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tv   [untitled]    December 28, 2021 2:30pm-3:01pm AST

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please, those who work for me who live in the suburbs will be able to use it and will allow us to have our employees at a fixed time and to boost production. and i know it's estimated that more than 100000 passenger the day will use the trains. and officials save the are designed to protect the environment of the roads in the capital. a gridlocked with polluting old cars and buses. senegal has one of the fastest growing economies in africa, and president mackie sell says, this is only the stock, ah, at how fast they are. these are the top stories, the number of people in australia who were told i didn't have corona virus when they actually did, has now double to almost 900 olive artery and sidney as apologize for what it is called a data processing. error steady has reported more than 10000 new cases for the 1st time, more from the sarah clock on australia, sunshine coast. we certainly are seeing an ongoing rise in the number of cases
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across australia since all states interior trees are between these up bottles. are they the states with the highest numbers? some states are reinforcing or reinstating. some tough restrictions. masts that pretty much mandatory across the country in doors at the moment. but you saw wells has resisted any pushes overturned to lockdown. i would as christmas period. and in queensland where i am on tuesday, we recorded the highest number of jolly cases, 1150 ice france as for the tight and its cove, it measures after reporting more than a 100000 new cases. the government has asked people to work from home at least 3 days a week, though there will be no curfew for new years eve. there the headlines. indonesian officials say they will not offer refuge to a group of ringa on a stranded boat. as any vessel will be turned away, although they will help prepare it 1st and are providing food. first spotted by fishermen on sunday. around
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a $120.00 people including children are on board. syrian state medias reporting is ready false as of carried out an air strike on a major port in la takia missiles of reporter the damage containers of the porch and residential buildings shops in a hospital. not clear if anyone's been injured and the reports hadn't been independently confirmed. india's government has frozen the bank accounts of one of the world's best known catholic charities and says the organization founded by mother teresa did not meet conditions under local law. for the charity denies, thus tesla found at ellen musk is facing a backlash in china. rough to beijing said his satellites had to close encounters with its space station earlier this year. the claims are not been verified, but beijing has made a complaint to the united nations space agency. it's my not today inside story is next on out is here. i'll see you again tomorrow. 700 us gmc. ah.
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it's been described as nurses with illusionary mission. the james web space telescope was lost with success in the 1st strip in decades. but how would it help us further understand our universe? this is inside story. ah hello, welcome to the program. i'm hash. hm. alabama. human kind has embarked on another space adventure caught it up. one of the most sophisticated
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technological systems ever created on earth is on its way to make history and to look back in it. the gems wave space telescope is the largest and most powerful space observatory to be launched into space and with a price tag of $10000000000.00. it's one of the most expansive after nearly 3 decades in the making and now on a closely watched voyage of 1500000 kilometers. scientists are hoping it will allow them to look at regions of space never seen before. once it reaches its destination, the telescope will look back in time by capturing infrared light from the early universe. that will allow us to examine the creation of stars and galaxies. and maybe i'll lock new clues about our existence. a launch is off the order, 80 percent of the rest are in a, in a mission. i would say can also by our analysis make and off by, by, by various ways of assessing that i hear it may be 20 percent off the risk of the
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mission, perhaps 30, i don't know. and so basically what is ahead, we have retired a number flights on risk. there are what is ahead. i, i remains our risk that we're going to take down step by step. i'm very happy definitely, and 5 was performing extremely well, which also means that that is so a lot are for time ahead for good saying sir, because so good or bad injection allows to have more fuel on board of the spacecraft. i and hiv in a i n space have perfectly daily veiled, faulty submission, also bomb it deals of flight. our excellent and bare faked as a scheduled will begin our discussion in a moment. but 1st, let's take a look at some of the most significant moments in human kinds class to explore space. sputnik one was the 1st satellite, successfully launched into space. it went up at the height of the space race between the us and then soviet union. during the cold war,
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soviet cosmonaut eureka guardian became the 1st human to travel into space and returns safely after completing a full orbit of our planet earth. the moon landing was one of the most or inspiring events of the 20th century, asked us neil armstrong and buzz aldrin. reach the moon and walked on the surface in 1069. 20 years later, the hubble space telescope was launched. it allowed scientists to discover moons, planets and galaxies never seen before. in 2004 space ship one became the 1st private crude spacecraft to cross the boundary of space above earth that made south african pilot mike millville. the 1st commercial astronaut. ah, let's bring in our guests in boston. are the love is professor science at harvard's university and author of excellent to rest hill in bristol, elizabeth pierson is an astrophysicist and spaced journalist in london,
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francisco diego senior research fellow in the department of physics and astronomy at the university college london. welcome to the program. are the this has been characterized as the most ambitious astronomy mission of nasa. why, why, why that characterization in particular? well, for several reasons. one is that, that the telescope will be in the lagrange point to, which is a one and a half 1000000 kilometers away from earth. it say about the $3000.00 times farther than the hubbard's space, that a scope is an service is not an option. so it's very ambitious, so for us to send the equipment thus far and hope that it will work perfectly as it did so far. the 2nd is that this telescope would look, it will take the deepest images of the universe, piercing back in time to when the universe was only hundreds of millions of years.
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all that's when the 1st stars were made, the 1st galaxies and we have a chance off getting the scientific version of the story of jess. this lead there be light. and as of it isn't particularly because of that reason mentioned by avi, which is basically that need that quest, that humanities thought as quite some time ago to understand how the universe begin . yeah, there is definitely, you know, i've been reporting on space in space science over decades now. and one thing that you've learned in that time is people absolutely have this. it's sort of inherent need to understand what's going on with this universe around us. and you know, whether people do that with like religion or science or some combination of the 2. but it's definitely one of those things as of whenever you, you get these big missions ultimately the, the question comes down to like,
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why do people put on these missions? and it's just that fundamental human need to know what's out there and to understand what web is going to be really good tool and toolbox. being able to do that from because it will be able to look at these parts of the cosmos and this part of the universe that we've never been able to see before, because that's been shrouded in dusts. that's what it is. so good at it through passing through that veil of death that you find, you know, throughout the entire university, you can look right back to the beginning of time or the dust that surrounding, you know, stalls as they grow in or planets of things. and so i think web is really going to help us get to grips with those, those big questions. on 3 most big question, francisco is it because operates in, in for that the chances are really high that it would be able to capture the images of the galaxy. the 1st load after the big band, which is going to be an uncharted territory or. busy perhaps
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a turn and point for us or physicists. the b james w telescope costume to fill a gap in the, in what we call the electromagnetic spectrum. they hubble space telescope piece of serving the visible part of the spectrum on a little bit of the near infrared. and then the james w is one to offset from the nearing progress to the middle infrared, which is important when the, which is neglect, seem of sort of before going not to these level. and then of course, we have the herschel, the casual observatory that was working a few years ago, or sort of in the fighting progress, which is also very interesting. it was a very successful telescope. also like rush point in the lug around 2 point with a middle of 3 and a half meters. it was quite a big telescope, almost does because these one. but yes, it is very important to serve in this part of the, of the spectrum to locate, as you said, the very, the very 1st stars that emerged from the dark gauge of the universe,
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a few 100000000 years after the big bomb. we have the stars emerging on the 1st kind of building blocks of galaxy sort of brought to galaxies that are going to merge together. we still don't know how this process took place, and this is where the, the information is going to be very useful. lady angela from why you're saying from the expressions of your faces, this is quite an incredibly exciting moment, but just for someone like myself or want to understand that you have to put something like 10000000000 dollars into this sophisticated design. this is my question to you are the and then you still have to wait for 6 months for the telescope to unfurl and then for the mirrors to spread. if that doesn't work, it's total failure. well, yes, any challenging task is also a risk, but it's definitely worth it than the time that we are waiting is much shorter than the age of the universe. ah, the reason that we want to look at in the infrared is,
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is that if, even if you take the sun and place it very far way at the edge of the universe, there are the ation that will and be stretched and the wavelengths will be stretched to the infrared such that the visible light that we see close to the sun will become infrared light as the result of the expansion of the universe. and the in fact, the 1st stars and i've been working on the sick frontier for 3 decades. i wrote 2 textbooks, the 1st stars are expected to be even brighter in that we're tra violet than the sun is. they are expected to be very massive. and despite this, what we see would be in the infrared because of the expansion of the universe. and the james web space telescope can tell us what our ancestors were. what are these building blocks that were formed 1st, and lead to the production of heavy elements that we are made off? so in awaits our origins that we are uncovering. and it's worth every penny to
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figure out where we came from. and it's of the, the task of it will be in an all bits, which is not the same one as ha, but he's going to be behind the earth in l 2, which is about 1500000000 kilometers from the earth. which means that if there is any glitch, that is absolutely no way you would be able to send any rescue mission mission that what's the rational, what's the rationale behind this particular think put in it on l. 2? when you know this is one of the most expansive a telescopes created by, designed by the, by that, by that nice and other groups. and then there is no rescue mission. well, to be honest, even if it was closer to us at the moment, there's no rescue mission. when that was helpful. there was a space shuttle for operational and that was what went in to get those services. we don't have those anymore. so even if there was something wrong with hubble, you'd have to build an entire spacecraft to go would be able to, to deal with it. and if you're going to have to do it over it,
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you might as well do, 1000000 miles away. it's the same thing, but not said there are a lot of really good reasons why you want to be at l 2. 1 is because it's a gravitational stable point. that means as you go around with your follow, it basically dropping you along in time with that it's always going to keep pace with us, which makes communications much, much easier. it also means that it's going to be able to operate 24 hours a day at the moment hubble because it's going an orbit around the us. it can only actually observe when it's not pointing at the sun for when it's on the other side of the earth. so half of its time it can observe. i don't know about you, but if i'm spending $10000000000.00 on the telescope, i want to be able to observe 24 hours a day. i'm finally, it's also very, very firmly stable over back. so as hubble goes from night to date night today, it's cooling up and warming down and going back and forth between those 2
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temperature things which are very slightly deforms the mirror on and on something like hubble because it's only got it only got a 2 and a half me to a mirror. you can't really notice that when with it 6.5 meter mirror, that would make a huge difference and you'd be having a slightly blurred image. so it definitely is worth, it's a bit more of a risk going all the way to l 2, but people have been spending a long, long, long time, making sure that everything is going to go to plan. and that's one of the reasons why it cost. so much is because they know it cocktail, so they ensure they can francisco, if hobble was quite instrumental in shape in our understanding of the expansion of the universe. black holes. could jim swear be quite instrumental in our understanding of how the universe started? about 13700000000 years ago, if that's the most accurate estimate,
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yet to be proven by tips web. yes sir. 13 point date, i think, but yes, i think you're, you're right. they compliment each other. in fact, it was saved many times that the james webb is going to replace hobble and he's not, they will be working together out of the same time for several years. and in fact, it's probably that the james, where he's going to run out of fuel because he has a fuel hydrazine that is going to help to bind the telescope in different directions during the several years of operation. as soon as you run out of that fuel, it will be or were out of operation. the whole space telescope doesn't have that limitation equal will continue. so probably the whole spaced out of school with out live the, the james webb. but both would work in coordination done that well will be a fantastic opportunity for science because there won't continue to cover the whole spectrum all the way from $425.00 microns or so. are they the it is going to look
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deeper into space towards the edge of time, but at the same time, which will, it will take opportunity to look into our own solar system and look for building blocks of life somewhere in this massive expanse of the universe this, this looks like a mammoth task never undertaken before by humanity. right, so this telescope, they will be able, for example, to look at the atmospheres of planets as they transit their stars. they passing front of the star and the some of the light from the star would pass through their atmosphere and we can diagnose that light. then they figure out if there is any fingerprint of molecules that we recognize, such as c, o 2, ah, water h 20, and then my son is c h 4. and by that perhaps find evidence for molecules that are indicative of life. i should say i took part there. i was very fortunate to
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serve on the 1st advisory committee that designed the james web space that has got back in 1996 and back then it was called the next generation space telescope and justine and it took a long time, a quarter of a century for it to come to fruition, and they're really the, the most exciting part is yet to come, may have what we will find. will we find evidence for life elsewhere? will we find it? how the stars were made, the 1st stars. and by the way, i wrote 2 text books about that, and obviously you wanted the forecast to be true. the predictions that we made to be true, but if they turn out to be wrong, that would be even more exciting cuz we learned something new. elizabeth for us and fall villa as space, and the universe makes sense only when we have a tangible look at things like spiral galaxies, planets and stars, which makes sense to us now, because this is going to be extraordinary,
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the says that he's aiming to look for light, about 250000000. he is right after the big bang. so in terms of images, which are going to be sent back from james webb all the way to was nasa. what are we expecting to see here? make it easy, make it, make it easy for us, for the hundreds of millions of people all over the world. wally, looking forward to see what happens in 6 months from now you do actually make a really good point. and i think napa has a policy that all of the planetary prob, have to have a camera because they realize just how important it is to be able to show the pictures to the waiting public. people want to, to see a be able to connect that set of the streams web space telescope is going to be looking in the infrared, which isn't the wavelength that we can see with our own eyes. so it's not going to be a picture that you might recognise, normally when you're looking at galaxies,
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i probably will look quite unusual. exactly what they look at depends on how people are going to set them up. because all of these images are what's called false color image. so you take a wavelength that you columns fee, and the sewing a color that you can see. and then you put all of these together and they create this beautiful color images. and i'm sure that will be a lot of people at nasa making sure that well, and all those diffusions around the well, because this is an open instrument to the entire community. lots of people are going to be using the information from it, but they will be making sure that these pictures are you know, understandable. because again, we are human and human process colors and things that we can understand. images. one of the easiest ways for us to process data, you know, as a scientist, that's the reason why, you know, you plot everything on a graph rather than putting it on the table. and pictures are easy to understand. so yes, there will be
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a lot of people making sure that you and everybody else in the world has some pictures already help understand. okay, what's going on francisco way of putting massive investments here, which takes decades of time to try to put into a practice. does it because we want to understand the very structure of the universe. it's just because we as humans, mortal, we're still grappling with the need to understand who we are when we come from. and how did the universe thought? absolutely, we are on the field with could your city remember that that is causing venting over for only 400 years ago and then you've got the low could see what we are doing today. this is absolutely amazing. i mean, this telescope cannot serve from the very beginnings of the of the universe. the 1st light of the 1st start that 1st galaxies to the formation of solar systems. because now we know, i mean, if newton galileo all these people, they knew their mental blandness. i mean, more than 4000 blindness already discovered by this space telescopes actually lay
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the couple of mission. and with this plan, is that going to be explore even further? they're trying to say find the, as i said, he said that signatures for life, especially oxygen. when you have free oxygen in douglasville planet data in equipment cali, almost a signature for life or photosynthesis for micro your life. or this kind of thing. formation will fall, our system formation. life itself plus examining the planets in our solar system was what i've any worse at that instrument, that's going to give us a broad view from the nearing new where still they are universe. could we compare this to the moon landing? shall we say that this is as important scientifically speaking, as the moorland in or potentially could be much more important than that? it could be a turning point. well, it all depends on what we find the sufficient expedition and it depends on what fish we find. and i should say that even though the infrared sounds weird ah, the nearest star to the song, these proxima centauri. and it has half the surface temperature of the sun,
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roughly 3000 degrees instead of 6000 degrees. and so that meets mostly in for a light. and the reason habitable planet close to it, proxima b. and if there is a civilization there that builds a space telescope, they would see the images with their own eyes because their eyes were tuned to the infrared light emitted by proxy must centauri saw. the fact that we find weird to look at the images in the, in for it is simply because the sun produces mostly visible light and has biological creatures selected by darwinian evolution. we have eyes that are sensitive to the light that the sun produces. but in for it is by our nearest neighbor. elizabeth is theoretically speaking, if you are chasing a lie that has been traveling for 13.7 or 8000000000 years, most likely, by the time we detect it, the sy itself or the galaxy,
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is no longer there. which takes us to the point. where do we really have to care a lot about the notion of the edge of time when time itself remains very relative that might be and need to reset the time itself or to go back to negativity or negative time? well, to be honest, actually, if you're looking back on 13130000000 years, which is right back to the sort of beginning of when things started said, turn on basically and start it started to shine and light that we can pick up an some of those i think the 1st generation of self a very short lived in the fall of the die young, but the galaxies, but they were creating, most of those are still around or if they're not around by themselves, they are merging with others. and if you're looking back at the beginning of those galaxies, the beginnings of the stars and galaxies, but then went on to bill together to create the universe that we all living in today. that's the big go. because this time like takes so long to travel,
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you will seeing things as they existed. right when they 1st start, the 1st start started shining, the 1st galaxy south is coming together. and that's what's really exciting. unfortunately, looking before that. so the 1st couple of 100000 years off of the big bag. there wasn't much producing light in facts that was various places where like couldn't travel more than a few nanometers. and so we'll, we'll never be able to look back with telescopes. i show francisco less than a minute. good. could we say ultimately that in 6 months from now, we will only say it was really worth it if we get the 1st glimpse of the most distant galaxy in the universe of the most distant, far all the oldest cloud to be deducted, that could be the moment that would be why the interpreter as you know,
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what we're moving into radio on softer territory here in fines. well, absolutely, yes, absolutely. yes. we are using the technology of the top range of what we are cap ability as we speak. the telescope is crossing the order, we thought them already on the, on his way very slowly and i was $11.00 belong to per 2nd. i'm deploying all the se, shields and everything. aligning the mirrors, as we said before, and then in 6 months time, we will get these fund dusty, fantastic discovery, some very positive that you will walk on past the clean. you will be a major milestone in our knowledge of the universe. really fascinating to see how humanity is using extensive his own senses to further gaze into the heavens and look for small details, but about to make massive difference in this life of the lo, elizabeth pearson for francisco, diego, i really appreciate your insight into can forward to talking to you the near future when the 1st image is from jumps with,
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with it being into our living room. thank you. and thank you for watching your can see the program again. any time by visiting our website agency dot com for further discussion goes our facebook page. that's facebook dot com, forward slash ha inside. or you can also join the conversation on twitter. i would 100 is as a james, i started from the ash my about and the entire team here in my for now. ah shilling the debates, 90 percent of the world's refugees have come from of common impacted country. the
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with ah, so i am fully battle in doha with a look at the headlines on al jazeera france has further tightened covey 19 measures after reporting more than 100000 cases. in a day, a government has asked people to work from home at least 3 days a week, but there will be no curfew for new year's eve. in the u. s. the centers for disease control has shortly recommended time. people should isolate when they've tested positive from 10 to 5 days present. joe biden says the health system is prepared for the soaring number of cases, but has admitted the response hasn't been sufficient.

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