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tv   Click  BBC News  October 2, 2021 3:30pm-4:01pm BST

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raising fears of further destruction on the island. many homes and crops have been destroyed and thousands of people have been forced to evacuate since the eruption first began last month. europe's first mission to mercury is completing its first fly—by. the bepi colombo spacecraft will fly by the planet at high speeds taking pictures and sending them back to earth. it's moving too fast to go into orbit but will begin more detailed observations in four years�* time. right, let's take a look at the latest weather forecast. hello. tomorrow should be a little bit warmer and drier as well. today we have had thick cloud and rain across much of the country. still some wet weather this evening across the eastern part of the uk and it has been windy in the south—east. the winds should ease and the rain will get swept into the north sea up to shetland, whereby the end of the night winds could be gusting up to
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70 mph. blustery showers being pushed into western parts, and there will be a cooler start to sunday. we start from showers from the word go across western areas which could be heavy and thundery for a while, and the wind will blow them eastwards. they reach some time to reach east anglia and the south—east. more persistent rain together with strong winds in the far north of scotland. but it should be a little bit warmer during sunday with temperatures up to 16 or 17 celsius in the sunshine away from the showers. tuesday looks away from the showers. tuesday looks a wet and windy day, particular towards england and wales. hello, this is bbc news. the headlines: after days of queuing at the pumps, the army will begin delivering fuel to petrol stations across the uk from monday. the home secretary says police must "raise the bar" by taking the harassment of women more seriously — a view echoed
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by health secretary, sajid javid. as the metropolitan police have said about the reforms they are looking at, it is absolutely right. we also need to be looking at what mroe government can do to help build that confidence. the queen officially opens the sixth session of the scottish parliament at holyrood. an experimental drug for severe covid which could cut the risk of hospitalisation or death by about half. and two new streams of lava pose a further threat of destruction — as the la palma volcano forces more to flee. now on bbc news, it's time for click. this week, we're all about genetics. should your dna decide your dinner? how does it shape your personality? and can it be used to track down a murderer?
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it's the most personal data that you own, it literally defines you — it is your dna. ever since the human genome was decoded, researchers have been peering deeper into what makes us...us. and more and more companies have been able to build services around what they've found so far. here's what lara has to say on the subject... excuse me! it's not disgusting, it's science. mm, i think it's both, actually. i look forward to finding out what's got lara spitting feathers, later, but first...
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here we go again. ..a story that will make your blood run cold. i'm in iceland, revisiting the freezers at decode genetics in reykjavik, where robots working in temperatures of minus 26 celsius look after the blood of iceland. over the last quarter of a century, icelanders have donated nearly two million samples, all in the name of genetic research. if you want to know what minus 26 celsius feels like, it's very painful on the ears, you really don't feel like breathing very hard at all. and weirdly, my nostril hairs are freezing up. every time i do that they are cracking. iceland has been scrupulously recording ancestry records for hundreds of years, so it kind of makes sense that it's also now at the forefront of research to try and identify the specific genes responsible
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for particular genetic diseases. and what's amazing is the foresight. they gathered a lot of these blood samples before the science became possible, to do the things they are now doing. so by gathering it and keeping it for 20 years, they can call back, they can go back to the older blood samples if they have new research techniques available. by doing this, they've been able to identify genetic variations associated with many kinds of cancers, and they are now even able to estimate how long you have left to live, based on levels of particular proteins in your blood. the other fun thing about coming out of this temperature into normal temperature... ..is what happens on cold glass. erm, condensation, lots and lots of condensation. and it doesn't stop forming. so that's it, the camera's written off for about an hour now.
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and a bit later, once we've dried off and warmed up, i am going to blow your mind with the discovery researchers here have made, that links your body shape to the way your mind works. in the meantime, in the us, james clayton has been uncovering a different way in which ancestry data and dna is now being combined to solve murders. the suburbs of fort worth in texas are quiet, sleepy... i'm here to visit the brother of carla walker, a teenager who was abducted and brutally murdered in 1974, over four decades ago. i have memories, especially of carla, sitting out here talking to girlfriends. she and my sister, cindy, shared this large room
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on the second floor. and that's where she lived when she was abducted? that is correct, yes. her younger brotherjim remembers the day clearly. carla had her pretty dress on and rodney was looking quite nice in a suit and we took pictures in front of the fireplace and off they went. we searched for the three days, we searched and searched. hundreds and hundreds of law enforcement, probably near 1,000 volunteers were searching everywhere, and, erm... ..i remember a news reporter coming to the house, saying, "mr walker, "what are your feelings now that they've found your daughter dead?" that was the first we heard about it. carla was severely beaten in the face, brutally raped,
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and she was choked to death. for over 40 years, carla's case remained unsolved, one of an estimated 200,000 cold case murders in the us. murders that up until now we thought would never be solved. we had a lot of really wonderful detectives working on it, trying to move it forward, but, you know, four decades, 44 years before it really got moving again. the breakthrough came, not in carla's case, but in a case in 2018 on the west coast of america, a stunning investigation that threatens to revolutionise cold case murders across america, using ancestry websites. the golden state killer wore a ski mask... - the golden state killer was a serial murderer and rapist that terrorised california in the late '705 and early '805.
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the police had plenty of dna of the killer, however, it didn't match to any dna profiles in the fbi's database. 0ne enterprising officer decided to run the dna found at the murder scenes against dna collected by an ancestry website. these sites are usually designed for people to find genetic relatives through dna links but the police realised that if they put the killer's dna into the database they might be able to find the murderer's relatives, a crucial clue. most ancestry websites don't allow law enforcement checks but a few do. the website the police chose to use was a company called gedmatch. so effectively what they're doing is building family trees, - so you have to build back far enough till you reach what they call- a most—recent common ancestor, i and then figure out where the trees came together and then. build forward from there.
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so by doing that, - you are able to zero—in on who the potential suspect is. the capture of the golden state killer was a proof of concept moment, the technique worked, so could it be used to solve carla's case? you wanna find hits that are within third cousins, to make the case tractable, so we definitely had some within the third—cousin range. 0thram was founded shortly after the golden state killer was identified, with a mission to solve unsolvable cases. the company ceo david mittelman says the first step in the process is to clean up the dna, which is often degraded. in carla's case, it was more than 40 years old. the company then sequences that dna, looking at thousands of distinctive markers on the genome. in the traditional forensic dna testing framework, like for codas, there's about 20 of these positons in the dna that you're measuring, and that information can be used
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to confirm that you were at a crime scene or that someone closely related to you — a sibling, parent or child, was at a crime scene. and that's the extent of what you can do with 20 markers. what we do at 0thram is we look at tens of thousands, to hundreds of thousands of markers, and with that information, we can detect more—dista nt relationships. every time you test for dna, you lose a bit of the sample in the process. in carla's case there was little of the killer's dna left. it was likely this was the last roll of the dice. we had to ask ourselves, "have we seen enough dna that is of this kind of quality and property, to where we feel confident that there's a good chance we'll have a positive outcome?" otherwise, we don't want to do it, cos when you test dna, you're consuming it, so you're destroying evidence. once they'd sequenced the killer's dna, they ran it through several genealogy websites. from there, they created a family tree of the killer. and then began to look
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for possible suspects — the right age, male, who lived in texas at the time of the murder. they developed a theory, that the dna found at the scene belonged to a man called glen mccurley, a man who lived close to carla, a man who had previously been a suspect. i know that he had had to drive up and down the road in front of this house thousands of times, probably had even stopped here. they knew who it was, but they had to do their due diligence as law enforcement, to confirm... ..and that's what they did, and about two weeks later, i got a phone call — "we know exactly who it is, we're gonna be "arresting him." last month, mccurley pleaded guilty to the murder of carla walker.
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some people, however, simply don't believe that ethically this technique should be used, worried that opening up people's dna to law enforcement, people who aren't known criminals, could have worrying consequences. genetics isn'tjust any old tool for law enforcement, it's a particular and a potent tool. because it's not like a phone number that you just change when you get too many spam calls, or even a social security number, that you might have reissued if somebody, you know, takes yours. it's a technology that's in its infancy, we don't know yet what it will tell us, how well it will tell us things about people. the big criticism of this technology is around consent. so, after i get my dna tested, i can go on to gedmatch and i can upload my raw dna files to the website. but here's the problem with that — i share dna with my relatives, and critics argue that once i've uploaded my dna, and agree to law enforcement checks, i am, by association, also opting in my entire
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extended family. and using my dna, the police can link hundreds, perhaps even thousands of my genetic relatives to a crime, potentially none of whom have consented to be on a database used by the police. i think the thing about it. that people have to make their mind up is you have two competing priorities here. - the first priority is you have | an absolute right to privacy, but on the same token, - you have a competing priority which is we have a right to not get murdered and raped. - what amount of privacy. are you willing to give up versus getting, you know, - the increased safety in society? we hear about serial rape, we hear about serial murders, but less prominent are going to be cases that there might be more controversy about, whether it's using it in an immigration context or using it in a less serious crime context. we've structured our society with suspicion—based reasons to intrude on people's privacy because we've felt as a community that that was the right thing to do,
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even when it means that occasionally some crimes go unsolved. i think it is incredibly hard to say this. i don't mean to minimise or be dismissive of the claim, but we don't make policies about the civil liberties of our whole society based on the personal feelings of single victims or the needs of single victims. after the arrest... the apprehension and arrest - was made, i started to feel peace. p-e-a-c-e. you know, i didn't realise - for almost four and a half decades, i had been geared up for a fight. we're not going to go away, we're going to find you, - we're not going away. and thank god that day came. hello, time for your weekly thick news round—up. it was the week
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google claimed its most popular search term. youtube is now removing videos containing vaccine misinformation for all currently approved vaccines, not just covert 19. and california has passed a new law to stop workers being fired if they are not meeting productivity targets set by algorithms. it has had ears for a long time coming out has eyes. it is amazon's new robot, astro. it can be controlled remotely and features a periscope to see in high places. but some critics have raised privacy concerns. facebook has delayed releasing a version of instagram for children after parents and experts raised safety concerns. this comes as recent research has increasingly shown how use of social media can affect the mental health of young people, with many under 13s already using instagram. and finally, as china announces a complete ban on crypto currency, one hamster is busy raking
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in profits from its cage. he is currently out performing the 500, with a portfolio up since june. the german rodent�*s cage let's him perform exercises to make trades. wheeling and dealing! we've seen the power dna can have in solving crime and the ethical dilemmas around that, yet many are willing to give up a little saliva to get to know themselves better. dnanudge assesses customers�* propensity for certain conditions, guiding them away from the foods that would also increase their risk. if you've got the genes for hypertension, then salt is something you should be careful of.
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if you've got the genes for type ii diabetes, saturated fat and sugar are your problem, so what we do is we relate those conditions or those genetic risks to those macronutrients in food. time to hand over my dna, which i've been assured will be destroyed straight after it's been analysed. then we load that into the cartridge and then we load the cartridge - into one of the nudge boxes. it looks a coffee machine. an hour later, i have my results. it looks like i really shouldn't be having salt or much saturated fat. dangerfrom fat — medium. calories — medium. these aren't actually the results that i expected. chris, i'm glad you're to hand. obviously, you don't have the obesity risk, but saturated fat and salt are indicators much more of cardiovascular, so obviously, these are things that you can't see on the surface. my data is then loaded onto a pod that can be worn to help track my exercise and shape my shopping habits. you can scan the food to see
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if you could eat them. ok, i shouldn't have that. i can also try it on here, which are also salted peanuts, but it says that it's fine to have. 0.39g per serving there. 0.6g per serving in that, so it's almost double as much salt. well, i wouldn't have expected that. here, you've got the same brand of peanut butter and just changing from one to the other could apparently save you this much saturated fat over the course of the year, although, of course, this does all depend on how much you're consuming. so, obviously, lifestyle does have a big effect on this. what's the percentage balance, then, do you think between dna and lifestyle? i would say it's roughly 30—70. dna is around 30, lifestyle is around 70. dnanudge is not the only company in the dna nutrition and fitness space and many post kits home. neda gharani tried one after reacting to dairy and bread. once i did the test, _ i saw that i am actually lactose
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intolerant, which made sense, - and also i am at a slight increased risk for coeliac disease. just that knowledge that there . is an increased risk for me really helped me push me to that step of reducing the amount - of wheat that i eat. but neda, who is also a research scientist, raised red flags about simplified genetic reports. it's understandable for the general population, but maybe someone . who doesn't really understand genetics may take _ the results as being... having a greater effect than they actually do. i i took the test myself as well, but the diet recommendations contradicted those of dnanudge, so, a little confused, i took a trip to a nutrition genetics lab. what do you keep in the fridge? it's full of saliva. it is full of saliva? dr yiannis mavrommatis specialises
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in nutrition genomics here and instead of offering me a coffee, decided to test my genes as to whether i should have one or not. you can deposit your sample and just return it back to me. it takes longer than you would think to fill a container with saliva. i've only got to get it up to there. done! the problem is not this part. we can do this part quite well. the challenge is to find an area that is meaningful, and we have a lot of science behind it, so there is no consensus as to which dna areas we need to analyse, so company a may have their own genes that they believe are the most important ones and company b may have a different set of genes. we need to be able to communicate possibilities and probabilities to the public and that's not always an easy thing to do. even when scientists do agree on genes and their impact, more data is needed for a full picture.
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genetics can actually be quite meaningful if you combine it with other parameters of the person — their individual dietary intake, lifestyle, physical activity, sleep patterns and whatnot. if you just use genetics, it's not going to work. but whilst our dna can't offer every answer, at least dr yiannis later confirmed that i'm free to drink coffee whilst i mull over my need for any diet change or not. i tell you, she'd never have given it up anyway. now, back at decode genetics in iceland, founder kari stefansson has been looking at a similar and possibly controversial topic — how our genes shape our bodies, our minds and our personalities. i can tell you how we can use genetics to explore in a way the nature of man. his most recent scientific paper has been looking at how that relates to one of the developed world's biggest health problems.
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if there is one condition that predisposes to more diseases than anything else, it is obesity. obesity predisposes to heart failure, to liver diseases, to osteoarthritis, to type ii diabetes — it predisposes to an incredible number of all cancer diseases. now, some people are genetically predisposed to become obese. their genetic make—up means that they're just more likely to overeat. not all of these people do become obese. it's just more likely. and of the people who don't have those genes, well, some of those will also become obese for other reasons. so, decode set about trying to answer the question which is it that makes these diseases more likely? is it obesity itself or is it the genetic tendency for obesity? and it turns out that you are not simply cursed by your genes to get ill.
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and that genetic tendency has no impact on these diseases, so it is purely the obesity itself that predisposes to the disease and then we asked the question, what is it, then, that the genetic tendency has an impact on? which part of our biology, which part of our being is being influenced by this genetic score for obesity? and, indeed, we showed that the greater your genetic tendency to become obese is, the worse you perform on all kinds of tests of cognitive function. your verbal iq is less, your performance iq is less, your trail making test is worse, your education is less. obesity itself has no impact on cognitive function, so you don't become stupid by becoming obese, but the genetic aberration that makes you lose control of eating behaviour has an impact on many other functions of your brain.
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so, obesity makes you susceptible to other diseases regardless of your genes, but the gene which makes obesity more likely does affect your intelligence. the researchers then looked at the data from the other direction and asked, does your personality and, specifically, your ability to solve problems tell you anything about how your physical body might develop? and here, they found that the better your visual and spatial ability, the more likely you are to have the genetic tendency for obesity and all those obesity—related diseases. you're also less likely to be curious and creative, but also less likely to suffer from psychiatric conditions like schizophrenia. however, if you score higher on verbal ability, you'll have less risk of obesity and related diseases. you are more likely to be
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curious and creative, but also you'll have a greater risk of schizophrenia. and what fascinates me about this is that the way in which we're genetically hard—wired to solve problems has an impact on the composition of your body. just give me a minute. pow! i'm working it out for myself at the moment. i hope we all are. i know where i am on that, or at least i think i... oh, my god. wow, amazing, the secrets that our bodies can hold. and that's it for this week's show. as ever, you can keep up with the teams throughout the week on social media. find us on youtube, instagram, facebook and twitter @bbcclick and, of course, we'll be back next week. thanks for watching, bye—bye.
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hello. for large parts of the uk, today has been a wash—out. things can only get better. as we head overnight, we will see the wetter weather moving away. skies will tend to clear, and for tomorrow the promise of some sunshine. still some blustery showers, but at least it will be warmer than today. these showers are coming in from the atlantic into western areas overnight and behind this thick cloud that has been bringing the rain north and east was today, there is still some wet weather around this evening, particularfor is still some wet weather around this evening, particular for the eastern side of the uk. the winds will finally drop in the south—east and the rain gets swept off into the north sea. towards shetland, by the end of the night winds could be gusting up to 70 mph. blustery showers towards western parts of the uk and clearer skies continuing
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further east, allowing temperatures to dip away and it will be a cool start to sunday. for the london marathon, better weather than today. a lot drier and hopefully the showers will hold off. breezy yes, but temperatures up to 16 celsius. elsewhere we have got those showers from the word go across many western areas which could be said to be macro heavy for awhile and the wind will push the showers east through the day, but they take a long time to reach east anglia and the south—east. more persistent rain together with strong winds in the far north of scotland, and temperatures across the board will be higher than today, peaking at 17 celsius. low pressure bringing the wet and windy weather at the moment is getting swept away, and we will be left with the showery air stream on monday. monday, a similar day to sunday. again, the bulk of the showers towards western parts of the uk, and again they could be heavy and thundery. blustery winds around, particularly in northern parts of
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scotland. temperatures again up to 16 or 17 celsius. notice the rain arriving towards the far south—west by the end of the afternoon. that's because we have got another area of low pressure developing here, and that will bring wet and windy weather into the uk. still not sure quite how far north that rain will get. it looks drierfor quite how far north that rain will get. it looks drier for scotland and northern ireland. many affecting england and wales, where the wind will be strengthening as well. particular towards the south—west by gales are likely. some rain could nudge its way into some southern and eastern parts of scotland, and a top temperature of 14 celsius.
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this is bbc news. the headlines at four: after days of queuing at the pumps — the army will begin delivering fuel to petrol stations across the uk from monday. the home secretary says police must �*raise the bar�*, by taking the harassment of women more seriously — a view echoed by health secretary, sajid javid. what the metropolitan police have said about the reforms that they will be looking at, i think it�*s absolutely right. we also need to be looking at what more government can do to help build that confidence. the queen officially opens the sixth session of the scottish parliament at holyrood. an experimental drug for severe covid which could cut the risk of hospitalisation or death by about half. and — two new streams of lava pose a further threat of destruction — as the la palma volcano forces more to flee.

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