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tv   Witness History  BBC News  July 31, 2021 2:30am-2:58am BST

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of former president donald trump must be handed over to a congressional committee. unlike other recent presidents, mr trump had resisted the demand that he surrender his tax records, and the justice department had backed him while he was in office. covid—19 has critically affected pregnant women in brazil, with more than 16 hundred deaths. one in five women that died from the virus didn't have access to an intensive care unit and one in three didn't have access to a ventilator. president erdogan of turkey says fire—fighting planes from russia, ukraine and azerbaijan are now battling the wildfires on the country's southern coast. at least four people have died and dozens have been taken to hospital. officials have promised to bring anyone responsible
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for starting the fires to justice. pregnant women are being urged to get the covid jab as soon as possible, as the number of mothers in hospital with the virus rises. our health correspondent catherine burns has the story. at london's chelsea and westminster hospital, an antenatal clinic with a difference. mums to be having vaccines at the same time as routine scans and blood tests. we just thought it was important to have it, to protect me and the baby as well. i was really nervous before i had it done, and then i did a bit of reading and thought, "actually, this is perfect." kind ofjust want to do - the best thing for my baby. and i was really scared about getting covid. i catching covid during pregnancy puts mother and baby at extra risk, so the chief midwife for england is encouraging anyone who is pregnant to get theirjab. we want mums and babies to be safe, and indeed their families, and that's why we encourage and urge every pregnant woman in england today to seek some wise counsel, speak to a health professional, and indeed choose to have the vaccine.
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across london, at king's college hospital, they have about 20 births a day and about two of the mums have covid. most women who get covid in pregnancy will sail through and be absolutely fine, but we see a small number of women who come in with severe breathing difficulties, and we have to act rapidly — they go on ventilators, have to have an emergency delivery for their baby. and, from our point of view, it feels tragic, because these women will now be almost certainly unvaccinated and we know that if they'd been vaccinated it could have been avoided. avoided, because vaccines can make all the difference. since february, 742 pregnant women have been admitted to hospital with covid symptoms. almost all, 738, have not been vaccinated. four have had a single dose. none were double jabbed. initially, pregnant women were told they should only get the vaccine if they had a higher chance of catching covid or had underlying
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health problems. since april, though, the advice has been clear. you should get vaccinated during pregnancy. even so, the best estimates suggest that nine in ten pregnant women are not taking up the vaccine. iona's first baby is due in ten weeks. she's struggling to decide whether to get vaccinated or not. she's worried about what would happen if she caught covid, but has concerns about the vaccine. because it's so new, i think that's why i'm still hesitating. so i think that's what's keeping me from getting vaccinated. almost 200,000 pregnant women across america and the uk have had at least one dose with no safety issues. meanwhile, though, there are signs the delta variant is affecting pregnant women more severely. in the first wave, a quarter of pregnant women in hospital with covid had moderate or severe disease. now it's closer to half. catherine burns, bbc news.
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now on bbc news: ahead of the paralympics injapan, the bbc�*s disability correspondent introduces us to five people who have experienced important moments in the history of disability. hello. i'm nikki fox. expert joining me at the queen elizabeth 0lympic joining me at the queen elizabeth olympic park here in london ahead of the summer 2020 paralympic games. in this special edition of witness history, we're looking back at some important moments in the recent history of disability and sport. coming up... a medallist who competed at the first paralympic games. we will hear about the special olympics or those with learning difficulties was up away from sport, we will find out why students at america's death only university shut down their campus. plus we will hear about the specially designed car thought disabled people that was both terrifying and
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exhilarating. but first, when sport's enthusiast lost his leg during an accident, he became immediately frustrated by the clumsy prosthetics on offer. determined to run again, he went on to invent the first carbon graphite running late in 1984. it is since simply become known as the blade.— known as the blade. when you lose a body — known as the blade. when you lose a body part, _ known as the blade. when you lose a body part, it _ known as the blade. when you lose a body part, it is - lose a body part, it is different from any other experience because it is gone. it is just experience because it is gone. it isjust gone. experience because it is gone. it is just gone. that was the hardest part, knowing that it was irreversible. i had my accident in the spring 19 semi six. it was just time for spring water skiing. i 19 semi six. it was just time forspring waterskiing. i had just taken a big cut to the left and the boat quit. then all of a sudden live my right shoulder i turned around and
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another boat came right at me and so the odds are that my ankle is that wide and that is what it hit, the propeller. had i not had a wetsuit on, i would have bled out, there wasjust no way. major arteries were cut. my knee was spent, the wetsuit was tight. it stopped the blood flow. they put a cast on your stump and then on the bottom was a pink rubber foot and so i'm sitting there looking at my pink foot and you just feel like your life is gone. just feel like your life is one. just feel like your life is ione, ., . ., , gone. the artificial limb, especially _ gone. the artificial limb, especially if _ gone. the artificial limb, especially if it _ gone. the artificial limb, especially if it is - gone. the artificial limb, especially if it is a - gone. the artificial limb, especially if it is a leg, i gone. the artificial limb, j especially if it is a leg, is the — especially if it is a leg, is the most important thing in their— the most important thing in their life. it seems that one day— their life. it seems that one day they— their life. it seems that one day they will get the very best that modern technological skills_ that modern technological skills can provide. the question is, when. i skills can provide. the question is, when. i 'ust knew intuitively * question is, when. i 'ust knew intuitively that _ question is, when. ijust knew intuitively that there - question is, when. ijust knew intuitively that there was - question is, when. ijust knew intuitively that there was a - intuitively that there was a better way. just years, several years prior, theyjust put man on the moon. so my early
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attempts at creating something that would spring and push off was... you know those little insoles you put on the side of your shoe? insoles you put on the side of yourshoe? it insoles you put on the side of your shoe? it was my first concept. let's build one of those and those early ones, they were actually not too bad as i had a little block of foam in the heel and the toe, but then i got really blessed. i met a man called dale alice gough. dell was one of the world's lead aerospace graphite engineers. —— dale. at night we drew up the drawing of what the leg was to look like and within chew, maybe three weeks, i built a leg —— two. then i attached it to my socket. i ran down his condominium hallway, fast. that was freedom. that was real inner freedom. fast. that was freedom. that was real innerfreedom. i probably built 50, maybe 60 more legs, different types, different arrangements. more legs, different types, differentarrangements. broke
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different arrangements. broke them, differentarrangements. broke them, fell down. until we finally launched our first foot. the first carbon graphite energy storing prosthesis ever. so if you look at the structure, it is millions of tiny little hair—like fibres, and those fibres stretch, just like our tendons do, and so that energy can be stored in those fibres and that is how we came up with this see —— c shaped foot. it is called second wind. it is for landmine survivors. they have to go to work, they are planting fields, they don't have the luxury for sitting down. for asia, a lot of people work in rice patties. you can't wear a standard foot in water, they rot. in afghanistan, they are on rocky hillsides, going up and down mountains. we build a design
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that has increased function, decreased weight and increased strength. what has to be able to ensure all kinds of different climates. we are calling it the world foot. world foot for all countries, for all peoples everywhere. and when i think of all the amputees in the world that i can actually share that, there was never a greaterjoy than that for me. was never a greater 'oy than that for met that for me. van phillips on the invention _ that for me. van phillips on the invention which - the invention which revolutionised paris sports. 0ur revolutionised paris sports. our next witness was a bit of a pioneer herself. in 1960, margaret maughan support —— surprised even herself when she became a gold—medallist at the first paralympic games in rome. but it all started at a british hospital. 1959, i was working in malawi, involved in a car accident, when i became paralysed and was
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brought to stoke mandeville hospital in england and from then my life changed dramatically. the director of the unit was ludwig watchman and his idea was movement. —— gutman. peoplejust not and his idea was movement. —— gutman. people just not allowed to live there, becoming ill and miserable. it to live there, becoming ill and miserable-— miserable. it is paralysis that kee is miserable. it is paralysis that keeps the — miserable. it is paralysis that keeps the 200 _ miserable. it is paralysis that keeps the 200 content -- - keeps the 200 content —— contestants in wheelchairs that can't _ contestants in wheelchairs that can't present them ash prevent them _ .it . it happened that i was quite iood at . it happened that i was quite good at archery _ . it happened that i was quite good at archery for _ . it happened that i was quite good at archery for stopping l good at archery for stopping 1960i good at archery for stopping 19601 was very lucky and very surprised to be invited to be in the team to go to the very first international sports event for wheelchair people in rome. , ., , event for wheelchair people in rome. , ., .,
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rome. visitors to the vatican where 350 — rome. visitors to the vatican where 350 paralysed - rome. visitors to the vatican where 350 paralysed people i rome. visitors to the vatican i where 350 paralysed people who have competed over there in what — have competed over there in what they call the paralympic games — what they call the paralympic iames. , , . , ., what they call the paralympic iames. , ,., ., , games. the olympics had 'ust taken piece i games. the olympics had 'ust taken place and i games. the olympics had 'ust taken place and we �* games. the olympics had 'ust taken place and we were h games. the olympics had just| taken place and we were going to stay in the olympic village in the same accommodation. to our horror when we arrived on the ground, all the buildings were up on stilts. whenever we went out and the building, two soldiers would carry us up two flights of stairs and down two flights of stairs and down two flights of stairs and down two flights of stairs. it was a very tedious business. during the whole of the games, there was such a togetherness. everybody making new friends, it was great camaraderie and we just supported each other. archery was one of the first
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competitions to begin. it would shoot six arrows each. and then a little army of people, one for each target, would rush up to the target and collect the arrows and the same thing happened again. i had no idea what my score was and then i was allowed to go off and watch other people doing different events. we were put on the coaches ready to go back to the village. somebody said where is margaret maughan! we need her, she is needed for a medal ceremony. so they had to then proceed to lift me out of the coach, put me back into a wheelchair and i was wheeled up a little ramp onto the leading position and presented with a gold medal. iwasn�*t position and presented with a gold medal. i wasn't really very excited about it, itjust
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happened. everything was so bewildering. it is now known as the first medal won by a british person at the first paralympic games. i myself managed to take apart in five paralympics over the years. it is just a marvellous experience, the whole thing. margaret maughan, britain's first paralympic gold—medallist first pa ralympic gold—medallist who first paralympic gold—medallist who sadly died in 2020. up next, a sporting moment which helped change attitudes stop in 1968, the first games for athletes with learning disabilities was held. they were promoted by america's famous political family, were promoted by america's famous politicalfamily, the famous political family, the kennedys. famous politicalfamily, the kennedys. 0ne famous politicalfamily, the kennedys. one of whom had a learning disability. witness history spoke to organiser and burke and to athlete frank 0livero about a time when people like him were often feared or ignored.
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i was iwasa i was a teacher in a chicago park district in 1965 teaching physical education. teaching skills to special athletes like frank and frank was in the very beginning of the programme. i beginning of the programme. i was 20 and i was in the special olympics _ was 20 and i was in the special olympics. i had spinal meningitis, it made me slow. back— meningitis, it made me slow. back in— meningitis, it made me slow. back in the early 60s, there was no activities and no schooling for people with disabilities or they were in institutions at the time. i disabilities or they were in institutions at the time. i had to try and _ institutions at the time. i had to try and get _ institutions at the time. i had to try and get on _ institutions at the time. i had to try and get on with - to try and get on with everybody and theyjust looked and laughed. i wrote to mrs eunice — and laughed. i wrote to mrs eunice kennedy shriver and asked — eunice kennedy shriver and asked if— eunice kennedy shriver and asked if she would donate some money— asked if she would donate some money to— asked if she would donate some money to put in the first game. i wrote — money to put in the first game. i wrote a — money to put in the first game. i wrote a proposal to her and
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the kennedy foundation helped fund it — the kennedy foundation helped fund it. right here at soldier field. — fund it. right here at soldier field. we _ fund it. right here at soldier field, we put on the first games _ field, we put on the first games. there were 1000 athletes. in games. there were 1000 athletes-_ games. there were 1000 athletes. ., athletes. in ancient rome, the gladiators _ athletes. in ancient rome, the gladiators went _ athletes. in ancient rome, the gladiators went into _ athletes. in ancient rome, the gladiators went into the - athletes. in ancient rome, thej gladiators went into the reader —— arena with these words on their lips" let me win but if i cannot win, let me brave the attempt. " — today, all of you athletes are in the arena. many of you will win but even more important, i know that you will be brave and bring credit to your parents and to your countries. let us begin the olympics. thank you. volu nteers volunteers were needed for almost every individual athlete. almost every individual athlete-— almost every individual athlete. , ., athlete. this was new for even the volunteers _ athlete. this was new for even the volunteers to _ athlete. this was new for even the volunteers to have - athlete. this was new for even the volunteers to have even i athlete. this was new for even | the volunteers to have even an opportunity to meet first—hand a special— opportunity to meet first—hand a special child or an adult.
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there _ a special child or an adult. there are _ a special child or an adult. there are seven basic events, running, jumping, rowing and swimming. —— throwing. mi; running, jumping, rowing and swimming. -- throwing. my coach came and told _ swimming. -- throwing. my coach came and told me _ swimming. -- throwing. my coach came and told me i _ swimming. -- throwing. my coach came and told me i am _ swimming. -- throwing. my coach came and told me i am in - swimming. -- throwing. my coach came and told me i am in the - swimming. -- throwing. my coach came and told me i am in the 50 l i was excited but kind of nervous. i was excited but kind of nervous-— i was excited but kind of nervous. :: ,~ ., , nervous. the 50 yard dash, shortest — nervous. the 50 yard dash, shortest yet _ nervous. the 50 yard dash, shortest yet severest - nervous. the 50 yard dash, shortest yet severest test | nervous. the 50 yard dash, | shortest yet severest test of speed — shortest yet severest test of speed in_ shortest yet severest test of speed in the special olympics competition. it speed in the special olympics competition.— competition. it was hard at first, competition. it was hard at first. when _ competition. it was hard at first, when they _ competition. it was hard at first, when they raised - competition. it was hard at first, when they raised the | competition. it was hard at - first, when they raised the gun and said "on your marks, get set, a go, bang". i didn't know if i was going to take off, but i took off! if i was going to take off, but i took off! (laughs). we if i was going to take off, but i took off! (laughs). we were all kind of fast runners. i came pretty close to the nose. only zero point two seconds and separates first and third. i separates first and third. i was catching my breath, and my
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coach said" you won first place!". and i said, thank god! seeing 1000 athletes on the field, — seeing 1000 athletes on the field, showing off their skills and actually thrilled to actually be able just to be there _ actually be able just to be there. winning wasn't the goal, it was_ there. winning wasn't the goal, it was crossing the finish line _ i felt proud of myself, other people always put me down, saying, you will amount to nothing, and they say now, he does amount to something, he is special! does amount to something, he is s-ecial! �* ., �* ., does amount to something, he is s-ecial! ,, .,
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does amount to something, he is s-ecial! . �* ,, ., ., ,, special! anna burke and frank olivo who _ special! anna burke and frank olivo who sadly _ special! anna burke and frank olivo who sadly died - special! anna burke and frank olivo who sadly died in - special! anna burke and frank olivo who sadly died in 2019. l olivo who sadly died in 2019. you can watch witness history every month on the bbc news channel or you can catch up on all ourfilms alongside channel or you can catch up on all our films alongside more than 2000 radio programmes on our online archive. just go to the website. now to the 1980s, and a protest which made the national news in america. in 1988, students at the death only gallaudet university barricaded their campus, protesting their board of trustees' decision to appoint a hearing chairman. it is hearing chairman. it is important _ hearing chairman. it is important to _ hearing chairman. it is important to know - hearing chairman. it is| important to know that hearing chairman. it is i important to know that i hearing chairman. it is - important to know that i am hearing —— toledo. right now i am working with a sign language interpreter sarah, so instead of hearing your questions, i am hearing those signs.—
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hearing those signs. gallaudet colleie hearing those signs. gallaudet college has — hearing those signs. gallaudet college has being _ hearing those signs. gallaudet college has being the - hearing those signs. gallaudet college has being the hearing those signs. gallaudet colleie has beini the centre of college has being the centre of deaf education in america since 1841 _ deaf education in america since 1847. ' ' i~ , , ., 1847. in 1987 the president at that time stepped _ 1847. in 1987 the president at that time stepped down. - 1847. in 1987 the president at| that time stepped down. right away there was a push for the board to recognise that the next president should be a deaf individual. so they narrowed it down to three finalists. two of us were deaf and one was hearing. i deaf and one was hearing. i have a lot to bring to the university but i also have a lot to — university but i also have a lot to learn and that process must — lot to learn and that process must run _ lot to learn and that process must run right away. the board of trustees _ must run right away. the board of trustees forwarded - must run right away. the board of trustees forwarded a - must run right away. the board of trustees forwarded a woman j of trustees forwarded a woman who had a lot of experience but deafness. that is when i guess you could say the protest started. someone had the bright
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idea to, bring buses to block the gates. the rallying cry was "we want a deaf president now! we want a deaf president! the iosters we want a deaf president! the posters at _ we want a deaf president! the posters at the _ we want a deaf president! tie: posters at the front that said honk if you support a deaf president, and of course everybody drove past who saw that sign and honked! honking. then the press started to come and for a week it was the front page of the washington post. other students prepared to continue blocking the entrance as long — continue blocking the entrance as long as they board refuses to meet— as long as they board refuses to meet your demands? “we as long as they board refuses to meet your demands? "we give u . to meet your demands? "we give u- our to meet your demands? "we give op our soul— to meet your demands? "we give up our soul in _ to meet your demands? "we give up our soul in order _ to meet your demands? "we give up our soul in order to _ to meet your demands? "we give up our soul in order to get - to meet your demands? "we give up our soul in order to get a - up our soul in order to get a deaf— up our soul in order to get a deaf president". _ up our soul in order to get a deaf president".— up our soul in order to get a deaf president". the chair of
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the board — deaf president". the chair of the board was _ deaf president". the chair of the board was jane - deaf president". the chair of the board was jane bassett i the board was jane bassett spellman. and she came to campus and called a meeting. she wanted to talk. and explain her decision. pare she wanted to talk. and explain her decision.— her decision. are you going to resi . n? her decision. are you going to resign? she — her decision. are you going to resign? she used _ her decision. are you going to resign? she used the - her decision. are you going to resign? she used the word . resign? she used the word children. _ resign? she used the word children, said _ resign? she used the word children, said children - resign? she used the word children, said children are | children, said children are making too much noise, i can't communicate. using the word children to college students? that was not good. when dr zinser realised the intensity of the feelings and the sense of the feelings and the sense of the feelings and the sense of the campus, she decided to step down. of the campus, she decided to step down-— step down. cheering and applause _ step down. cheering and applause- _ step down. cheering and applause. the _ step down. cheering and applause. the board - step down. cheering and - applause. the board discussed and decided _ applause. the board discussed and decided to _ applause. the board discussed and decided to name _ applause. the board discussed and decided to name me - and decided to name me president. there is one person
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i want to single out for very special thanks. my wife linda. applause. right now i am getting emotional, so i have to stop. at gallaudet, people who are deaf must have unlimited educational and professional opportunity. i was delighted with the speech, i was delighted. idr with the speech, i was delighted.— with the speech, i was delighted. dr irving king jordan, delighted. dr irving king jordan. the _ delighted. dr irving king jordan, the first - delighted. dr irving king jordan, the first deaf- jordan, the first deaf president of gallaudet university. finally to britain, just after the second world war, when the government began providing free vehicles, specially designed for disabled people. colin powell tells witness history about his love hate relationship with the
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invacar he received in the 19605. if invacar he received in the 19605. , , invacar he received in the 1960s. , y . ., invacar he received in the 1960s. , y , 1960s. it is very much a result ofthe 1960s. it is very much a result of the war _ 1960s. it is very much a result of the war veterans _ 1960s. it is very much a result of the war veterans coming i 1960s. it is very much a result l of the war veterans coming back disabled from the second world war. it became apparent to the government that they needed some sort of transportation. all have motor invalid chairs and — all have motor invalid chairs and many— all have motor invalid chairs and many of them go out every daym — and many of them go out every da ., .., and many of them go out every da ., .. , day... the government came up with designing _ day... the government came up with designing what _ day... the government came up with designing what we - day... the government came up with designing what we would . with designing what we would best describe in those days as being a" invalid carriage". then they got the brand name of the manufacturer, they came —— became the invacar. all were hand controlled, in other words he had the three petals of a normal vehicles, the clutch, the accelerator, the foot breaks, they were all incorporated to be only operated by hands. i am a victim of polio and have always suffered a restricted mobility. i was 16 when i first got my invalid carriage. the excitement of this vehicle
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coming into your possession after years of being dependent on, in my case, my parents, to take me anywhere, was an absolute delight and thrill. it gave you the feeling of somehow levelling out the playing field of the limitations put upon you by your disability. it took me to college, when i was a student, it took me to my first job, but when we look at it objectively we can see a lot wasn't right with it as well. 85% of disabled people using this vehicle have said to have complained about its unpredictable behaviour on the road _ unpredictable behaviour on the road. , ., ., , road. they were not reliable, they were — road. they were not reliable, they were unstable, - road. they were not reliable, they were unstable, they - road. they were not reliable, l they were unstable, they were fundamentally unsafe. the fact that it was a single seater meant that in your formulative teenage and 20s years it was a very antisocial method of transport, because when you started to form a friendship
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with girls and what have you, i was a bit of a rebel, i can't say with my hand on my heart that i didn't sneak a young lady in my car on more than one occasion. she would sit where the wheelchair should set, on the wheelchair should set, on the floor, very uncomfortable, no padding, no seatbelt, totally unsafe.— no padding, no seatbelt, totally unsafe. they're paying -- campaign _ totally unsafe. they're paying -- campaign to _ totally unsafe. they're paying -- campaign to get _ totally unsafe. they're paying -- campaign to get invalids . —— campaign to get invalids onto— —— campaign to get invalids onto four— —— campaign to get invalids onto four wheels instead of three — onto four wheels instead of three switch to tower bridge. | three switch to tower bridge. i did three switch to tower bridge. did take three switch to tower bridge. i did take part in a protest against these vehicles. we were looking for the government to consider issuing a regular adapted ordinary car. eventually the protest got so heated that the government allowed this scheme to allow the provision of a regular car adapted for disabled persons. this triumph spitfire is the first— this triumph spitfire is the first sports car to be converted and cost are hundred switch — converted and cost are hundred switch to — converted and cost are hundred switch to hand operation. ——
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cost — switch to hand operation. —— cost £115_ switch to hand operation. —— cost £115 to switch to hand operation. cost £115 to switch to hand operation-— cost £115 to switch to hand o-eration. ~.,, , , operation. most things designed for the disability _ operation. most things designed for the disability world _ operation. most things designed for the disability world are - for the disability world are decided —— member designed by a disabled person. they are never designed by someone who knows what a disabled person needs. i haveissues what a disabled person needs. i have issues that the mass—market motoring could have accommodated from day one. colin powell they're talking about the invacar. that's all from this special edition of witness history, from the queen elizabeth olympic park here in london. we will be back soon with more extraordinary is from the past. but for now bahrami and the rest of the witness history it's goodbye. —— but for now, from me and the rest of the witness history team, it's goodbye.
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well, friday brought quite a nasty spell of weather to some south—western and southern areas of the uk. gale—force winds around coasts briefly. they were very, very strong indeed, brought by storm evert. you can see on the satellite picture here thunderstorms and heavy showers inland, generally a really changeable day, but the weather has now shifted into the southern north sea. it's approaching parts of germany and denmark. behind it, you can see from the motion of the arrows, it's a fairly cool north—northwesterly, so it's going to be a fairly cool day for most of us. really quite nippy, in fact, in the very far north of the country. sunny spells and showers expected. so, let's have a look at the early morning hours. that northerly wind blowing across scotland and along the north sea coast. showers there right from the word go, but i think showers are possible almost anywhere early in the morning, apart from the extreme north west of the country here. temperatures a little on the fresh side, around 12—13 degrees in some spots. and then, tomorrow, a pretty
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cloudy day for many of us, in the morning at least, to start with. then the sunny spells develop, but also the showers, and some of them will be heavy. you can see here in the east of the country and the north, some thunderstorms there, too. showers also breaking out across the south. the best of the weather, i suspect, in the north—west of the country, parts of northern ireland, south—western and western scotland and also cornwall, devon and southern wales shouldn't do too bad on saturday. here's a look at sunday's weather map. the weather still coming in from the north. we have a weather front crossing the country. that is expected to bring showers to more southern areas of the uk on sunday.

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