hello, and welcome to bbc news. i'm ben boulos. our top stories: the us government urges rational to the energy crisis the united states national security adviser has urged russia not to exploit the energy crisis causing gas shortages around europe. jake sullivan told the bbc that moscow had previously we have long been concerned about russia using energy as a tool of coercion and a political weapon. we have seen it happen before and we could see it happen again. us senators agreed to extend the debt ceiling. the un secretary general calls vaccine inequity immoral and stupid, and calls for 40% of all countries to be vaccinated by the end of the year. newcastle united fans celebrate a takeover by a saudi—led consortium in a deal worth
more than $400 million. and after ten novels and praise for his uncompromising work on the effects of colonialism, tanzania's abdul razat gurnah is shocked to win the 2021 nobel prize for literature. you know, these days you get these cold calls, i thought, this is another one of them. and i picked it up and this guy said, hello, you have won the nobel prize for literature. and i said, come on, get out of here! hello, a very warm welcome. the us government urges rational to the energy crisis causing a shortage
of gas across europe. jake sullivan told the bbc that moscow had previously used energy as a political weapon. he warned that doing so now would backfire. we have long been concerned about russia using energy as a tool of coercion and a political weapon. we have seen it happen before and we could see it happen again. that being said, the larger challenge right now is a global challenge, with both oil supplies and gas supplies, and it is a challenge where the supply of these sources of energy are not meeting the growing demand as economies recover, and our message to the suppliers of both oil and gas is that they need to step up to meet this growing demand so as not to imperil global economic recovery, and we are working closely with fellow consumers, including in europe and the united kingdom, to be able to convey that message in stereo. do you think russia are going to try to exploit this? i think it would be a mistake for
russia to try to exploit this. i think that would ultimately backfire on them, and i believe they should respond to the market demands for increased energy supplies to europe. well, critics of moscow have continued to accuse a rush of artificially inflating the price of gas. the latest comes from ukraine. international gas transit operator says that russia's own state—owned energy because prom, has reduced the amount of gas it roots through the country. —— gazprom. they say just sent from january to september this year was down by more than i7% compared with the same period in 2020. the ukrainian operator accused russia of creating an artificial gas supply bottleneck in order to weaken both it and the eu. earlier, the chair of gazprom's board of directors blamed european countries for not securing guaranteed long—term gas prices with them. translation: the fact that| gazprom has been supplying europe with just for 50 years shows that it is a reliable energy supplier. those countries have been receiving
our gas for the last 50 years, they have never had a problem with their gas. gazprom is a reliable supplier, the most reliable. as far as prices are concerned, you can see that those countries that have long—term contracts with russia have no problems. those countries that have decided to reject long—term contracts and buy gas on the market, they've got problems. william pomeranz is a russia expert and deputy director of the wilson centre's canon institute. i spoke to him earlier about the goals of putin. well, i think he wants to exploit the current situation as much as possible. at high prices are good for russia. but as your other analyst mentioned, it comes at a cost. the cost is that russia will not be perceived as a reliable energy partner if indeed it exploits its new position, after the completion
of nordstream—2, and again becomes the major gas exporter to the european union. whether or not it is seen as a reliable, credible source of energy, how many other options are there? well, there aren't. that is what ukraine, the us congress, poland and other countries have asserted, that if you build nordstream—2, the new gas pipeline, european union will become much more dependent on russian gas, and russia will, if possible, if given the opportunity, try to exploit that position. so it is an argument that has gone on around the building of nordstream—2, and just as russia is about to complete this gas pipeline, we now have the question of high prices, and is russia creating an artificial scarcity in order to take advantage of the market?
the us has not been keen on the nordstream—2 gas pipeline. it has veered from different tactics, from talking about potential sanctions to than trying to woo western europe to not go ahead with the pipeline. or alternatives to help if nordstream—2 didn't go ahead? that is the issue. the us doesn't really have an alternative supply other than to substitute for russian gas. so therefore, the us was not in a strong position to find an alternative to nordstream—2. moreover, we could have imposed sanctions, but that would only hurt our european allies, and most specifically, germany. president biden decided that he wanted to reinforce our traditional alliances, not break them, and therefore i think he agreed to go
along with the completion of nordstream—2 is not to impose sanctions. 0k. the un secretary general, antonio guterres, has condemned the inequalities in the global supply of covid vaccines as immoral and stupid. the un was 40% of people in all countries to be vaccinated by the end of the year. instead of global co—ordinated action to get vaccines where they are needed most, we have seen vaccine hoarding, vaccine nationalism, and vaccine diplomacy. we of course welcome efforts by countries to get vaccines to more places, but the global and regional and bilateral initiatives have failed to deliver.
we are now speaking to the director of vaccine development. good to have you with us. do you agree with the secretary—general that it is both immoral and stupid if this isn't matt? yes, it is immoral and stupid, he is absolutely right. ——if this goal isn't matt. the vaccine doses out there, so the mistake that is being made as to break countries for not sharing doses when in fact there hasn't been an honest accounting of what is needed. we need i billion... have to vaccinate i we need i billion... have to vaccinatei billion people in sub—saharan africa, another billion in latin america,
another billion in the lower and middle income countries in southeast asia. that is 3 billion. we need 9 billion doses not by 2024, but now. we need those doses. here is the problem — the problem is that there was an upstream science policy value, the covax sharing programme was good but the doses are there because there was a science policy failure. they were so much emphasis on innovation, so much emphasis on speed and mrna vaccines that nobody took a step back and said, hang on, what can we realistically make in terms of 9 billion doses? and that required a competent protein vaccine, but the world was focused on what i sometimes say, in despair, the shiny new toys of innovation, enamoured with that so that there was no real consideration for vaccine like ours. we have made a protein vaccine, there is no limit to the amount that could
be scaled. without patterns, you know, we have given our production sell back to india to scale up, and indonesia, but we never had help. it was all about mrna and these types of vaccines. crosstalk. sorry to interrupt, you say the number of vaccines aren't there, is that the case or is it that they are just not in the right place? some countries are approaching a position where they can give third doses. the world has the vaccines, theyjust aren't in the right place — in the poor and middle income countries. that is my premise, that it isn't right. that, for instance, even if the united states and g7 countries were to donate all of their vaccine supply tomorrow, it still would only be part of the way there. we don't — we do not have an inventory of 9 billion doses of vaccines. we could have if we had balance the portfolio more not only focusing on mrna, but
scaling up low—cost recombinant proteins vaccines which work just as well, if not even better in some cases. that was the mistake that we were so focused on speed and rapidly immunising populations, small populations that we didn't give enough consideration to what we would need downstream. so who has the power to change this, then, to set things on a better track? what we need is to rapidly move forward on recombinant proteins vaccines, there is no upper limit to the amount they could be scaled. we use a used make coorabell fermentation process, the same that is used for recombinant hepatitis b vaccines all of the world, but we are on our own. we are getting frantic calls from ministers of science, ministers of health, of low and middle income countries all over the world. we help them all that we
can and we provide them with our production sell back which is being scale now in india and indonesia. we are in discussion with other countries. but it is bizarre, it is happening without any help from the us government or the g7 government, or even any intellectual curiosity or interest. thank you very much. democrats and republicans have agreed on a deal to stop the us from defaulting on debts, but the deal is only for two months, short—term fix. we have reached agreement to raise the debt ceiling through early december and it is hoped we can get this done as soon as today. republican and democratic members move forward in good
faith _ members move forward in good faith we — members move forward in good faith. we will spare the american people are manufactured crisis. our_ manufactured crisis. 0ur washington correspondent says that senators will have to address the issue again in december. it has taken time to get to the stage, the political drama playing out here in deciwatt that the democrats were hoping the republicans would get on—board to at least get it through the senate, which they have done. they needed ten republicans, they got 11 to help break the filibuster bed. it then it was approved by the senate. it now has to go to that katie mcallister, which it will be because the democratic party controls that us. and it then be signed by president biden. it will cover spending until december three. it does avert a huge crisis, so it is probably an understatement to call it that as america had defaulted on its debts, it could have gone into recession.
the economy is already in a precarious situation. americans would have, you know, experience real financial hardship, people wouldn't have got paid, global markets would have been in turmoil. the credit rating agencies would have downgraded america's standing, so it has averted this crisis will now but, as you say, this is going to happen again and a couple of months because this is only until december three, which means that we will be talking about this all over again. our report in washington. stay 0ur report in washington. stay with us on abc news. still to come — we speak to abdul razat gurnah who has been awarded this year's nobel prize for literature. this was a celebration by people who were relishing their freedom. they believe everything's going to be different from now on. they think their country will be respected in the world once more, as it used to be before slobodan milosevic took power. the dalai lama, the exiled spiritual leader of tibet,
has won this year's nobel peace prize. as the parade was reaching its climax, two grenades i exploded and a group of- soldiersjumped from a military truck taking part in a parade i and ran towards the president, firing from kalashnikov automatic rifles. - after 437 years, the skeletal ribs of henry viii's tragic warship emerged. but even as divers worked to buoy her up, the mary rose went through another heart—stopping drama. i want to be the people's governor. i want to represent everybody. i believe in the people of california. hello, i'm ben. this is bbc news. the latest headlines: the united states�* national security advisor has urged russia not to exploit the energy crisis that
is causing a shortage of gas across europe. us senators have agreed to extend the country's debt ceiling for two months, avoiding a possible default on the country's national debt. the tanzanian—born novelist abdul—razak gurnah has won this year's nobel prize for literature. he's reacted by calling it "just brilliant" and "wonderful". he says it is a big prize in such a huge list of wonderful writers and he was still taking it all in. gurnah grew up on the island of zanzibar and arrived in england as a refugee at the end of the 1960s. his early books, including pilgrims way, consider life as a migrant in the uk. the swedish academy commended his uncompromising and compassionate writing on the effect of colonialism and the experiences of refugees. he's the first african to win the award in almost two decades and will get a gold medal and 10 million swedish kroner — that's more than us$1 million. he dedicated the prize to his
readers. he is the author of ten novels, including paradise and desertion and told the bbc where he was the moment he found out he had one. the moment i heard i was making myself a cup of tea just before lunch and somebody on the phone, you know these days you get these cold calls and i thought this was another one of them. and i picked it up into this guy said "hello, you have won the nobel prize for literature" and i said "come on! "get out of here! "leave me alone!" but he talked me out of that and gradually persuaded me! when you are writing, you write to the best of your understanding and your ability and observing as carefully and hoping to give pleasure and that kind of thing. but at least for me, i don't say i am doing this because i want something, you know, kind of practical to come out of it, something that would change anything,
because that's really up to people, it is not up to a writer to stand or write in a book so i write to the best and leave it to let the thing do its work wherever. how did you feel when you heard about the winner?— about the winner? elated. absolutely _ about the winner? elated. absolutely happy - about the winner? elated. absolutely happy and - about the winner? elated. absolutely happy and it i about the winner? elated. l absolutely happy and it felt about the winner? elated. - absolutely happy and it felt so real —— are real, it felt like i had been waiting for for so long had finally happened and i was really, really happy. my coffee tasted way more tastier than usual this morning when i woke up and found out. ﬁsh. than usual this morning when i woke up and found out. ah. i'm sure many _ woke up and found out. ah. i'm sure many share _ woke up and found out. ah. i'm sure many share the _ woke up and found out. ah. i'm sure many share the same - sure many share the same feeling. especially as mr gurnah is the first african to win the nobel prize for
literature in more than two decades. what is the effect and the message that it sends out now that he has been awarded the prize? i now that he has been awarded the prize?— the prize? i mean, it sends a clear message _ the prize? i mean, it sends a clear message that _ the prize? i mean, it sends a clear message that african i clear message that african literature is influential. we've known it for a very long time. it has shaped the discourse around literature, around politics, around questions of colonialism, power in ways that are significant. and this winjust in ways that are significant. and this win just solidifies the fact that african literature has a large, global influence and it also kind of gives momentum to the kind of groups that we are seeing in contemporary african literature. in contemporary african literature.— contemporary african literature. , ., ., , literature. in terms of the way that african — literature. in terms of the way that african literature - literature. in terms of the way that african literature has - that african literature has changed over the years, how would you say it has evolved and developed? i
would you say it has evolved and developed?— would you say it has evolved and developed? i mean, one cuick and developed? i mean, one quick way — and developed? i mean, one quick way to _ and developed? i mean, one quick way to measure - and developed? i mean, one quick way to measure how i and developed? i mean, one - quick way to measure how things have changed is to observe what i think of as a speculative term in african literature, is that we are moving away from the 60s, the 70s, the decades in which realism was kind of privileged and revered as the language or the grammar of decolonisation and we are moving into a time when science—fiction, speculative fiction in all forms, is beginning to be popular and i think certainly by readers all over the world so there is a sense of generally accepting experimentation with form, with storytelling, with ideas, with concepts it's something we're seeing way more than we saw the earlier decades.— earlier decades. there must be an increase _ earlier decades. there must be an increase in _ earlier decades. there must be an increase in both _ earlier decades. there must be an increase in both the - earlier decades. there must be an increase in both the amountj an increase in both the amount and interest in african literature and enough that you could start your own literary
magazine about it. what led you to do that? why did you feel it was a gap that needed to be addressed?— was a gap that needed to be addressed? brittle paper was founded in — addressed? brittle paper was founded in 2010 _ addressed? brittle paper was founded in 2010 and - addressed? brittle paper was founded in 2010 and it - addressed? brittle paper was founded in 2010 and it was i addressed? brittle paper was founded in 2010 and it was a | founded in 2010 and it was a perfect moment in terms of digital culture so instagram wasjust coming on digital culture so instagram was just coming on the scene, twitter had been around for four years and was beginning to really gain ground as a culture defining platform and facebook was kind of, you know, expanding bigger and bigger and it was clear that these new trends, digital culture, was changing the way we related to all kinds of objects. and i can see then that when we were talking about consuming literary texts, novels, books, was different and thatjust, it felt right. brittle paper became the space where i could document the life of african literature in the digital
sphere and also that moment also coincided with this time when african literature was gaining influence globally, both in the west and on the continent. both in the west and on the continent-— —— professor ainehi edoro—glines, thank you for joining us on bbc news. final approval has been given for the takeover of newcastle united football club. a consortium, including saudi arabian backers, is to run the club but serious questions have been asked about the change of ownership because of persistent criticism of saudi arabia and its record on human rights. the charity amnesty international had urged the premier league to change its criteria in assessing the suitability of club owners. dan roan has more. it's one of the most controversial deals in premier league history but for many fans, a cause for celebration. all cheer. these were the scenes at st james's park today after news that a £300 million saudi—led takeover of newcastle united was finally complete.
how are you feeling? fantastic, thank you. the businesswomen who fronted the bid, amanda staveley, who will have a minority stake, told me it will be tra nsformative for the club. we think that newcastle united needs, you know, a great deal of investment. we want to invest in the community, in the academy and the infrastructure — notjust in players and the business itself, but in — at every level. 80% of the club will now be owned by saudi's sovereign wealth fund, chaired by the country's crown prince. a deal collapsed last year amid premier league concerns at possible state control of the club but today, it said assurances had been received and a dispute over alleged saudi tv piracy has also been resolved. the news brings to an end a turbulent era for the club. the fans increasingly disillusioned with the 14—year reign of mike ashley — the retail tycoon blamed for a lack of investment and ambition. chanting: we want ashley out!
we want ashley out! _ the deal catapults newcastle united to the very top —— it's sort of a bit of relief _ —— it's sort of a bit of relief i_ —— it's sort of a bit of relief. i feel like a kid on christmas morning. all of my birthdays _ christmas morning. all of my birthdays and christmases have come _ birthdays and christmases have come at — birthdays and christmases have come at once.— come at once. chuffed. hepefully _ come at once. chuffed. hopefully we _ come at once. chuffed. hopefully we will - come at once. chuffed. hopefully we will win . come at once. chuffed. - hopefully we will win some trophies _ hopefully we will win some trohies. ., . . hopefully we will win some trephies-— hopefully we will win some trophies. such a big day for both the — trophies. such a big day for both the club _ trophies. such a big day for both the club and _ trophies. such a big day for both the club and the - trophies. such a big day for both the club and the city l trophies. such a big day for. both the club and the city and kind of everyone in the areas nearby. kind of everyone in the areas nearb . . , nearby. the deal catapults newcastle _ nearby. the deal catapults newcastle to _ nearby. the deal catapults newcastle to the - nearby. the deal catapults newcastle to the top - nearby. the deal catapults newcastle to the top of i newcastle to the top of football's ritualist. —— of football's rich list after two relegations from the premier league under ashley's ownership. the fans of newcastle have been through an awful lot. i mean, the club is completely unrecognisable to the club that i used to play for. it's a really special place and it's been a long, tough road and there's definitely some really exciting times for the geordie fans to look forward to. but critics say this is another example of saudi arabia using sport to deflect scrutiny of its poor human rights record — especially given the alleged involvement of the crown prince in the murder of dissident journalist jamal khashoggi in 2018, which he denies.
it represents the clearest attempt yet by saudi authorities to clean up their tarnished international human rights record via the route of purchasing a top flight football club. saudi ownership of stjames's park has always been much more about image management for crown prince mohammad bin salman and his government than it ever was about football. lam aware i am aware there is a lot of concems— i am aware there is a lot of concerns and lobbying but at the end _ concerns and lobbying but at the end of the day you have to trust _ the end of the day you have to trust football to look after itself _ trust football to look after itself and do itsjob, which does — itself and do itsjob, which does include applying the fit and proper persons test. championship contenders back in the �*90s, newcastle united's long—suffering fans have yearned for a return to the glory days for years. the concern, however, is that those now at the helm may prove even more controversial than the man they have bought from. dan roan, our sports editor. don't forget as ever, you can reach me and team here on social media. you will find me
on there at benmboulos. thank you forjoining us on bbc news. hello again. thursday saw the arrival of some very warm air indeed across the uk, with temperaturesjumping by seven degrees celsius in places. many of us had quite a bit of cloud, but we had some sunshine — for example, in north wales in denbighshire and next door to this in flintshire — that was where the warmest place in the country was. 22 degrees celsius the top temperature. that is eight degrees celsius warmer than it should be at this time of the year — the october average is 14 degrees. now, we've had extensive cloud across the north—west for both scotland and northern ireland. here, a slow—moving weather front has been bringing rain through thursday. we've got more rain to come overnight into friday, friday night and into saturday as well for some across scotland and northern ireland because this front is barely budging. further southwards, well, we've got quite a bit of cloud
reforming, some mist and fog patches turning quite dense. as well as that, there's a bit of drizzle around, so quite a murky start to the day for many in england and wales with that mist and fog and low cloud slow to thin and break. but eventually, come the afternoon, we should start to get some brighter weather through. the exception — well, for northern ireland and scotland, there's more rain here, heaviest in argyll and highland, and we've got a very weak weather front moving into east anglia and south—east england. that willjust thicken the cloud up enough to bring occasional spots of light rain or drizzle as well. but otherwise, very mild again — temperatures running into the low 20s. now this weekend, this cold front will start to push its way southwards. it is a weak front. it will bring some fresher air in from the north and west with temperatures easing down a few degrees as we go through the weekend. now, saturday — again, mist and fog patches to start the day across england and wales but probably a better chance of seeing some sunshine through the afternoon. the rain in scotland and northern ireland actually starts to budge, so it should brighten up across
the north—west of both later in the afternoon, but the rain heading into cumbria and northumberland. that same weather front is this stripe of cloud across east anglia and the south—east on sunday. might get an odd spit of rain but essentially, a lot of dry weather on sunday, again with some sunny spells around, a few showers in northern scotland with strengthening winds here and the temperatures easing down — 14 or 15 degrees scotland and northern ireland, the far north of england, still i7—i9 across england and wales. but it'll continue to get a little bit fresher — those temperatures coming back closer to average in the week ahead.
to the emotion than being realistic. this is bbc news. the headlines: _ this is bbc news. the headlines: one - this is bbc news. the headlines: one of- this is bbc news. the i headlines: one of resident button's closest aides has urged russia not to exploit the current shortages of energy supplies. national security adviserjack sullivan told the bbc moscow had previously used energy as a political weapon. he wants doing so now would fire. us senators have agreed to raise the country's ceiling for two months after republicans dropped their opposition to the increase. the cap on government borrowing was due to be reached within weeks stop the compromise still has to be formally approved by both houses of congress. the united nations secretary general, antonio banderas, has condemned the inequalities in the global
supply of covid vaccines as immoral and stupid. united nations says it is hoping 40% of people in all countries will be vaccinated by the end of the year. known bbc news, it is time for my panorama. 0n panorama tonight, prime ministers, presidents and royalty — their secrets exposed. it feels instinctively really unfair, because they got access to an advantage that the rest of us don't have. millions of leaked documents reveal hidden fortunes. as a former government official, i would be looking very hard at this. we will show you how world leaders use offshore companies to conceal wealth. licks documents