, it is the same way. so when we say, do we understand the algorithm? we should really be asking, do we understand the experiences of the algorithm? and then facebook gives you aggregate data stop it will likely hide how dangerous the systems are because the experience of the 95th percentile for every single integrity harm is radically different of the 99th percentile is even more radically different from the median experience. and i want to be really clear, the people who go and commit acts of violence, those are people who get hyper exposed to this dangerous content and so we will need to break out those extreme experiences. will need to break out those extreme experiences-—
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experiences. that is really interesting. _ experiences. that is really interesting. do _ experiences. that is really interesting. do you - experiences. that is really interesting. do you think. experiences. that is really i interesting. do you think that experiences. that is really - interesting. do you think that that is practical— interesting. do you think that that is practical for— interesting. do you think that that is practical for facebook _ interesting. do you think that that is practical for facebook to - is practical for facebook to produce? _ is practical for facebook to produce? would _ is practical for facebook to produce? would they - is practical for facebook toj produce? would they need is practical for facebook to i produce? would they need to is practical for facebook to - produce? would they need to have further— produce? would they need to have further research _ produce? would they need to have further research or— produce? would they need to have further research or have _ produce? would they need to have further research or have they- produce? would they need to have further research or have they got i further research or have they got ready— further research or have they got ready access _ further research or have they got ready access to _ further research or have they got ready access to that _ further research or have they got ready access to that kind - further research or have they got ready access to that kind of- ready access to that kind of information? _ ready access to that kind of information?— ready access to that kind of information? ., , ., . ., information? you could produce that information? you could produce that information today. _ information? you could produce that information today. so _ information? you could produce that information today. so segmentation| information today. so segmentation systems exist, that was when the projects i found it when i was at facebook. that segmentation has been used since for different areas, like covid misinformation, and they already produce many of these integrity statistics. so part of what is extremely important about facebook should have to publish which integrity systems exist and in which integrity systems exist and in which languages is right now, let's imagine we are looking at self—harm content for teenagers. let's imagine we came and said, we want to understand how a self—harm concentrated across the segments? facebook's most recent position, according to a governmental response billy—mack source we talked to, is that we don't track self—harm content, we don't know who is
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overexposed. if they were forced to publish this, we could say, wait, why don't you have a self—harm classifier? you need to have one so we can answer this question of is the self—harm content focused on 5% of the common billy—mack population? because we can't answer that question if we don't have that. find question if we don't have that. and we should wrap that into a risk assessment— we should wrap that into a risk assessment that _ we should wrap that into a risk assessment that really - we should wrap that into a riskl assessment that really required we should wrap that into a risk- assessment that really required to be given— assessment that really required to be given to — assessment that really required to be given to us. _ assessment that really required to be given to us, basically? - assessment that really required to be given to us, basically? we - assessment that really required to be given to us, basically? we were writin: be given to us, basically? we were writing standards _ be given to us, basically? we were writing standards and _ be given to us, basically? we were writing standards and risk - writing standards and risk assessments, a mandatory position i would put in there as you need to do segmented analysis because the median experience on facebook is a pretty good experience. be real danger is that 20% of the population has a horrible experience or an experience that is dangerous. find has a horrible experience or an experience that is dangerous. and it is that the core _ experience that is dangerous. and it is that the core of _ experience that is dangerous. and it is that the core of what _ experience that is dangerous. and it is that the core of what we - experience that is dangerous. and it is that the core of what we would i is that the core of what we would need. _ is that the core of what we would need. by— is that the core of what we would need. by way— is that the core of what we would need. by way of— is that the core of what we would need, by way of information - is that the core of what we would| need, by way of information from facebook— need, by way of information from facebook or— need, by way of information from facebook or other— need, by way of information from facebook or other platforms? - need, by way of information from facebook or other platforms? 0r| need, by way of information from i facebook or other platforms? or are there _ facebook or other platforms? or are there other— facebook or other platforms? or are there other information _ facebook or other platforms? or are there other information about, - facebook or other platforms? or are there other information about, datal there other information about, data orm _ there other information about, data orm ? _ there other information about, data orm ? what — there other information about, data orm ? what else _ there other information about, data or... ? what else do— there other information about, data or... ? what else do we _ there other information about, data or... ? what else do we need - there other information about, data or... ? what else do we need to - there other information about, data or... ? what else do we need to be| or... ? what else do we need to be really— or... ? what else do we need to be really effective _ or... ? what else do we need to be really effective and _ or... ? what else do we need to be really effective and risk— really effective and risk assessment? _ really effective and risk assessment? [- really effective and risk assessment?— really effective and risk assessment? ~ . really effective and risk assessment? ~' , ., assessment? i think there is an opportunity. — assessment? i think there is an opportunity, imagine _ assessment? i think there is an
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opportunity, imagine for- assessment? i think there is an opportunity, imagine for each i assessment? i think there is an | opportunity, imagine for each of those integrity systems if facebook had to show you a sampling of content at different schools. we would be able to come in there and... so a problem i am really concerned about is facebook has trouble differentiating for, but in many leverages don't stream ? like the difference between terrorism content and the counterterrorism content. so think about the role of counterterrorism content in society, it is how people make society safer. but because al's systems don't work very well. for the language that was in question, i think it was arabic, 76% of counterterrorism content was getting labelled as terrorism. facebook... getting labelled as terrorism. facebook. . .— getting labelled as terrorism. facebook... ., ., ., facebook. .. for now, we will leave events at the _ facebook. .. for now, we will leave events at the houses _ facebook. .. for now, we will leave events at the houses of _ facebook. .. for now, we will leave | events at the houses of parliament. that is frances haugen you can see there on your screen speaking to a committee that is putting together the uk's proposed online safety bill. some pretty gab domain evidence given there from frances haugen, a former facebook employee, now turned whistle—blower, talking about the way facebook prioritises
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certain evidence of its website. she talks about the algorithm, that is the computer that will allow you to see certain things on your facebook feed, and she says that polarises and concentrates opinion. she also goes on to talk about the normalisation of hate. she said she saw things whilst working at facebook that she thought would threaten national security, but said she had no way to report them or to escalate her concerns. 0n she had no way to report them or to escalate her concerns. on that issue of hate, she was pretty clear. she says facebook did not invent h, but she said, unquestionably it does amplify it. she said, we are literally subsidising hate, was one of her comments to mps there at that committee. she talked as well about that facebook feed you see when you logon on the website or on your phone, ratherthan logon on the website or on your phone, rather than that being presented to you chronologically, what your friends and contacts have posted, she said facebook decides what you see and that is not transparent. she said facebook is unwilling to sacrifice even a sliver
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of profit. she said, to improve safety, and that, quite simply, is not acceptable. let's speak now to our technology correspondent, marc cieslak, who was watching it with me. what stood out for you there? there was a lot there. . for you there? there was a lot there. , , ., ., , ., there. yes, there is going to be an awful lot more _ there. yes, there is going to be an awful lot more stuff _ there. yes, there is going to be an awful lot more stuff because - there. yes, there is going to be an awful lot more stuff because she i awful lot more stuff because she will be talking to parliament for quite some time. what stood out for me is that the algorithms are designed to keep people engaged and by doing that it pushes people towards extreme content, so if you are someone who espouses centre—right politics it will very quickly push you towards extreme right politics leading to echo chambers and then leading to people receiving more and more content skewed towards an extreme viewpoint, so i think that was really interesting to hear that. find so i think that was really interesting to hear that. and that idea that will _ interesting to hear that. and that idea that will be _ interesting to hear that. and that idea that will be very _ interesting to hear that. and that idea that will be very difficult - interesting to hear that. and that idea that will be very difficult for| idea that will be very difficult for people to get their head around, that idea of prioritising profit over people and that amplification of hate, she said there facebook didn't create the eight, but their services amplify it?—
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didn't create the eight, but their services amplify it? yes, and they very much — services amplify it? yes, and they very much know. _ services amplify it? yes, and they very much know, facebook - services amplify it? yes, and they very much know, facebook itselfl very much know, facebook itself knows what it services and its products are doing. they have been conducting this research, that was the first bit of bruising information we found out from this whistle—blower a couple of weeks ago, but facebook itself has been conducting research which has determined some of its products and some of its platforms are being used in this way and that its algorithm is promoting that hate and the platform isn't doing anything about it. , ., platform isn't doing anything about it. , . ., ., , , it. yes, and the idea, and this is robabl it. yes, and the idea, and this is probably worth _ it. yes, and the idea, and this is probably worth reiterating, - it. yes, and the idea, and this is probably worth reiterating, that| it. yes, and the idea, and this is i probably worth reiterating, that the way facebook presents information to us, previously it was in a chronological order, just the latest thing your friends are posted, but now and what we are hearing from frances haugen there is the algorithm decides and that view of the world? . , algorithm decides and that view of the world? , , . ,., the world? yes, very much so, the aluorithm the world? yes, very much so, the algorithm goes _ the world? yes, very much so, the algorithm goes off— the world? yes, very much so, the algorithm goes off and _ the world? yes, very much so, the algorithm goes off and find - the world? yes, very much so, the algorithm goes off and find things | algorithm goes off and find things it thinks will be interesting to you and keep you engaged. that engagement is very important, they are keeping you on the site at all times and that is why their content is so extreme. times and that is why their content
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is so extreme-— is so extreme. what has facebook said about it? _ is so extreme. what has facebook said about it? because _ is so extreme. what has facebook said about it? because as - is so extreme. what has facebook said about it? because as you - is so extreme. what has facebook| said about it? because as you have said, they have been doing this research into it and that accusation we are literally subsidising hate, what has facebook been saying? this book are what has facebook been saying? try 3 book are saying all this information is being mischaracterised, but it is performing this research, spending vast amounts of money to ensure its platform are safe and that what is happened here is all this information has been seeing out of context. �* ., ., , , , context. and one of the issues he was transparency _ context. and one of the issues he was transparency as _ context. and one of the issues he was transparency as well - context. and one of the issues he was transparency as well because j context. and one of the issues he - was transparency as well because she was transparency as well because she was keen to point out that google and twitter in her view were much better, more transparent are telling us how that algorithm works and the data that is being shared or presented about us. why is facebook so different?— so different? well, none of those companies _ so different? well, none of those companies are — so different? well, none of those companies are really _ so different? well, none of those companies are really showing - so different? well, none of those companies are really showing orl companies are really showing or telling us exactly how everything works behind the scenes. they all have their trade secrets with regard to that, so we are not getting the full workings behind the curtain and seeing how all those outfits operate, but facebook in this instance, like we say, it has been conducting this research and itjust hasn't revealed it to the best of the world or it is choosing not to.
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mark, for now, thank you. i know you will keep an eye on that because that evidence continuing there and he has of parliament, but really good to have your thoughts on that. marc cieslak, our technology correspondent, thank you. it has just turned 3:17pm. let's bring you up—to—date with some of the other news today. the united nations says afghanistan is heading for catastrophe with millions facing starvation, and the harsh winter months still to come. the world food programme has warned 22 million people — about half the population — are suffering hunger on a daily basis. and the bbc has found evidence that some families are even selling their children to make ends meet. international aid has dried up since the taliban seized power in august, while the world debates how to deal with the new regime. 0ur correspondent, yogita limaye, reports from afghanistan — a warning, her report contains distressing images and details from the start. this is what starvation does to a country.
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to its tiniest lives. six—month—old usman. this one born three months ago. afghanistan was barely surviving before the taliban took over, but now foreign funds which propped up this country have been frozen. putting at least1 million children at risk of dying. babies cry. in this ward, one in five will not make it. usman weighs less than half of what he should. his father is among millions who have no work. usman's mother told us his twin is in a room next door.
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this hospital is full. some babies are already sharing a bed. while we were there, six more children were brought in. it is the only facility for hundreds of miles. babies cry. because without foreign money, most hospitals are collapsing. doctors and nurses among masses of government workers who have not been paid for months. a third of the country's people don't know where their next meal will come from. we travelled out of herat to a rural settlement. tens of thousands displaced
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from remote provinces by decades of war and severe drought. no means of income, barely any food. some days, families here don't eat. they have sold whatever little they had. and now some are forced to do the unthinkable. this baby girl has been sold by her family. we are hiding their identity to protect them. her husband used to collect rubbish, but even that earns him nothing now.
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once the baby is able to walk she will be taken away by the man who bought her. he has paid more than half of the £a00 she has been sold for. that will get the family through a few months. they have been told the girl will be married to his child, but no one can be sure. we know there are other families here who have sold their children and even while we have been here another person came up to one of our team and asked if we would like to buy their child. the desperation and the urgency of the situation is hard to put into words. there is no more time left to reach the people of afghanistan. it cannot wait while the world debates whether or not to recognise a taliban government. nearby, aid agencies hand out parcels that might save some
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children from hunger. alone, they can't provide for the staggering needs. giving the taliban money without guarantees on human rights and how the funds will be used is dangerous. but afghanistan is sinking fast. millions here will not survive the winter. yogita limaye, bbc news, herat. it is 3:22pm. you are with the bbc news. let's bring you up—to—date with the day's of this stories. the national living wage is set to rise in the budget on wednesday. it will go up to £9.50 per hour, from 1st april next year. that's up from the current minimum wage of £8.91 per hour. the rise means a full—time worker on the living wage would see their annual income jump by more than £1,000. earlier, our political correspondent, damian grammaticas,
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explained who will be affected by these changes. the national minimum wage applies to anyone 22 and under, so that is apprentices, those who are working from teenage years, eighteens, 20—21, 22. at 23, it becomes called the national living wage and that is what we are talking about at the minute, so the national living wage, set at the minute at £8.91 per hour is going to go up, we understand, to £9.50 per hour from april next year, it is worth saying. this is on the recommendation of the low pay commission, who have been looking into this and they advise the government. they had been looking already at around £9.a0—ish, but now it looks like it is going to go at £9.50. that is an increase of about 6.5% and for younger age groups, so the national minimum wage, will also go up by a similar amount. that is what we are expecting more details of. and the point here is that that is in excess
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of inflation, so that means a real terms pay rise for those people and that is the crucial point and will play to the government's policy of levelling up and helping those on the lowest incomes. we will get more detail on the budget on wednesday, but we are also expecting to hear from the chief secretary to the treasury this afternoon. what are we expecting him to say? so just initially some more outline of what we have been hearing because, of course, the budget will confirm these things when rishi sunak talks on wednesday, so what we do know, expect then or we will wait to see are some of the important knock—on effects from this. so one thing, of course, is going to be where the level is set, but what are the implications then from that? what does the chancellor say about other pay awards, particularly public sector pay? so the national living wage, we are talking about a couple of million people for whom this could apply. the public sector pay, 2.5 million or so people, who have
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had their pay frozen during parts of the pandemic. there now may be pressure to increase that as well because, of course, if... if public sector workers see the national living wage going up it will increase their desire to see their own pay going up. that then feeds into higher costs for businesses and employers who have to pay this and possibly then higher costs for consumers and purchasers, people buying things, so it can push prices up, so there are many ways this will feed through, but the central thing here is when it comes to the national living wage, the government has a target already, that it is trying to force that upwards towards roughly £10 something. £10.30 or £10.a0 in two years' time and we are sort of on track to that, that is about trying to push up those wages at the bottom end.
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that was our political correspondent, damian grammaticas, bear with that latest rise in the national living wage. it could soon be compulsory for nhs staff in england to be vaccinated for coronavirus. the health secretary, sajid javid, says he's "leaning towards" such a policy, though no final decision has been taken. it comes as the government announces an extra £5.9 billion for the nhs in england, with the money being used to help clear the backlog of people waiting for tests and scans, and to buy equipment and improve it. 0ur health corrrespondent, dominic hughes, reports. the nhs is facing a huge backlog of non—urgent diagnostic tests and procedures. this new money, known as capital funding, that pays for equipment and infrastructure, is designed to clear by the end of this parliament most of that backlog. nearly £6 billion will be used in part to fund a big expansion of diagnostic tests. that means more ct, mri and ultrasound scans. the government aims to create 100 one—stop shop community diagnostic
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centres across england, including more than a0 already announced. what that really means is investment in physical things that are really going to make a difference in tackling that waiting list, things like the community diagnostic centres, buying ct scanners, for example, for more checkups and tests, investment in equipment, in beds, buildings, surgical hubs, and investment in it. as part of the uk's funding formula for the nhs, a proportionate amount of money will also go to the health services in scotland, wales and northern ireland. health experts have welcomed the extra money, but they point to the persistent problems around staffing. extra scanners are no good if you don't have the trained staff to operate them and interpret the results. without the staff, we can't deliver these services and deliver on this investment. and we have to remember, this isn'tjust about waiting lists, it's also about the demand in mental health services, the pressure on ambulances, a&e departments.
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those pressures show no sign of easing as nhs staff across the uk face the ongoing impact of the pandemic. the health secretary says around 100,000 health workers are still not yet fully vaccinated, and he's actively looking at making jabs compulsory for staff in england, bringing them in line with care home workers. it's a move some experts believe could backfire. when we speak to our members, they say, "you know, it's really "tricky, because in some ways mandating the vaccine for covid—19 "could be helpful in increasing the number of people vaccinated, "but on the other hand, what if it leads to some staff "wanting to leave their roles and that would be "really challenging." staffing remains the single biggest challenge the health service faces, but given the time it takes to train people, that's a problem that will take years to solve and there is a danger the extra money in wednesday's budget may be wasted if the staff aren't available to use it properly.
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dominic hughes, bbc news. petrol prices have reached their highest ever price. motoring organisations say the average price paid for a litre of petrol is now nearly £1.a3, beating the previous record set in 2012. diesel prices remain a little below their all time high. analysts say its due in part to a doubling of the oil price since last year. now it's time for a look at the weather with louise lear. hello there. it might be a good idea to get out and enjoy some of the beautiful autumn colour that we are now starting to see from mother nature because the winds are going to be a feature as we go through the week and that will blow plenty of leaves off the tree. today we have seen the sharpest of the showers across scotland. that is going to be the story of the afternoon, with one or two sharp showers across england and wales as well. top temperatures, though, 16 degrees, so it is mild out there, particularly if you have a bit
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of sunshine coming through, very pleasant indeed. as we go through this evening, it does look likely that skies will clear across eastern england, but more cloud, wind and rain pushes into the far north and west, so it's a wet start into northern ireland, western scotland and northern england and north wales for a time as that rain pushes steadily north and east. a lot of cloud around, i suspect, on tuesday, but still the wind direction coming from a very warm south—westerly, so temperatures are likely to peak at 17 celsius, 63 fahrenheit. enjoy. hello, this is bbc news. the headlines... the un warns millions of people in afghanistan are facing starvation this winter — as the bbc has found evidence that some families are even selling their children to get money forfood. the desperation and the urgency of the situation is hard to put into words. there is no more time left to reach
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the people of afghanistan. the national living wage is set to rise to £9.50 per hour in this week's budget. the nhs in england is promised almost £6 billion to help clear the record backlog of people waiting for tests, scans and treatments. facebook whistleblower frances haugen tells mps who are planning social media legislation that facebook repeatedly prioritised growth over safety. the real thing we are seeing here is facebook accepting little tiny additions of harm, like when they weigh off "how much harm is worth how much growth for us?" global greenhouse gas emissions rose to record levels last year, despite the pandemic. the prime minister says he's worried next week's cop26 climate summit may not reach agreement on solutions. when's your birthday? made a fifth, while? i when's your birthday? made a fifth, while? i am — when's your birthday? made a fifth,
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while? i am just _ when's your birthday? made a fifth, while? i am just making _ when's your birthday? made a fifth, while? i amjust making people - while? i am 'ust making people leicester while? i amjust making people leicester birthdays... _ and james michael tyler — who starred as gunther in friends — has died at the age of 59. now a full round—up of all the latest sport. we will start with cricket. scotland playing their first super 12 match at the t20 world cup, against afghanistan who won the toss and chose to bat. scotland just made a breakthrough. afghanistan making a speedy start in this one. they are at the moment 56-1. the 56—1. the same group they went top of yesterday. scotland won all three of yesterday. scotland won all three of their games in the qualifying group. scotland will hope for more. they have work to do. afghanistan
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56-1 at they have work to do. afghanistan 56—1 at the moment in the seventh over. staying with cricket — there's a big boost for england as they prepare for the ashes — ben stokes has been added to the squad that'll head to australia next month ahead the all rounder�*s been given the all clear after a second operation on a fractured finger. he's also been taking time out to prioritise his mental health. 0ur sports corrspondentjoe wilson told me stokes' presence is important for the side: notjust a question of the runs he can score or the wickets he can take or even the catches he can hold. it is really his influence and his position and charisma. the respect he will immediately enforce when it comes to the australian team. australia will see england completely differently with ben stokes in it, i think that is crucial. ~ ~ ., ., stokes in it, i think that is crucial. ~ ., ., ., �* crucial. we know how important ben stokes is the — crucial. we know how important ben stokes is the england _ crucial. we know how important ben stokes is the england and _ crucial. we know how important ben i stokes is the england and presumably he is coming back now because he feels 100% ready to go again? crucially i think two elements in
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the statement released from england today. firstly england saying they are going to treat it cautiously with ben stokes comeback, where there were in mind it will be a month before they play in the ashes but also ben stokes saying i am looking forward to seeing my mates and being on the field with them. if he can feel that joy again and being on the field with them. if he can feel thatjoy again of being part of the team, part of england, part of the team, part of england, part of the team, part of england, part of cricket, then for me that is the most important factor in this whole thing. unvaccinated tennis players are set to be allowed to compete at the australian open but will face two weeks of quarantine and regular testing, according to a letter given to wta players. australian ministers had said players without jabs would not be able to enter the country for the tournament. but the wta players�* council says it's been told all competitors will be able to go to melbourne injanuary. a number of players — including 35% of those on the men's atp tour — remain unvaccinated. novak djokovic, the men's world number one and nine—time
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australian open champion, said last week he didn't want to reveal his vaccination status. next to what ole gunnar solskjaer�*s called the darkest day in his managerial career — after manchester united's 5—0 defeat at home to liverpool in the premier league. it's a result that's piled more pressure on the united boss, who's lost three of his last four league games. after the match he signed autographs at old trafford, though thousands left the ground well before the final whistle. despite questions around his future at the club, solskjaer says he's come too far to give up now. andy mitten is a football journalist and editor of the fanzine united we stand. people expected a serious title challenge and at the moment that doesn't look like it is going to happen, so the disconnect now is between what people wanted and the reality, if you call it a crisis averted a crisis at the moment, because liverpool look like they're going to disappear over the hill
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with manchester city and chelsea and it wasn't supposed to be like this. there is no guarantee in sport. if ole gunnar solskjaer keeps hisjob and when's the next 15 matches the complexion will look completely different, but you're asking me today, the day after manchester united 0— five liverpool and there is a mood of doom and defeat and despair. i think that is a natural reaction following a hammering like that. that's all the sport for now. you can find more on all those stories on the bbc sport website. there is live commentary of the cricket on bbc five live sports extra. afghanistan have made a fast start. back to you, ben. the budget might not be till wednesday, but we're already starting to find out a lot of the details already. our business presenter alice baxter is with us.
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lots of leaks over the weekend. we are starting to get a sense of what might be announced. talk as we saw the headlines. that's right. on wednesday at around half past 12 and your friend the chancellor will stand up and deliver his budget and most importantly set out the government was expending funds for each department over the next three years. there is quite a lot we already know. for example in the last couple of hours we learned about this increase of the national living wage, rising to £9 50. last month the biggest change to the tax and spend system here in the uk for decades was announced. that will come into force in april next year. we also know about increases to national insurance and also about the creation of this new health and social care levy, set to raise around £12 billion a year. but today we do get a bit more detail about where that cash will go in the health and care service. but we know
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so far, nearly £6 billion will go in to trying to clear the backlog of tests and scans stop we also know about 100 new community diagnostic centres will be set up to do things like ct scans, mris and ultrasounds. we also note the government plans to create around 30,000 new school places for children with educational disabilities and special needs. they are also wanting to spend more than £2.5 billion on that. also announced, a cash for house building and the planning system, plus changes to our port systems, trying to encourage more global shipping to use them here in the uk. something you might not have heard about over the course of the weekend, but the budget will also include cash we think of a regional transport schemes, part of the government's so called levelling up programme. there are also promises and pledges so far
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for apprentices, locational courses, the arts and culture sector, plus veterans, but still big questions remain about public sector pay, fuel costs, student loans, hs2 remain about public sector pay, fuel costs, student loans, h52 and other taxes. all eyes will be on the chancellor around half past 12 on wednesday. fi chancellor around half past 12 on wednesday-— chancellor around half past 12 on wednesda . �* , ,, ~ ., wednesday. a busy week lies ahead. thank ou. a teenager who's alleged to have shot and killed 15—year—old keon lincoln in birmingham earlier this year has denied ever holding a gun. the 1a—year—old also told birmingham crown court that he d never carried a knife. keon lincoln was shot and stabbed outside his home in handsworth on january the 21st. five teenagers deny murder and weapons offences. phil mackie reports from outside the court. i'lljust take you back to january the 21st this year, and that was when keon lincoln was killed outside his home in handsworth in birmingham. video shown at the start of the trial showed the attack.
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it lasted about a0 seconds. it showed a group of people get out of a car, chase him outside his street, one of them firing a gun, and the others carrying knives. that's when he died. and the prosecution at the start of the trial described it as a short and brutal attack. today, after two and a half weeks, the prosecution finished its evidence and the first defendant started to give evidence. he is the 1a—year—old that they allege was the gunmen in the attack. he was asked by his barrister, "do you carry a knife?" he said, "no." "have you ever seen a handgun or have you ever carried a handgun?" he said, "no, sir." in fact he said that on the day of keon lincoln's death, he said that he had been elsewhere. he is supposed to have been at school, but after logging on in the morning for a remote session, he'd logged off and spent the day with his friends. he said he knew keon lincoln, because they had been at school together, but he didn't know him very well and keon had left his school a year earlier. he denied being at the scene of the attack, saying he was in a flat elsewhere. now, as i say, he has
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been giving evidence. today, this afternoon, he will be cross—examined, and he's already admitted lying to the police in his first interview. the case here, the trial here is expected to last another couple of weeks. a new report says many councils are still not paying homecare providers enough to cover costs such as the time spent travelling between visits. the homecare association says demand for services to support people in their homes is growing, but care companies are losing staff because of low pay. last week, the government announced a £162 million fund to help recruit care workers in england. here's our social affairs editor alison holt. for 16 years denise has been driving around south yorkshire caring for people in their own homes, whatever the weather. doing myjob is great reward, great satisfaction. every day is different. you meet different people in different circumstances.
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her company looks after a lot of people paid for by their local authority, but today's report says many councils don't cover the real costs of care, including travel time. she loves herjob but understands why many are put off. you recruit people but when they go out there and they realise that you're getting up at five in the morning and sometimes you won't get home while 11 at night. you might nip home for five or ten minutes. the money doesn't be level with the job for what you do. how have your interviews gone this week? i've had a couple, | a few not turn up. back in the office, they've had to hand back some council contracts because they can't recruit enough staff. they want to be able to offer more pay. right now i think we're about 25% underfunded. that 25% would, yes, it would address the terms and conditions we need to look at for our amazing care workers, but it would also mean we could invest in our office teams, give them some more support for the work they're doing.
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and look at other methods. we're miles away at the moment in terms of the rates that are being paid. the association representing uk homecare companies calculates that the minimum cost of an hour of home care is £21.a3. that covers the minimum wage, pensions, travel, training, backroom staff and 62p for profit or investment. but on average uk councils and health and social care boards pay £18.a5 an hour, with one local authority paying just £12.68. and in cumbria, the local authority pays the second lowest average hourly rate at £13.85. it means kelly's company has stopped council work. concentrating on private clients means, rather than short time slots, people are supported in the way they want. with it being such a lovely day, we managed to have a little walk by the river as well. it wasn't planned, but sometimes that's very much what the role is. if there's an opportunity to do
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something, we'll do it. the standard of care that we deliver simply can't be delivered for the price that the local authority are willing to pay. and that's tragic. it's tragic for the people in the community, and it's tragic for the people that are desperate waiting for care and they just simply can't get it. councils say government reforms should increase the fees they pay for supporting people who are older or disabled, but they aren't sure the money will go far enough. alison holt, bbc news. thousands more drivers in london will face extra charges from today, as the city's ultra low emission zone expands to 18 times its previous size. motorists whose vehicles are older and more polluting will have to pay £12.50 a day to drive anywhere inside the designated area. it's the first such scheme in the world and will be watched closely by other cities like newcastle, edinburgh and manchester which are planning to introduce their own low emission zones. leigh milner reports.
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the extended ultra low emission zone, one of the largest pollution charging schemes in the world. the principle is the polluter pays. the original zone before covered just central london, but the expansion means it will be 18 times larger. campaigners say it will help clean the air for pedestrians. what makes me cross and frustrated is that it's not my pollution that the children are breathing in, it's other people driving past in their cars, and the fact my children have to walk down those roads to get to school, they have to breathe in that pollution. they have no choice, and we have no way to stop it. if your vehicle runs on diesel and it was made before september 2015, or if you use petrol and it was made before 2006, then you will have to pay £12.50 a day to drive in the zone. if you don't then you could get a £160 fine. similar measures have already been introduced in other cities, such as birmingham,
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where its new clean—air zone, launched injune, is already making a difference. what we are seeing is that the rate of compliance, the rate at which people are upgrading and replacing vehicles, and particularly in the business sector, is increasing. for instance, with hgvs, and coaches in particular, they are above 90% compliant now. the existing zone in central london has cut pollution, but despite the health benefits many say they simply can't afford to replace and upgrade their vehicles. it literally is our lifeline. it's the only car that we've managed to find in years now that fits all three car seats in as it needs to. i've got twins with autism and another youngster as well. i haven't got the money to pay every time i go to the hospital. i live in chingford, so i'm right on the edge of it. it's a radical change, but one that many cities across the world will be looking at closely. leigh milner, bbc news.
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the headlines on bbc news... a warning one million children in afghanistan are at risk of starving to death — this little girl has been been sold by her family to get money for food. the national living wage is set to rise to nine pounds fifty per hour in this week's budget. a six billion pound budget boost for the nhs in england to tackle the huge backlog in people waiting for tests, scans and surgery. the health secretary also said he was leaning towards making vaccination for nhs staff mandatory. one of saudi arabia's former top intelligence officials has described the country's de—facto ruler, crown prince mohammed bin salman, as a "psychopath". sa'ad al—jabri claims the crown prince suggested he could assassinate the country s former king abdullah. here s our security correspondent frank gardner. two men at war with each other. on the left, saudi arabia's
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all—powerful crown prince, mohammad bin salman. on the right, dr saad al—jabri, the former saudi number two in intelligence. he fled to canada after the crown prince seized powerfour years ago. he says he was targeted by a hit squad. i am here to sound the alarm about a psychopath killer in the middle east, with infinite resources. a psychopath with no empathy, doesn't feel emotion, never learned from his experience. and we have witnessed atrocities and crimes committed by this killer. the saudi embassy in washington has dismissed the claims saying saad al—jabri stole millions of dollars from the government, which he denies. in saudi arabia, two of the dr saad's children have been seized from their homes when they were still teenagers. they're now in prison, accused of financial crimes,
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which the family denies. it says the crown prince has also gone after dr saad's son—in—law. the first night he was kidnapped, he received more than 100 lashes, he was tortured. he was beaten on his back, on his legs. he was being told that he was being detained and tortured as a proxy for his father—in—law, meaning my dad. they even asked him a question — "who do think we should arrest and torture so dr saad can come back to the kingdom?" back in 2010, dr saad al—jabri tipped off western intelligence about an al-qaeda bomb plot. explosives had been smuggled inside printer ink toner cartridges on planes bound for chicago. the cia says his help saved lives. now dr saad wants the us government to pressure the saudis to release his children. i have to speak out. i am appealing to the american people and to the american administration to help me to release those children and to
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restore their life. crown prince mohammad bin salman is currently on a mission to rehabilitate his global image after being accused of ordering the murder ofjournalist jamal khashoggi three years ago. his public investment fund has bought a majority stake in newcastle united, something welcomed by the fans and condemned by his critics. today's allegations will only add to the controversy that surrounds the west's dealings with saudi arabia. frank gardner, bbc news. a pair of trainers worn by the us basketball star michaeljordan have sold for a record £1.1 million at auction. jordan used the pair of red and white nike air ships during his first season with the chicago bulls in 198a. the price is the highest ever paid for game—worn footwear from any sport.
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nicholas smith is the host of the radio a trainer podcast sneakernomics — hejoins me now. put this into a bit of context because it smashes the previous record, doesn't it? that because it smashes the previous record, doesn't it?— record, doesn't it? that is right, b man record, doesn't it? that is right, by many factors. _ record, doesn't it? that is right, by many factors, so _ record, doesn't it? that is right, by many factors, so this - record, doesn't it? that is right, by many factors, so this is - record, doesn't it? that is right, by many factors, so this is a - record, doesn't it? that is right, | by many factors, so this is a new high water mark for what sneakers, specifically game once makers are going to be expected to collect from now on. ., , , ., , ., now on. game worn is the praise that ou use now on. game worn is the praise that you use and — now on. game worn is the praise that you use and i — now on. game worn is the praise that you use and i use _ now on. game worn is the praise that you use and i use it _ now on. game worn is the praise that you use and i use it in _ now on. game worn is the praise that you use and i use it in the _ you use and i use it in the introduction, but it is so interesting because previously we would imagine that many of these things must be in what i think the other term is box fresh condition, brand—new, you are saying these are one and that gives me more value? that's right. a lot of sneaker collectors won't even try on the pairs they are spending. tens of thousands of pounds in some cases. this is something that was actually used as a piece of athletic equipment. 50 used as a piece of athletic equipment-— used as a piece of athletic equipment. used as a piece of athletic ea-uiment. ., ., ~ , ., used as a piece of athletic ea-uiment. ., ., equipment. so what makes a pair of trainers worth _ equipment. so what makes a pair of
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trainers worth £1.1— equipment. so what makes a pair of trainers worth £1.1 million? - equipment. so what makes a pair of trainers worth £1.1 million? you - trainers worth £1.1 million? you will notice _ trainers worth £1.1 million? you will notice with _ trainers worth £1.1 million? you will notice with every _ trainers worth £1.1 million? gm. will notice with every kind of sneaker that set a record before this and probably after this, it has a compelling story attached to it. this story as it is worn by one of the most famous, perhaps the most famous basketball players ever, at the very beginning of his career. the other aspect of the story as it is not the famous airjordan shoes that michaeljordan is known for. this model is the air ship which he wore at the beginning of his career in a few games. wore at the beginning of his career in a few games-— in a few games. there are other trainers that _ in a few games. there are other trainers that have _ in a few games. there are other trainers that have sold - in a few games. there are other trainers that have sold property| trainers that have sold property prices sums and it is because they have a story attached, i am thinking about can us for example. for those he bore his — about can us for example. for those he bore his own _ about can us for example. for those he bore his own design _ about can us for example. for those he bore his own design pairs - about can us for example. for those he bore his own design pairs of - he bore his own design pairs of nike, but this was a performance for the grammys so it is not impaired the grammys so it is not impaired the wrapper owned, he performed them on a very public stage. you
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the wrapper owned, he performed them on a very public stage.— on a very public stage. you will have knowledge _ on a very public stage. you will have knowledge on _ on a very public stage. you will have knowledge on this, - on a very public stage. you will have knowledge on this, from. on a very public stage. you will- have knowledge on this, from your podcast, sneakers are now at tradable asset that art and jewelry and can be bought and sold for pretty every prices. they suddenly become a new asset class in that respect. become a new asset class in that resect. . . �* become a new asset class in that resect. . , ~ , respect. that is right. at this particular— respect. that is right. at this particular auction _ respect. that is right. at this particular auction that - respect. that is right. at this particular auction that those | particular auction that those michaeljordan shoes were sold, they were also being sold rolex watches, fancy handbags, cars, so it is really that sort of the same class for these types of items and you can probably thank social media for that. �* , ., , ., that. briefly, do these gain in value as any _ that. briefly, do these gain in value as any other— that. briefly, do these gain in value as any other form - that. briefly, do these gain in value as any other form of. that. briefly, do these gain in value as any other form of art that. briefly, do these gain in - value as any other form of art would whether it is a picture or a bit of jewelry, you buy it as an investment hoping it was up in price, i suppose the buyer of these assume they will get even more expensive. i the buyer of these assume they will get even more expensive.— get even more expensive. i would assume so _ get even more expensive. i would assume so in _ get even more expensive. i would assume so in this _ get even more expensive. i would assume so in this case, _ get even more expensive. i would assume so in this case, simply i assume so in this case, simply because they are very fixed on the point of basketball history and sneaker history and even nike's own history. other sneakers might see
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their value dip depending on what their value dip depending on what the demand is.— the demand is. good to have your thou~hts the demand is. good to have your thoughts on _ the demand is. good to have your thoughts on that, _ the demand is. good to have your thoughts on that, really _ thoughts on that, really interesting. stars of the show friends have paid tribute to the actor james michael taylor, who played gunther in the long—running comedy. he's died at the age of 59 after being diagnosed with prostate cancer. jennifer aniston, who played rachel, the object of gunther�*s unrequited love in the show, said the programme would not have been the same without him. here's our entertainment correspondent lizo mzimba. its focus was on six friends, but a seventh character also made a big impression. this is a "getting rid of everything rachel ever touched" sale. i will take it all. and as friends�* popularity grew, so did the role originally credited simply as "coffee guy." gunther, six glasses. six, you want me tojoin you? oh, i thoughtjoey was here. five is good. but, of course, he had one storyline everyone remembers.
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rachel? yeah? when's your birthday? 5th may, why? i'm just making a list of people's birthdays. 0h, mine's december... yeah, whatever. i've finished it, i did it all by myself! and there's nobody to hug. it was so important to fans, the show felt they had to resolve it in friends�* final episode. ijust have to tell you... ..i love you. i love you too. probably not in the same way. over the years there were other small roles. and he was reunited with friends cast mate matt leblanc in the bbc sitcom episodes. seriously? is that the best you�*ve got? but his legacy will always be friends. too ill to appear in person, hejoined the show�*s reunion special remotely. it was the most memorable ten years of my life, honestly.
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i could not have imagined a better experience. all these guys, it was just a joy to work with them. i felt very special. the world�*s biggest tv show would never have been quite what it was without james michael tyler�*s gunther. james michael tyler, who has died at the age of 59 best known for playing guenther in the comedy series friends. now it�*s time for a look at the weather with louise lear. hello. so far it seems to have been a slow creep towards winter. another mild day today. a case of sunny spells and scattered showers. mostly showers have been focused in western scotland and along western fringes of england and wales as well. breaks in the cloud. sunny spells coming through.
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through the remainder of the afternoon, most of the frequent showers and the stronger of the winds again into the far north and west of scotland. gusts of wind in excess of 30 mph. scattered showers and they might catch you out if you are outside for any length of time. where the wind is strongest is where we see the sharpest showers. it is mild pretty much across the country. 11 to 13 celsius into scotland and northern ireland. 16 celsius the highest. we see that trough which has enhanced the showers easing away. clearer skies in the east overnight. wet and windy weather pushing in from the north—west. plenty of heavy rain expected as we go into tuesday. where we have the clearer skies and temperatures down to five to seven celsius. chilly start here. the cloud and the rain will continue
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to gather and push its way out of northern ireland into scotland. perhaps just the far north of england as well. easing through the day. more cloud around on tuesday. still that south—westerly flow. the winds will remain a feature. gusts in excess of 50 mph. isobars on the charts on wednesday. back down into the north of england and north wales by then. that is going to be the dividing line between this very warm air that is continuing to feed up from the south. across england and wales perhaps wednesday will be the warmest day of the week, with temperatures peaking at maybe 18 or 19 celsius. cooler as we go towards the end of the week. the further north you are, the more likely you will see sharp showers.
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this is bbc news, i�*m ben thompson. the headlines at apm: the national living wage is set to rise to £9.50 per hour in this week�*s budget. the un warns millions of people in afghanistan are facing starvation this winter, as the bbc has found evidence that some families are even selling their children to get money forfood. the desperation and the urgency of the situation is hard to put into words. there is no more time left to reach the people of afghanistan. facebook whistleblower, frances haugen, tells mps who are planning social media legislation that facebook repeatedly prioritised growth over safety. the real thing we are seeing here is facebook accepting little tiny additions of harm, like when they weigh off "how much harm is worth how much growth for us?"
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a key pledge expected to be in place ahead of the upcoming climate change conference has still not been met and the money — part of a new financing plan for developing countries — may not be available before 2023. hello to you, a very warm welcome to bbc news. the national living wage is set to rise in the budget on wednesday. it will go up to £9.50 per hour, from 1st april next year. that�*s up from the current minimum wage of £8.91 per hour. the rise means a full—time worker on the living wage would see their annual income jump by more than £1,000. our political correspondent, damian grammaticas, explained who will be affected by these changes.
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the national minimum wage applies to anyone 22 and under, so that is apprentices, those who are working from teenage years, eighteens, 20, 21, 22. at 23, it becomes called the national living wage and that is what we are talking about at the minute, so the national living wage, set at the minute at £8.91 per hour, is going to go up, we understand, to £9.50 per hour from april next year, it is worth saying. this is on the recommendation of the low pay commission, who have been looking into this and they advise the government. they had been looking already at around £9.a0—ish, but now it looks like it is going to go at £9.50. that is an increase of about 6.5% and for younger age groups, so the national minimum wage, will also go up by a similar amount. that is what we are
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expecting more details of. that was our political correspondent, damian grammaticas. we speak now tojoanna williams, owner ofjoco gifts in nuneaton. some of her staff are paid the minimum wage. it is nice to have are with us, thanks forjoining us this afternoon. thanks for 'oining us this afternoon.— thanks for 'oining us this i afternoon._ talk thanks for 'oining us this - afternoon._ talk to me afternoon. thank you. talk to me about the impact _ afternoon. thank you. talk to me about the impact this _ afternoon. thank you. talk to me about the impact this will - afternoon. thank you. talk to me about the impact this will have, i about the impact this will have, what will it mean for your business day—to—day? what will it mean for your business day-to-day?_ what will it mean for your business day-to-day? what will it mean for your business da -to-da ? , ., _ ., ., ., day-to-day? obviously we have got to start budgeting _ day-to-day? obviously we have got to start budgeting for— day-to-day? obviously we have got to start budgeting for the _ day-to-day? obviously we have got to start budgeting for the additional- start budgeting for the additional cost. obviously we knew it was coming in, but the value is a bit higher than we were expecting, but i think we havejust higher than we were expecting, but i think we have just got to review pricing, staff hours would have to be reviewed, all of them work currently on a minimum contract, so it may be that they have to work slightly less hours to keep the business viable at the moment. �*ft�*es. business viable at the moment. yes, it is interesting _ business viable at the moment. yes, it is interesting because _ business viable at the moment. yes, it is interesting because what campaigners for a rise in this have called for is an uplift for those on the lowest wages to get the uplift
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to bring up their living standards and allow people to earn more money, but what you are telling me there and many businesses will be in a similar position is they will be reviewing the hours their staff work because they need to find out if they can afford to keep paying them. exactly. obviously at the moment we have already been absorbing the increasing costs of products that we sell and try not to pass on too much of that increase, if any, to our customers, but it is going to be inevitable, i think. customers, but it is going to be inevitable, ithink.— customers, but it is going to be inevitable, ithink. how will you coe inevitable, ithink. how will you cope with _ inevitable, ithink. how will you cope with the — inevitable, ithink. how will you cope with the extra _ inevitable, ithink. how will you cope with the extra costs? - inevitable, ithink. how will you cope with the extra costs? you | inevitable, i think. how will you - cope with the extra costs? you touch thereon may be some of the prices will have to go up, but does this mean you will have to reassess your business and work out where you can pass on that increase, if indeed you can? . pass on that increase, if indeed you can? , ., ., ., ., “ pass on that increase, if indeed you can? , ., ., ., can? yes, we will have to look at every area _ can? yes, we will have to look at every area of— can? yes, we will have to look at every area of the _ can? yes, we will have to look at every area of the business. - can? yes, we will have to look at every area of the business. it - can? yes, we will have to look at| every area of the business. it may be that, you know, i myself will spend more hours in the... in the shop floor, just to cover some of the cost. one of the big things that i would hope we would be getting looked at is the business rates for
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next year. obviously we have had a year of no rates and we have the discount this year, but are we going to get any assistance next year? 5. to get any assistance next year? s, and i to get any assistance next year? 5, and i wanted to ask you about that because of course this week we will hear from the chancellor in the budget, he will lay out his tax and spending plans, warranty? but it is all coming at a time when prices for all coming at a time when prices for a lot of things are going up. there was already a squeeze on our incomes as a result of higher prices, be those at petrol pumps or energy prices or in food shops. i guess this comes for you at a really bad time, does it? it this comes for you at a really bad time, does it?— this comes for you at a really bad time, does it? it does. obviously we have not time, does it? it does. obviously we have got the — time, does it? it does. obviously we have got the run _ time, does it? it does. obviously we have got the run to _ time, does it? it does. obviously we have got the run to christmas, - time, does it? it does. obviously we have got the run to christmas, we i have got the run to christmas, we are a gift shop, so it is the most important part of the year, as everybody knows it is. we have got to start planning for april next year, how we get through the summer, for ourselves, anyway. find year, how we get through the summer, for ourselves, anyway.— for ourselves, anyway. and have you broken the — for ourselves, anyway. and have you broken the news _ for ourselves, anyway. and have you broken the news to _ for ourselves, anyway. and have you broken the news to your _ for ourselves, anyway. and have you broken the news to your staff - for ourselves, anyway. and have you broken the news to your staff yet? i | broken the news to your staff yet? i imagine they are welcoming a bit of a pay rise? imagine they are welcoming a bit of a -a rise? . . . imagine they are welcoming a bit of a -a rise? , ., , , imagine they are welcoming a bit of a -a rise? , . , , ., a pay rise? yes, i am sure they are ha - a pay rise? yes, i am sure they are happy about _ a pay rise? yes, i am sure they are
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happy about it _ a pay rise? yes, i am sure they are happy about it and _ a pay rise? yes, i am sure they are happy about it and it _ a pay rise? yes, i am sure they are happy about it and it is _ a pay rise? yes, i am sure they are happy about it and it is not - happy about it and it is not something that i... you know, we don�*t want to do it. it is... it helps them, you know, not rely on benefits and things like that, so they are definitely welcoming the increase in pay.— increase in pay. joanna williams, thanks so much _ increase in pay. joanna williams, thanks so much for— increase in pay. joanna williams, thanks so much for talking - increase in pay. joanna williams, i thanks so much for talking through that impact on you. joanna williams there, the owner ofjoco gifts indonesian, good to have you with us. it is that i�*m a day we normally get the update on the latest coronavirus figures, let me bring you the number of cases reported over the last day, 36,567 is the latest official figure, as far as infections are concerned. and deaths, 38, within 2a hours, sorry, within 28 days of that covid test, 38 deaths reported over the past 2a hours 36,000 567 cases. we also have
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the update on the number of vaccinations now offered. those that have had both jabs now reaching 86.a% of the population. those having had just one jab so far 79.2%, but the figure you you can see on the screen there, 36,567 infections, and 38 deaths, though is the latest figures we have had for the latest figures we have had for the uk. facebook will fuel more episodes of violent unrest around the world — because of the way its algorithms are designed to promote divisive content — according to a former employee and whistleblower. speaking to mps and peers this afternnon, frances haugen said the company saw online safety as a "cost centre" and that she thought regulation would make facebook more successful. earlier i spoke to our technology correspondent, mark cieslak, about what he thought some of the stand—out points were from that first section of evidence from frances haugen.
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the algorithms are designed to keep people engaged and by doing that it pushes people towards more extreme content, so if you are someone who espouses centre—right politics it will very quickly push you towards extreme right politics, leading to echo chambers and then leading to people receiving more and more content skewed towards an extreme viewpoint, so i think that was really interesting to hear that. and that idea that will be very difficult for many people to get their head around, that idea of prioritising profit over people and that amplification of hate, she said there facebook didn�*t create the hate, but their services amplify it. yes, and they very much know, facebook itself knows what its services and its products are doing. they have been conducting this research, that was the first bit of bruising information we found out from this whistle—blower a couple of weeks ago, that facebook itself has been conducting research which has determined that some of its products and some of its platforms are being used in this way and that its algorithm
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is promoting that hate and the platform isn�*t doing anything about it. yes, and the idea, and this is probably worth reiterating, the way facebook presents information to us... previously it was in a chronological order, just the latest thing yourfriends posted, but now what we are hearing from frances haugen there waas the algorithm decides and that can distort our view of the world? yes, very much so, the algorithm goes off and find things it thinks will be interesting to you and keep you engaged. that engagement is the very important thing, they are keeping you on the site and engaged at all times. that is why it�*s finding content which is so extreme. what has facebook said about it? because, as you have said, they have been doing this research into it, haven�*t they? and that accusation they are literally subsidising hate, what has facebook been saying? facebook are saying all this information is being mischaracterised, that it is performing this research, spending vast amounts of money to ensure its platforms are safe and that what�*s happened here is all this information has been seen almost out of context. and one of the issues here was transparency as well because she
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was keen to point out that google and twitter, in her view, were much better, more transparent when it came to telling us how that algorithm works and the data that is being shared or presented about us. why is facebook so different? well, none of those companies are really sharing or telling us exactly how everything works behind the scenes. they all have their trade secrets with regard to that, so we are not getting the full workings, if you like, behind the curtain and seeing how all those outfits operate, but facebook in this instance, like we say, it has been conducting this research and itjust hasn�*t revealed it to the rest of the world or it has chosen not to. marc cieslak bear with the latest on that evidence being presented to mps over the way that facebook operates. it is for 10pm, you are with bbc news. let me bring you up—to—date with one another as a stories today.
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—— it is for 10pm. the united nations says afghanistan is heading for catastrophe with millions facing starvation, and the harsh winter months still to come. the world food programme has warned 22 million people — about half the population — are suffering hunger on a daily basis. and the bbc has found evidence that some families are even selling their children to make ends meet. international aid has dried up since the taliban seized power in august, while the world debates how to deal with the new regime. our correspondent, yogita limaye, reports from afghanistan — a warning, her report contains distressing images and details from the start. this is what starvation does to a country. to its tiniest lives. six—month—old usman. this one born three months ago. afghanistan was barely surviving before the taliban took over, but now foreign funds which propped up this country have been frozen.
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putting at least1 million children at risk of dying. babies cry. in this ward, one in five will not make it. usman weighs less than half of what he should. his father is among millions who have no work. usman�*s mother told us his twin is in a room next door. this hospital is full. some babies are already
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sharing a bed. while we were there, six more children were brought in. it is the only facility for hundreds of miles. babies cry. because without foreign money, most hospitals are collapsing. doctors and nurses among masses of government workers who have not been paid for months. a third of the country�*s people don�*t know where their next meal will come from. we travelled out of herat to a rural settlement. tens of thousands displaced from remote provinces by decades of war and severe drought. no means of income, barely any food. some days, families here don�*t eat. they have sold whatever little they had. and now some are forced
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to do the unthinkable. this baby girl has been sold by her family. we are hiding their identity to protect them. her husband used to collect rubbish, but even that earns him nothing now. once the baby is able to walk she will be taken away by the man who bought her. he has paid more than half
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of the £a00 she has been sold for. that will get the family through a few months. they have been told the girl will be married to his child, but no one can be sure. we know there are other families here who have sold their children and even while we have been here another person came up to one of our team and asked if we would like to buy their child. the desperation and the urgency of the situation is hard to put into words. there is no more time left to reach the people of afghanistan. it cannot wait while the world debates whether or not to recognise a taliban government. nearby, aid agencies hand out parcels that might save some children from hunger. alone, they can�*t provide for the staggering needs. giving the taliban money without guarantees on human rights and how the funds will be used is dangerous. but afghanistan is sinking fast.
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millions here will not survive the winter. yogita limaye, bbc news, herat. survive the winter. our correspondent secunder kermani is in the afghan capital, kabul. so many astonishing, terrifying things in that report there. afghanistan now facing its biggest humanitarian crisis in the world and yet, internationalfunds have been stopped on the line that really stood out for me in that piece, the world cannot wait, afghanistan cannot wait while the world debates. and that is the problem? nothing is happening while the world debates. that is certainly the crux of the issue. i mean, afghanistan has long been a country where, for many, unfortunately it has always been a struggle to survive, but this
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number, 22 million people, more than 20 of 2 million people facing acute levels of food insecurity, that is the —— levels of food insecurity, that is the -- 22 levels of food insecurity, that is the —— 22 billion people, that is the —— 22 billion people, that is the highest number that has been accorded by the united nations since records began. at the heart of it is this economic crisis the country is facing at the moment because foreign reserves are frozen, because direct foreign grants and funding, that has come to an end. previously those foreign grants were responsible for around 75% of all public spending in this country, so it gives you a sense ofjust how important foreign donations were, just to everyday functioning, in afghanistan. of course, since the takeover, that has come to an end. humanitarian assistance has been continuing, but the un says it needs much more money. over $1 billion was pledged backin money. over $1 billion was pledged back in september, but less than half of that has come through. the world food programme says thatjust
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to get enough food to all those people who need it in the coming months, they could require around $220 million every month, so that gives you an idea of the scale of the need that is there and there are still these big questions to resolve about how, for example, money can be given to the afghan state to allow teachers, doctors, government employees to be paid because they have not received their salaries for months. most of them did not receive their salaries for the last few months under the previous government either and they still haven�*t been paid and they don�*t know when they will be and that is why we see hunger moving from more remote, rural areas to also urban centres, to people who were previously living more professional, middle—class existence is, now caught up in this awful suffering as well. so it is a real dilemma for the world, but at the moment the tell of an�*s position seems to be that, whilst they want
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cooperation and an increased military and assistance, the taliban don�*t seem to be willing to compromise and they say that they will run this country how they see fit, not how others tell them to do so. �* ,, . ., ., , fit, not how others tell them to do so. �* ,,. ., ., so. and secunder kermani, as our colleague's _ so. and secunder kermani, as our colleague's piece _ so. and secunder kermani, as our colleague's piece makes _ so. and secunder kermani, as our colleague's piece makes all- so. and secunder kermani, as our colleague's piece makes all too i colleague�*s piece makes all too clear, people there, and it shows just how desperate they are, selling all they have left, in some cases their children. i wonder how quickly their children. i wonder how quickly the additional aid and help will be forthcoming. you say the debate continues and those negotiations in some respects continue, but until there is any conclusion it seems that that aid will not get to where it is needed?— that that aid will not get to where it is needed? well, certainly, quite ossibl it is needed? well, certainly, quite possibly not _ it is needed? well, certainly, quite possibly not enough _ it is needed? well, certainly, quite possibly not enough of— it is needed? well, certainly, quite possibly not enough of that - it is needed? well, certainly, quite possibly not enough of that age. i l possibly not enough of that age. i think that is the key problem, this is as the winter approaches it is the time of year that it is always most difficult for people in afghanistan, it gets bitterly cold in many places. roads and routes into more remote areas are cut off
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by snowfall, for example, so there is always a race by humanitarian agencies to try to get aid in before access to those places becomes completely impossible, so that is why the world food programme have described the situation in afghanistan as, a countdown to catastrophe, and they are urging for more international help. for catastrophe, and they are urging for more international help.— more international help. for now, secunder kermani, _ more international help. for now, secunder kermani, thanks - more international help. for now, secunder kermani, thanks very i more international help. for now, i secunder kermani, thanks very much indeed. secunder kermani there in kabul. in other news for you at a:20pm this afternoon... it could soon be compulsory for nhs staff in england to be vaccinated for coronavirus. the health secretary, sajid javid, says he�*s "leaning towards" such a policy, though no final decision has been taken. it comes as the government announces an extra £5.9 billion for the nhs in england — with the money being used to help clear the backlog of people waiting for tests and scans, and to buy equipment and improve it. i�*m joined by mike moran, ceo of rutherford health, which has set up the first community diagnostic centre of its
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kind in england. mic, welcome to bbc news. talk to me a bit about what these centres will look like. we have heard the announcement, we are told they will help clear that backlog of operations and diagnostic tests that need to be done, but what will we see if we go into one?— need to be done, but what will we see if we go into one? well, each of the centres — see if we go into one? well, each of the centres will _ see if we go into one? well, each of the centres will deliver _ see if we go into one? well, each of the centres will deliver a _ the centres will deliver a multi—standard set of diagnostics, so x—rays, ct, mri, ultrasound. in the case of our first community diagnostic centre in somerset, which is down in partnership with somerset nhs foundation trust, but is also a gp service inside the centre, so it really is part of the output of the richmond report to true diagnostic
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community hub, a multifunctional diagnostic capability. find community hub, a multifunctional diagnostic capability.— community hub, a multifunctional diagnostic capability. and we were talkin: a diagnostic capability. and we were talking a little _ diagnostic capability. and we were talking a little earlier _ diagnostic capability. and we were talking a little earlier to _ diagnostic capability. and we were talking a little earlier to a - diagnostic capability. and we were talking a little earlier to a couple i talking a little earlier to a couple of guests who were highlighting that, yes, all well and good, this money is very useful and were helped by the machinery that we need that may be has been underinvested, in their view, for quite a while. but their view, for quite a while. but their biggest concern was the lack of staff to man these machines and get people through the centres to help clear that backlog. �*ft�*es. get people through the centres to help clear that backlog.— help clear that backlog. yes, i would agree — help clear that backlog. yes, i would agree and _ help clear that backlog. yes, i would agree and amplify - help clear that backlog. yes, i would agree and amplify that, help clear that backlog. yes, i - would agree and amplify that, and actually when we looked at some centres as an example, we thought about the innovation dividend what is that dividend that we offer two somerset? it was really around a workforce model, where we recruited to the nhs and rutherford health recruited staff together and staff work side by side, so they had the choice of an nhs contract or a private contract. and they real dividend there is in innovation,
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cross pollination of ideas, delivering our best practice. but more important than that, we are working in a stress free environment, so it is not like working in an acute trust, where you may have your day planned and suddenly there is an accident on the m5 and you have got patients coming in through a&e that need urgent scans or somebody from... one of the impatience needing an urgent scan, so these community diagnostic hubs will deliver real diagnostic capability, where it is required, without impact on the trust day—to—day business. for us, it was around additionality. can we provide additionality to the trust? and we have delivered that in spades, so the trust now has 25% more additional diagnostic capability thanit additional diagnostic capability than it had previously. �*ft�*es. additional diagnostic capability than it had previously. yes, and that is the _ than it had previously. yes, and that is the key _ than it had previously. yes, and that is the key point _ than it had previously. yes, and that is the key point here, - than it had previously. yes, and that is the key point here, isn't| that is the key point here, isn�*t it? that is the key to preventing
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these diseases before they get any worse, one would assume. you touched on it they�*re about taking the pressure off and moving these facilities away from hospitals where they may get used by emergencies and regular routine surgery gets cancelled. talk to me about the benefits, the other benefits of having them separately located, away from hospitals, rather thanjust from hospitals, rather than just offering from hospitals, rather thanjust offering this funding into existing medical facilities.— medical facilities. rutherford health is all _ medical facilities. rutherford health is all around - medical facilities. rutherford health is all around the - medical facilities. rutherford i health is all around the patient. what we are looking to deliver is safe, effective patient care, where there it is required, and actually taking that out of an acute trust you have presented the football going through, so there may be issues around covid, that is a great example, where there is no cross infection issues, so patients are coming in, we can deal with them directly, we can do the assessment as they come into the centre, but more importantly it is more local to
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the patients, so one of the initiatives that we are looking at initiatives that we are looking at in hereford, where i am at the moment, is putting a community diagnostic hub into the high street. so one of these buildings, such as in debenhams, is a great example, a debenhams store, where we can put in the diagnostic capability, so we are not just dealing the diagnostic capability, so we are notjust dealing with providing additional services to the nhs, we are also invigorating the high street, so people can come into the high street, they can park, you know, free parking whether we are, so free parking, they can have their scans and then they can go to the high street and do their shopping. so it is really about thinking differently because i always go back to what my mother told me and she said, if you always do what you have always done, you will always get what you have always got. and right at this moment there is a crisis and
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everybody is right, it is notjust about covid, it has been developing for many years and it is about time we use innovative thinking to sort it out. ~ ~' ~., ., ., ., it out. mike moran, we are grateful for our it out. mike moran, we are grateful for your time _ it out. mike moran, we are grateful for your time and _ it out. mike moran, we are grateful for your time and explaining - it out. mike moran, we are grateful for your time and explaining all - for your time and explaining all that. it is really interesting to see how this may develop. thank you, mike moran there, the chief executive of rutherford health. thank you, then. a key spending pledge to help some of the world�*s poorest countries cut their carbon footprint has not been met, days before world leaders are due to meet in glasgow for the cop26 climate summit. the richest nations had promised to raise $100 billion a year for developing countries by 2020, but this won�*t be achieved until 2023 at the earliest. meanwhile gases which cause atmospheric warming rose to record levels last year, despite the pandemic. a report by the world meteorological organization shows that concentrations of co2, methane and nitrous oxide rose by more than the average rate over the last decade. the report�*s authors say this will drive temperatures
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above the limits set out in the paris climate agreement. let�*s get more from our environment correspondent, matt mcgrath. good to see you, thanks for being with us this afternoon. talk to me about the headlines from this because it pretty astonishing timing, given that cop26, the big climate summits, gets under way very shortly. climate summits, gets under way very shortl . ~ , climate summits, gets under way very shortl. ~ , ., climate summits, gets under way very shortl. , ., shortly. absolutely, and you can imaaine shortly. absolutely, and you can imagine everyone _ shortly. absolutely, and you can imagine everyone is _ shortly. absolutely, and you can imagine everyone is trying - shortly. absolutely, and you can imagine everyone is trying to i shortly. absolutely, and you can | imagine everyone is trying to get their stake in before the cop26 starts next week and i think the question of finance is a critical one for that meeting. rich countries promised back in 2009 that they were deliver by 2020, $100 billion a year to help developing countries to cope with the impacts of climate change and cut their own carbon. that target hasn�*t been met, has been slipping for a while now and hasn�*t been met, so in an effort to try to rally the troops the uk government have put together a couple of finance ministers to come up with a delivery plan and they publish that
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today. it says they are confident they�*ll be able to get to 100 billion x 2023 and a couple of years after that they will go beyond it, so they feel over the five year period in 2020 to 2025 it will meet 100 billion roughly every year. they say that is a good thing. many environmentalists are unhappy about that, they feel it is a promise that has not been met and they feel it is literally too little too late. find literally too little too late. and this coming — literally too little too late. and this coming as _ literally too little too late. and this coming as well _ literally too little too late. and this coming as well as - literally too little too late. and this coming as well as we are told that the world is getting serious and carbon emissions, yet concentrations of co2, methane and nitrous oxide rising by more than the average rate over the last decade. it is going the wrong way. it is definitely going the wrong way and it has serious consequences as well. we knew that emissions last year from everything people dead from travel and transport were down about 5.5%, but the problem with c02 is at last in the problem with c02 is at last in the atmosphere for centuries and it can build up progressively and because of so much of the co2 we put up because of so much of the co2 we put up is taken down by trees and plants in the oceans, if they go off a bit
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the amount in the atmosphere can go up, even if we do nothing, so that is what we saw a bit last year, concentrations went up, emissions went down, but the amount in the atmosphere was still there are still pushing temperatures up and it is worrying scientists because it is also impacting those trees, lands and those seas, which may not be able to take up as much co2 in the future and that is the case it contributes more to emissions and warming and makes the task of those meeting in glasgow next week even harder. ~ . , meeting in glasgow next week even harder. a. , ., ., ., meeting in glasgow next week even harder. , ., ., ~ harder. ok, matt, it is good to talk to ou. harder. ok, matt, it is good to talk to you- thanks _ harder. ok, matt, it is good to talk to you. thanks very _ harder. ok, matt, it is good to talk to you. thanks very much. - our environment correspondent there, matt mcgrath. why were talking to two lines related to that cop26 event in glasgow. we were told that the banister, borisjohnson, has been speaking to the russian president, vladimir putin, says planners are is to welcome the steps russia has taken in the last few days. you may remember russia committing to net—zero carbon emissions in the year 2060. so we are told, on that
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call with vladimir putin, boris johnson saying he welcomed those steps that russia had taken. also, you may know that president putin will not attend that climate summit in glasgow, president putin expressing his regret that he cannot do attend the cop26 summit in person. we are told that is because of the current situation in russia. so two lines there of breaking news from that call between the uk prime minister, borisjohnson, and the russian president, vladimir putin. more on that for you a little later. but it has just turned a:30pm. now it time for the weather, louise lear has in cumbria you are likely to see more heavy and persistent rain through the middle part of the week but here and now the showers will start to fade away and through the overnight period some clearer skies and temperatures fall away as well. different story to the west. the
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cloud and rain and wind gathering once again to show its hand by first thing tomorrow morning. here it is a wet and windy start stretching across western scotland, northern ireland and northern ireland and north west wales, gradually that rain will push steadily northwards, improving picture from the south. elsewhere a lot of cloud around but are largely fine and dry story and once again with that south—westerly wind, although it will be blustery, gusting to gale force perhaps at times with the rain in scotland, still coming from a very mild sauce. temperatures on the up. we could see 17 degrees on tuesday, 63 fahrenheit. we are likely to see more wet weather spreading out of scotland into a north of england from wednesday on. hello this is bbc news. the headlines... the national living wage is set to rise to £9.50 per hour
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in this week�*s budget. the un warns millions of people in afghanistan are facing starvation this winter — as the bbc has found evidence that some families are even selling their children to get money forfood. the desperation and the urgency of the situation is hard to put into words. there is no more time left to reach the people of afghanistan. facebook whistleblower frances haugen, tells mps who are planning social media legislation that facebook repeatedly prioritised growth over safety. the real thing we are seeing here is facebook accepting little tiny additions of harm, like when they weigh off "how much harm is worth how much growth for us?" global greenhouse gas emissions rose to record levels last year, despite the pandemic. the prime minister says he�*s worried next week�*s cop26 climate summit may not reach agreement on solutions.
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sport and for a full round—up from the bbc sport centre, here�*s chetan. good afternoon. scotland are trying to fight back at the t20 world cup in sharjah. they�*re taking on afghanistan in their first match of the super 12s. afghanistan chose to bat, they made a fast start before safyaan sharif made the first scotland breakthrough. mark watt then got the important wicket of zazai, who was heading for a half century, out for aa. but gurbaz and najubullah going strong. but i can see scotland have just in the last few moments but i can see scotland have just in the last few moments taken but i can see scotland have just in the last few moments taken a but i can see scotland have just in the last few moments taken a wicket. there are two overs to go left there. ram lugar the wicket to fall. afghanistan
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168-3. the wicket to fall. afghanistan 168—3. you can listen to live commentary on bbc five live sports extra. staying with cricket — there�*s a big boost for england as they prepare for the ashes — ben stokes has been added to the squad that�*ll head to australia next month ahead of december�*s first test. the all—rounder�*s been given the all clear after a second operation on a fractured finger. he�*s also been taking time out to prioritise his mental health. speaking to naga munchetty on bbc radio five live — former england opener michael carberry says stokes can expect the usual hostile reception from australia when he arrives there. he will be copping it not only in the crowd, it will be nowadays as people tend to do, they hang out on social media and think they are a bit clever, have a pop at him there as well, so i think for me, my only advice to then would be as much as he canjust advice to then would be as much as he can just try and channel his energies when he is on the pitch, he doesn�*t need me to tell him that.
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off the pitch i think it is about the england squad just trying to get around him, trying to i suppose help him avoid certain situations and just basically have as good a tour as he can and obviously if someone like him has a great tour, think england�*s chances are very good. unvaccinated tennis players are set to be allowed to compete at the australian open, but will face two weeks of quarantine and regular testing, according to a letter given to wta players. australian ministers had said players withoutjabs would not be able to enter the country for the tournament. but the wta players�* council says it�*s been told all competitors will be able to go to melbourne injanuary. a number of players — including 35% of those on the men�*s atp tour — remain unvaccinated. novak djokovic, the men�*s world number one and nine—time australian open champion, said last week he didn�*t want to reveal his vaccination status. the international olympic committee
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has released details of the covid—19 counter—measures that will be in place at the 2022 beijing winter olympics. those travelling to china will need to be fully vaccinated or face a 21—day quarantine on arrival. there�*ll be daily tests and temperature checks, and a closed—loop system of travel. china is currently experiencing an increase in cases of the delta variant of coronavirus, forcing the beijing marathon to be suspended. the games start on ath february. ole gunnar solskjaer called it the darkest day of his managerial career — manchester united�*s 5—0 defeat at home to liverpool in the premier league is a result that�*s piled more pressure on the united boss, who�*s lost three of his last four league games. after the match he signed autographs at old trafford, though thousands left the ground well before the final whistle. despite questions around his future, solskjaer says he�*s come too far to give up now. we�*ve been getting the thoughts of united fans.
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i think so shark must go, only thing i think so shark must go, only thing i can say. t i think so shark must go, only thing i can sa . ~ . i think so shark must go, only thing i can sa . ~' , , i can say. i think he 'ust needs that chance, h i can say. i think he 'ust needs that chance, i _ i can say. i think he just needs that chance, i really _ i can say. i think he just needs that chance, i really do. - i can say. i think he just needs i that chance, i really do. haven't really gotten — that chance, i really do. haven't really gotten up _ that chance, i really do. haven't really gotten up to _ that chance, i really do. haven't really gotten up to 90 _ that chance, i really do. haven't really gotten up to 90 minute, i really gotten up to 90 minute, because — really gotten up to 90 minute, because all— really gotten up to 90 minute, because all the _ really gotten up to 90 minute, because all the managers - really gotten up to 90 minute, because all the managers are i really gotten up to 90 minute, - because all the managers are taken. he is— because all the managers are taken. he is a _ because all the managers are taken. he is a good — because all the managers are taken. he is a good presence, _ because all the managers are taken. he is a good presence, good - because all the managers are taken. he is a good presence, good idea i because all the managers are taken. he is a good presence, good idea at| he is a good presence, good idea at the time. _ he is a good presence, good idea at the time. but — he is a good presence, good idea at the time. but he _ he is a good presence, good idea at the time, but he doesn't _ he is a good presence, good idea at the time, but he doesn't have - he is a good presence, good idea at the time, but he doesn't have any. the time, but he doesn't have any managerial— the time, but he doesn't have any managerial experience. _ the time, but he doesn't have any managerial experience. he- the time, but he doesn't have any managerial experience.— managerial experience. he has nothina managerial experience. he has nothing behind _ managerial experience. he has nothing behind him, _ managerial experience. he has nothing behind him, no - managerial experience. he has. nothing behind him, no trophies. need somebody who has a bit behind him, a bit of trapeze, he�*s got to go. he is a nice guy, but not right man for thejob. that�*s all the sport for now. let�*s get more now on the news that the chancellor is to announce a rise in the national living wage in wednesday�*s budget. from next april, it will go up to £9.50 an hour — which means a full—time worker on the living wage will earn more
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than a £1,000 a year extra. the chief secretary to the treasury, simon clarke, has been talking about the rise in the national living wage. let�*s have a listen. we are delighted today to be announcing an increase of the national living wage which will rise from £8.81 an hour to £9.50 an hour which is worth £1000 for an average worker on a full—time national living wage. worker on a full-time national living wage-— living wage. will that go far enough? — living wage. will that go far enough? obviously - living wage. will that go far enough? obviously it - living wage. will that go far enough? obviously it won't| living wage. will that go far- enough? obviously it won't kick in enough? obviously it won�*t kick in until next spring, there are those who say some people are losing money from the universal credit uplift and they are facing rising energy costs and the cost of living crisis will really pinch with this winter, is it going to be enough? we really pinch with this winter, is it going to be enough?— really pinch with this winter, is it going to be enough? we are confident this is a really — going to be enough? we are confident this is a really big _ going to be enough? we are confident this is a really big step _ going to be enough? we are confident this is a really big step to _ going to be enough? we are confident this is a really big step to make - this is a really big step to make sure work always pays which is a busy one of the core objectives of this government and this pay rise has been recommended by the low pay commission, they are an expert group that bring together academics as well as businesses and crucially we are confident that they have the right evidence—based and experience to makejudgments about right evidence—based and experience to make judgments about what is required to make sure that work does pat’- required to make sure that work does -a . ., ., required to make sure that work does pay. the federation of sub-businesses - pay. the federation of
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sub-businesses are i pay. the federation of- sub-businesses are saying that pay. the federation of— sub-businesses are saying that small sub—businesses are saying that small firms may actually end up having to close, they may end up letting staff go because of these increases unless the treasury does something to help them to come is that on the car as potentially a sweet? brute them to come is that on the car as potentially a sweet?— them to come is that on the car as potentially a sweet? we have a ways been clear that _ potentially a sweet? we have a ways been clear that this _ potentially a sweet? we have a ways been clear that this is _ potentially a sweet? we have a ways been clear that this is a _ potentially a sweet? we have a ways been clear that this is a government | been clear that this is a government that backs businesses and recognise this is a balancing act when striking the national living wage and making sure it is a right thinkable verse as well as employees. we have given it a dominance about that help the businesses over the course of the covered pandemic and it will be a key focus of the budget and spending review. we look at existing measures like our super deduction help to grow, start up loans, these are all things which are intended to make sure that this is can just survive but thrive and that is obvious the part of a very important part of the week ahead. part of a very important part of the week ahead-— week ahead. looking at the bigger icture and week ahead. looking at the bigger picture and the — week ahead. looking at the bigger picture and the cost _ week ahead. looking at the bigger picture and the cost of _ week ahead. looking at the bigger picture and the cost of living - picture and the cost of living crisis we are seeing record petrol prices and today of course any budget you are always asked a question about fuel duty, surely there is no way you can increase it but could you potentially look at cutting it? we but could you potentially look at cuttin: it? ~ . but could you potentially look at cuttin: it? . ., ., ., cutting it? we are looking at all these things — cutting it? we are looking at all these things in _ cutting it? we are looking at all
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these things in the _ cutting it? we are looking at all these things in the round - cutting it? we are looking at all these things in the round and i cutting it? we are looking at all these things in the round and a| cutting it? we are looking at all- these things in the round and a busy cost of living is a really important issue because of the key thing is that today�*s announcement, an extra thousand pounds a year for people on national language is a really important protection against those pressures and it helps to make sure that every family in the country where people are in work and really see that this is a government that is on their side stuff like there is something or you could do, it has been suggested you could but you could cut energy _ been suggested you could but you could cut energy bills, _ been suggested you could but you could cut energy bills, that - been suggested you could but you could cut energy bills, that would| could cut energy bills, that would help people over the winter period when your wage increases haven�*t yet kicked in, is it something you might look at? the kicked in, is it something you might look at? ., , ., , look at? the government is really roud of look at? the government is really proud of the _ look at? the government is really proud of the energy _ look at? the government is really proud of the energy price - look at? the government is really proud of the energy price cap - look at? the government is really i proud of the energy price cap which is protecting families and that is where the hundred pounds a year and thatis where the hundred pounds a year and that is something which obviously we are determined to make sure continues and we have also the warm home discount it is becoming more generous in 2022 and rising from £1a0 a year to £150 a year and it will taken an extra 700,000 more families so this is something which we are absolutely committed to protecting families against rising energy bills and obviously we look forward to the chancellor statement on wednesday. that forward to the chancellor statement on wednesday-— on wednesday. that sounds like a know to be _ on wednesday. that sounds like a know to be 80. _ on wednesday. that sounds like a know to be 80. i— on wednesday. that sounds like a know to be 80. i can't— on wednesday. that sounds like a
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know to be 80. i can't comment. | on wednesday. that sounds like a i know to be 80. i can't comment. you are yourself— know to be 80. i can't comment. you are yourself a — know to be 80. i can't comment. you are yourself a middlesbrough - know to be 80. i can't comment. you are yourself a middlesbrough mp, i know to be 80. i can't comment. you| are yourself a middlesbrough mp, you know how difficult it is to get from middlesbrough to liverpool on public transport, are you looking forward to a positive announcement finally northern powerhouse rail, is this a year when we see rings really start to change? i year when we see rings really start to chance? .., �* year when we see rings really start to chance? �* , ., year when we see rings really start to change?— year when we see rings really start to chanue? .., �* , ., ., ., to change? i can't be drawn on what lies ahead in — to change? i can't be drawn on what lies ahead in this _ to change? i can't be drawn on what lies ahead in this week's _ to change? i can't be drawn on what lies ahead in this week's budget - to change? i can't be drawn on what lies ahead in this week's budget and lies ahead in this week�*s budget and spending review but we are absolutely clear that better connectivity is a key priority and it is up 32 that we sure we are good connections in the north is something which this government is determined to deliver and i look forward to compress a package of measures from railways to buses which will actually make good on our commitment to make sure the uk is an easier place to travel within and that will hopefully have major doubling of benefits. we can speak now to the labour mp and shadow chief secretary to the treasury, bridget phillipson. good afternoon. this is good news for workers, good afternoon. this is good news forworkers, isn�*t good afternoon. this is good news for workers, isn�*t it? good afternoon. this is good news forworkers, isn�*t it? it is good afternoon. this is good news for workers, isn't it?— for workers, isn't it? it is a distinctly _ for workers, isn't it? it is a distinctly underwhelming i for workers, isn't it? it is a - distinctly underwhelming offer from the government because we know with
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anyone getting more expensive and hand—in—hand with the cut universal credit, the increase in national insurance that people are facing, a worker receiving universal credit will still be over £800 a year worse off even when you take this into consideration, so i think there are immediate steps the government could be taking right now to make life a lot easier for be taking right now to make life a lot easierforfamilies, be taking right now to make life a lot easier for families, they are choosing not to do this. all that smoke and mirrors from the government will cut it. it is smoke and mirrors from the government will cut it. it is a rise that is above _ government will cut it. it is a rise that is above the _ government will cut it. it is a rise that is above the level _ government will cut it. it is a rise that is above the level of - that is above the level of inflation, so it is a real terms pay rise, and i have been speaking to businesses this afternoon that tell me they can�*t afford to pay their staff anymore so they will have to look at many hours they work or whether they can keep those staff on at all. ., ,., , , ., at all. labour believes we need to see a high — at all. labour believes we need to see a high wage _ at all. labour believes we need to see a high wage economy - at all. labour believes we need to see a high wage economy and - at all. labour believes we need to see a high wage economy and we| at all. labour believes we need to - see a high wage economy and we would increase the minimum wage to £10 an hour and immediately, but going hand in hand with that we would also deliver extra support to businesses. we know how hard it has been the last 18 those particular small firms and that is why we are committed to freezing and cutting business rates
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for the smallest firms and overhauling the system altogether. it is not fit for the modern economy and we need to see big changes. we need to see support for families, thatis need to see support for families, that is why we are arguing for that cut in vat where it comes to gas and electricity bills but also support for businesses to running along side that supplied the government will say we�*ll hear more detail in the budget on wednesday quite micro a lot of leaks being offered about what that budget may contain but to ick u- what that budget may contain but to pick up your — what that budget may contain but to pick up your point — what that budget may contain but to pick up your point about _ what that budget may contain but to pick up your point about labour- pick up your point about labour wanting to praise at minimum wage to £10 an hour, businesses will say theyjust £10 an hour, businesses will say they just can�*t afford £10 an hour, businesses will say theyjust can�*t afford it given they have raw materials going up and because of work is of going up because of work is of going up because i can get the stuff they need, that would be a burden that might put them out of business. labour is both a pro—worker and pro business party. that is why we have said the kinds of measures we take are actually right now in business rates that would help so many firms were to agree on the high street who have had a really hard time but what the government is saying today on the government is saying today on the minimum wagejust
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the government is saying today on the minimum wage just doesn�*t bear scrutiny. people will now and they will feel in their pockets, everything is getting more expensive. people can see that themselves. when the gas bill drops onto your doormat and you go and fill up your carat onto your doormat and you go and fill up your car at the petrol station and go and do the weekly shop, you know everything is more expensive and at the same time for so many millions of workers and families across our country, they have taken that big hit on universal credit, £20 a week taken out of family budgets that would actually do a lot to family budgets that would actually do a lotto support businesses because they need people to be having money to spend on high streets to support that kind of growth and recovery that we all want to seek but i�*m afraid it is just not credible for the government to be suggesting that this increase in the minimum wage is going to provide the minimum wage is going to provide the support they claim so much of it is already going to be swallowed up. when you highlight prices are rising across the board your plan to raise that minimum wage to £10 an hour it would be unfeasible for many businesses, would it not? because it needs to run — businesses, would it not? because it needs to run hand-in-hand - businesses, would it not? because it needs to run hand-in-hand we - businesses, would it not? because it needs to run hand-in-hand we can i needs to run hand—in—hand we can also buy and make and sell more here in britain is a raising productivity
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alongside wages, what the government have been doing all too often is display visited the problems we face, once they acknowledge they are there in the first place, initially they were claiming those shortages and those problems weren�*t there and then they went on to claim it was all part of some cunning plan of theirs all along. it does not bear any kind of scrutiny. we are seeing more of that to date with this announcement on the minimum wage. we need real and lasting action, to back businesses and families through a really tough time and people will know the reality that they face and this just isn�*t the right approach. good to talk to you. thank you. more details to come this week in the budget on wednesday, the chancellor will take to his feet at 1230. petrol prices have reached their highest ever price. motoring organisations say the average price paid for a litre of petrol is now nearly £1.a3, beating the previous record set in 2012.
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diesel prices remain a little below its all—time high. analysts say its due in part to a doubling of the oil price since last year. thousands more drivers in london will face extra charges from today, as the city�*s ultra low emission zone expands to 18 times its previous size. motorists whose vehicles are older and more polluting will have to pay £12.50 a day to drive anywhere inside the designated area. it�*s the first such scheme in the world and will be watched closely by other cities like newcastle, edinburgh and manchester, which are planning to introduce their own low emission zones. leigh milner reports. the extended ultra low emission zone, one of the largest pollution charging schemes in the world. the principle is the polluter pays. the original zone before covered just central london, but the expansion means it will be
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18 times larger. campaigners say it will help clean the air for pedestrians. what makes me cross and frustrated is that it�*s not my pollution that the children are breathing in, it�*s other people driving past in their cars, and the fact my children have to walk down those roads to get to school, they have to breathe in that pollution. they have no choice, and we have no way to stop it. if your vehicle runs on diesel and it was made before september 2015, or if you use petrol and it was made before 2006, then you will have to pay £12.50 a day to drive in the zone. if you don�*t then you could get a £160 fine. similar measures have already been introduced in other cities, such as birmingham, where its new clean—air zone, launched injune, is already making a difference. what we are seeing is that the rate of compliance, the rate at which people are upgrading and replacing vehicles, and particularly in the business sector, is increasing. for instance, with hgvs, and coaches in particular, they are above 90% compliant now.
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the existing zone in central london has cut pollution, but despite the health benefits many say they simply can�*t afford to replace and upgrade their vehicles. it literally is our lifeline. it's the only car that we've managed to find in years now that fits all three car seats in as it needs to. i've got twins with autism and another youngster as well. i haven't got the money to pay every time i go to the hospital. i live in chingford, so i'm right on the edge of it. it�*s a radical change, but one that many cities across the world will be looking at closely. leigh milner, bbc news. gillian rutter is a director at hire access — which is based near romford, which is outside the expanded zone, and offers equipment like platforms, ladders and lifts across the south—east.
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welcome. it is nice to speak to you this afternoon. talk to me about what this ultra low emission zone will mean for you and your business. firstly, i am all for saving the planet and the o firstly, i am all for saving the planet and the 0 zone, however we don�*t have enough help. we are based outside the m25 and we go every day with three bands, having to try and find newer bands which cost money and it is just find newer bands which cost money and it isjust an find newer bands which cost money and it is just an additional £27.50 because of the congestion charge as well her van every day and the bigger companies can shoulder the additional cost and maybe spread it out throughout their other depots but we are finding it really struggling and we are having to add a transport charge to our customers and they are finding customers are now going to the national so smaller companies like myself are really struggling even though we are trying to meet every expectation that on us. ., to meet every expectation that on us_ ,, ., to meet every expectation that on us. . . ., us. quite a theme emerging over the recent weeks — us. quite a theme emerging over the recent weeks which _ us. quite a theme emerging over the recent weeks which is _ us. quite a theme emerging over the recent weeks which is the _ us. quite a theme emerging over the recent weeks which is the price - us. quite a theme emerging over the recent weeks which is the price of. recent weeks which is the price of everything seems to be going up and
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you are telling me that will be true for your business. you will have to pass that cost onto your customers is that right?— pass that cost onto your customers is that right? yes. we bought a van the other day _ is that right? yes. we bought a van the other day because _ is that right? yes. we bought a van the other day because we _ is that right? yes. we bought a van the other day because we had - is that right? yes. we bought a van the other day because we had to i is that right? yes. we bought a van | the other day because we had to get eight van previously to that, it would have been a fortune. a second van —— second hand and still cost us money we didn�*t have and it is difficult for all businesses but we had to fill that up and it was £112 to fill the tank that lasted less than a day. to fill the tank that lasted less than a day-— to fill the tank that lasted less thanada. . to fill the tank that lasted less thanada. , than a day. the dilemma you face is either upgrade _ than a day. the dilemma you face is either upgrade your _ than a day. the dilemma you face is either upgrade your vehicles, - than a day. the dilemma you face is either upgrade your vehicles, i - than a day. the dilemma you face is either upgrade your vehicles, i new| either upgrade your vehicles, i new vehicles that come under those emission levels, the limits, were paid at £12 50 p. give me a sense of how often you will have to pay and how often you will have to pay and how much of your business is in there so how much will you incur? taste there so how much will you incur? we are in there so how much will you incur? - are in the city every day at least two micro—vans. it is one of those things that if we could put it on the bus it would but it is equipment you can�*t, even reasonably put on a smaller vehicle or anything. we are in at least two microvans a day, the
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worst case scenario four a day. we have to pay the ultra missions and in addition to that the congestion charge, so an average we are paying between 1250 and £27.50 a van before you start with the diesel and the wear and tear and everything else. it is hard work and a bit terrifying as a business owner. you try to get customer service and i would like to keep that customer service going. however even in the balance, it will break eventually. we were saying today, keeping our emissions down, we would have if they were available but electric vans but there is no manufacturer at the moment the vans to absolute reduce the power or they�*re reliable to do a day in the city. we would have gone straight to electric but there are no support there for the manufacturer�*s is yet we have this interim where going for old vans to ok vans that will cost a fortune and then we know that in 15
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years we will have to buy electric so we are in for a double whammy of costs. it is terrifying. that is what i wanted _ costs. it is terrifying. that is what i wanted to _ costs. it is terrifying. that is what i wanted to ask - costs. it is terrifying. that is| what i wanted to ask because costs. it is terrifying. that is - what i wanted to ask because the entire reason this is being expanded, the ultra low emission zone, is to make air quality better. we know diesel particularly creates chronic illnesses, particularly when it is around things like schools or if homes are along these roads. what is the answer?— is the answer? there would be a bit more support _ is the answer? there would be a bit more support from _ is the answer? there would be a bit more support from the _ is the answer? there would be a bit more support from the governmentj more support from the government regarding manufacturers fitting the electric products out there so we can jump from one electric products out there so we canjump from one into electric products out there so we can jump from one into the other. electric products out there so we canjump from one into the other. no middle ground or interim. and for small businesses and larger businesses a little bit of grunt help or support or payment plan so that we can all go because that is where they want us to be, so lets get there but quicker. they are putting these charges on us that we are having to pay and pay for a new vehicles in the interim of electrics coming along and i think that is where everyone wants to be, in electric, i live opposite a school
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so i appreciate the omissions when the mums drop off and everyone is ticking over but i am all for it we just need to support to help us get there. ,., ., ., ., ,., there. good to have your perspective- _ there. good to have your perspective. thank - there. good to have your perspective. thank you. | there. good to have your. perspective. thank you. we there. good to have your- perspective. thank you. we wish there. good to have your— perspective. thank you. we wish you well. stars of the show friends have paid tribute to the actor james michael taylor, who played gunther in the long—running comedy. he�*s died at the age of 59 after being diagnosed with prostate cancer. jennifer aniston, who played rachel, the object of gunther�*s unrequited love in the show, said the programme would not have been the same without him. here�*s our entertainment correspondent lizo mzimba. its focus was on six friends, but a seventh character also made a big impression. have you seen chandler? i thought you were chandler. gunther�*s infatuation... this is a "getting rid of everything
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rachel ever touched" sale. i will take it all. a recurring theme. and as friends�* popularity grew, so did the role originally credited simply as "coffee guy." gunther, six glasses. six, you want me tojoin you? oh, i thoughtjoey was here. five is good. but, of course, he had one storyline everyone remembers. the arc where he was obsessed with rachel, loved her, hated ross, the writers could have had that for two episodes but they kept it going for ten years. rachel? yeah? when�*s your birthday? 5 may, why? i�*m just making a list of people�*s birthdays. 0h, mine's december... yeah, whatever. i've finished it, i did it all by myself! and there's nobody to hug. it was so important to fans, the show felt they had to resolve it in friends�* final episode. ijust have to tell you... ..i love you. i love you too.
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probably not in the same way. there were other small roles like an arts journalist in sabrina the teenage witch. was bird on stoop a visual metaphor for man�*s isolation in a soulless, technology driven world? a therapist on medical show scrubs. i think you pretend everything�*s ok even though deep down inside, a lot of things are not. and he was reunited with friends cast mate matt leblanc in the bbc sitcom episodes. seriously? is that the best you�*ve got? but his legacy will always be friends. too ill to appear in person, hejoined the show�*s reunion special remotely. it was the most memorable ten years of my life, honestly. i could not have imagined a better experience. all these guys, it was just a joy to work with them. i felt very special. the world�*s biggest tv show would never have been quite what it was without james michael tyler�*s
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gunther. in a moment, ben brown will be with you for the bbc news at five. now it�*s time for a look at the weather with louise lear. all afternoon we have been showing you some beautiful weather watcher pictures of rainbows. that has been the story today. some showers have been intense. you can see where the most frequent ones have been with this double rainbow across argyll and bute and for the north—west of scotland. some hail and thunder. this has been the story. mostly widespread across western scotland. a few isolated but still sharp dampers occasionally moving across england and wales. over the next few
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hours we should start to see those showers fading away and across the eastern half of the country under clear skies temperatures will fall away. different story for the west. more cloud and rain gathering as it pushes in from the atlantic and we will start a cd when strengthening as well. gusting tomorrow with the heaviest rain close to 50 mph. some rain into northern ireland and western scotland and northern england and north west wales. chilly but bright start into eastern areas but bright start into eastern areas but mainly clouding over a touch into the afternoon but the rain will continue to move north and east across scotland. there will be a farmer declined around. this all courtesy this south—westerly wind, bring a lot of moisture across the time of year but a lot of wants to go with it as well. a blustery afternoon with a mild afternoon and temperatures likely to be 17. tuesday and translate that weather
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front is still with us producing some heavy rain. it will drift out of scotland and maybe sit in the north of england. it will linger on wednesday. to the south we drive end that warm air. wednesday perhaps the warmest day. we could see 19. some heavy rain. brighter across eastern scotland. the best sunshine across england and wales. 19 not out of the question. way above where it should be. thursday and friday more showers but still warm. a bit fresher and increasingly unsettled into the start of the weekend.
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this is bbc news.
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i�*m ben brown. the headlines — the national living wage will increase to £9.50 per hour next april. the government insists it�*s enough for those struggling to meet the rising cost of living. an extra £1000 a year for people on the national living wage is a really important protection against those pressures, and it helps to make sure that every family in the country where people are in work can really see that this is a government that�*s on their side. the un warns millions of people in afghanistan are facing starvation this winter. the bbc has found evidence that some families are even selling their children to get money forfood. the desperation and the urgency of this situation is hard to put into words. there is no more time left to reach the people of afghanistan.
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the nhs in england is promised almost £6 billion to help clear

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