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tv   [untitled]    July 30, 2021 7:30am-8:01am AST

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the company faces a class action lawsuit, and in june this year, us financial regulators find robin hood record $70000000.00 for outages and exposing customers to what they called risky trading tools. andrew mo, data scientist and host of youtube channel. i'm a stock market. he and his subscribers have deserted robin hood over those controversies. i think that robin hood has more inexperienced traitors, and therefore, as a proportion encourages riskier trading without the full disclosure of the responsibility. when you have that many inexperienced rangers, robin hood is facing increased certainly from regulators and lawmakers. but with this debut on the nasdaq stock exchange, it will now have the money to fight back years ago. have al jazeera on washington with a mission. ah, this is al jazeera and these are the headlines. the philippines has restored a key defense tax with the united states,
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which allows joins military exercises. the move was announced during a visit to manila by us defense secretary lloyd olsen. he's trying to bolster ties between the 2 nations which have stagnated during the presidency of rodrigo deter thing us president joe biden has a nice to you push to get more americans vaccinated against covert 19, highly contagious delta. various spreads. he won't states to offer a $100.00 cash incentive and unvaccinated federal employees will have to wear masks and kept regular tests, need to wear mass to protect each other. in the stop, the rapid spread of this fires as your work to get more people vaccinated. and i hope all americans who live in areas with substantial or high case of rates will follow the mass guidance is being laid down by the cdc. i certainly will. i have because this is one of those areas, washington. in my decision, my direction,
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all federal personnel and visitors to federal buildings will have to do the same thing. and other 2719 infections have been confirmed until q as olympic village is the highest daily number. since officials began in 1000 cases, among people specifically linked to the games to athletes or among those infected u. s. congress has passed the bell boost in the number of visas for local allies who work alongside american forces in the african war is feared they could face retaliation from the taliban as us troops withdraw. the legislation allows an additional $8000.00 pieces. the 1st group of afghans are on their way to america, but many are still awaiting approval to leave. and those are the headlines to stay with us here on al jazeera, the stream is coming up next. i teach, you know,
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you can watch the english streaming light on. i do 2 channels plus thousands of our programs. award winning documentaries and debt support. the subscribe to you choose dot com forward slash al jazeera english. ah. hi anthony. okay. today on the street and we are thinking about rethinking, how does that brain book and how can we make it work a little bit better. he may already be doing some of the techniques we're going to be talking to you about. this is a picture of it pretty much sums up the last week of me preparing for this show. i am not intending to do all the heavy lifting by myself. i am bringing on the guests and we can meet them and they can tell you who they are, what they do. hello, any gina dominique's. good to have you on a introduce yourself to stream audience sir. i'm anywhere p. paul, i'm a writer,
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a science writer who writes about learning and cognition. and i'm the author of a book called the extended mind, the power of thinking outside the brain and you in spite our entire conversation. thanks for that. hello gina. it's great to have you on the stream tell everybody who you are and what you do. hello, nicely be here. thank you. my name is gina po, i'm and they're a scientist at u. c. l a. and i do research on the function of sleep for learning and memory. great to have you and dominate. welcome to the stream, introduce yourself to our international viewers. my name is dominic packer. i'm a professor of psychology at lehigh university, which is in bethlehem, pennsylvania. and i'm an expert on group dynamics and how people's identities shape how they think, feel and behave. okay, so i'm going to give you a couple of rapid fire questions. it's really help me to prepare for the show. i know you're going to know the answer like this. all right, so many, what is the mind? the mind generally refers to the thoughts. we have the emotions,
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we feel the perceptions we have of the world, how we make sense of things. the key distinction to be made with, with regard to the mind that some of it is, are things we're conscious off. so we are aware of our thoughts or feelings what we, what we believe about something. but a lot of the mind is also non conscious or very rapidly process conclusions we reach without necessarily having realized how exactly reached her. that's the mind . gina, what's the brain? the brain is the organ by which the mind thinks and acts and interact with the world is the organ through which we sent everything and is that organ through which we do everything it is our brain is our mind. ok, i the best metaphor that you have either created yourself or you've heard, or you've read about how our brain actually works. well,
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we tend to think of the brain as like a workforce that we just sort of keeps logging into like gets the job done. but i like to think of the brain as more like an orchestra conductor that at the heart of everything, it's bringing in resources from here and there and creating, you know, beautiful music. all right, so you're right, i guess. and you know, as i know this topic, what would you like to ask them about? how do we get more out of outbreak? if you knew cheap, you could be part of today's discussion. the comment section is right there. i'm expecting your brilliant questions, no pressure. the show starts right now. let's talk 1st of all about how you feel that most of us use our brain. you were science. why did you, you write a lot about the way that we think the way that we use. i thought that we use our brains, how most of us use our right. well, to go back to this question of metaphors, i think many of us think of our brains as like a computer that we just feed information into. and then the, the output, you know, is the result, or we think of it as like a muscle that is something that we have to keep exercising to,
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to get stronger. but the reason the metaphor of the orchestra conductor is more helpful is that we actually don't think with our brains alone, we think with our bodies, with the spaces in which we learn and work with them. that are interactions with other people with our tools like our, our smartphones and other technological devices. so that really broadens the idea of what thinking is when we acknowledge that all these other resources are part of the thinking process. dominic, i see you nodding, go ahead. i completely agree, i think the idea that and is exploring in our book, especially that so much of our thinking exists outside of the individual mind or the individual brain involves other people as well as technologies and devices. this is a super interesting one, and research is, is exploring how our sourcing, at least a lot of the thinking that we do affects the conclusions that people reach or the way in which their, their minds work. i'm just thinking, thinking in my system,
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walk around, thinking about how we're thinking, if just happens, unless, unless something happens and then we have an injury or we have something that's not quite firing, right? why do you think that is? it's almost like we take our blame it we do take our great brains for granted, and it's only when we do have a head injury or something happens to our physical brain organ that we realized so much of who we are so much of our personality and what we know, our memories of consciousness really lies in this few pounds of flesh, but this brain is not disconnected from the world, at least most of the time. we have our senses that flow into our brain, through our bodies. and that includes our sense of space and nature, i sense of others and our ability to connect and reach out to them. so i think it's a beautiful book and a murphy call. it's really well read, well written. it was
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a lot of fun to read. it was well researched and i take my hat off to you. i enjoyed every minute of reading it and that's not usually the case when i'm reading things related. related to my field. i usually don't read books and so this one is really, really a delight. thank you. i mean, what makes you writing extended mind the power thinking outside the brain? what, what was the, what was the inspiration? what, what did you think? i need to write a book about how we need to think outside of the mind outside the bright. well, so i have to send to our school aids and i got very interested in how they learn in the science of learning. and in my research and reporting on the science of learning, i started to notice a bunch of different fields that were all looking at how these outside the brain resources factor into our thinking. and then i happen to come across
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a journal article by 2 philosophers that propose this idea of the extended mind, which is the idea that we don't just think with our brains alone. we actually extend our thinking process the out into the world with our bodies, with faces, with other people. and that to me, tied together a lot of the research finding that i was finding so interesting part of your research. you discover a piece of running. oh, go ahead. jena. go ahead. i just wanted to say i see annie, that you are talking with your hands, which is for the recommendations of your book. so i haven't started adopting that to even though we're seated here, we're not taking a walk which would be even better. at least we are using our bodies. and what that does to our brain is it puts it in a mode where we can learn better, actually we can, we learn best through teaching. and then when we're teaching it for active,
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we are learning even better. our brain is in this state called the theta state, which is about $5.00 to $10.00 waves per 2nd that occur in our hippa campus, which is our rapid learning structure in our brain associated learning. so when we put things together and when we move, our hipaa campus goes into the theater state, which is really best for learning. so let me show you one of the people who inspired. and if to write her book and this gentleman's called peter ryan, a, he's a neuro ethics professor from the university of british columbia. and he explains what gina was just explaining that how our brain can then use of the things to help us think better and operate better pieces. because much but exploration that i have so serious mentioned the following scenario. a few weeks ago you made an appointment to see the dentist say for next tuesday,
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tuesday morning. you wake up and you realize it today so that i can see the dentist but you're not for. was it the appointment at 2 o'clock or 3 o'clock? well fortunately you also noted this time with this putting it in a diary either a paper diary or in your fold for example. and you go. busy and you check that diary and you find out that the appointment is at 2 o'clock. what you've done is actually a very smart thing for several reasons. first of all, biological memory is unfortunately, latoria slee, unreliable for details like this. on the other hand, the diary is a perfect source of storing and record recalling that kind of information. but more importantly, what you've done is you've offloaded the cognitive work of remembering onto the diary rather than taxing your biological brain with that same task. and by doing so, we open up space for that biological brain to do what it does best make decisions.
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abstract thought, creativity. and that is the future. thought an extension could be for the token or the hands. i do all the time as surroundings using the surroundings. like a diary peter was saying that it could be relationships, collaborations with people that can you give us an example, going to make everybody give us an example. so we can see this happening in our daily life. i'd like to stick late like i'm going out of fashion and i'm going to die if i don't leave my hands. dominic. sure, well, i'll continue with a technological example. so example of a smartphone. we now all carry them around and increasingly use them not just to make phone calls and also keep track of dates, but for taking photograph and more,
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we walk around the world and take photographs more. we are potentially outsourcing the memories of things that we've seen and events we experience and it actually research. now on the effects that can have on your memory for events, say your turing museum and you see art. and as you walk around, instead of simply looking at the art, you take photographs of, of the art and especially your favorite pieces, how that affects your memory, then for that event. and what you find is that if people are using a phone or a camera, generally, to record the event there in some ways out sourcing the memory and the experience of the event. and it changes the way they remember it changes the way they can later on, recollect what they saw. and the reason it does so at least in part is because as you take those photos, you're paying attention to the situation in a different way. so by using that technology and outsourcing the memory, you're also potentially outsourcing a part of the experience and thus affecting what is like in the moment. and then what do you experience later on? i have lots of huge questions for you. guess i'm going to get you to ask them
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pretty quickly if you can. some people are not getting quite what brain capacity means. is it possible to run out of brain space? well, you know, you brought on peter rider who just gave that very interesting example a minute ago. and it was peter who introduced me to the idea that the biological brain is maybe running at full capacity at this point. meaning we are using every bit of our brain to deal with our really complicated modern world. and that's the only way to transcend the limits of the biological brain which evolved to do, you know, very different things from what we ask it to do in our modern world of symbols and abstract ideas. the only way to transcend those limit is to bring in these external resources like the body, like spaces, like other people. just, i mean to, to offer an example of my own. there's an interesting phenomenon known as trans active memory. whereas where, which refers to the fact that in a group,
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you can share the membrane such that each individual has access to the memory of all the people in the group we, nobody can know everything, but everybody in a group can have their own specialty. and when you know what other people know you have to what? well yeah, and it's fascinating any how when you talk and recollect an event with your friends, they might have a very different recollection of something that you do. and that active, recollecting together, helps you bring up that memory, and then incorporate all of your friends and recollections into your memory. and then when you re consolidate that memory, which occurs in while you sleep that next night, you reconcile. it ate their memories in with your own, and hopefully as a group, you all will remember more accurately than any one memory. jim wants to know
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what causes forgetfulness and how could he avoid it? occurs if 1st of all you didn't have all systems working in the 1st place when you were trying to remember. for example, when you were paying attention. so, neurotransmitter called a see to clean in your brain, helps you remember things in the 1st place and a seat or cooling comes on line when your brain is in that data space that i talked about before and, and when we are actively attending to something another thing that helps our best, remember, better in the 1st place is to tag memory with another transmitter called north and nations. and that's something we're researching in my laboratory right now. what does nora afteren do to help us time to our memories that we consolidate them? well, while we sleep and then don't forget them later,
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just and i hope that answers your question. let me bring it in, chris. chris wanted to talk about how he changed the way he was thinking, doing the cover pandemic now, and particularly doing lockdown. i'm really intrigued, guess by how you think our brains have changed? gen locked down and when we, i said a said his crit festival, like a ton of people around the world. when the pandemic kid, i became cognitively overloaded with having to work full time from home and my son having school from home as well. i had a lot going on just like everybody else. and i needed different ways to kind of get through my daily process. so i started doing different things that i'm still doing to day. why going for walks every single morning while i worked through different projects in my mind, or i'm listening to audio books or podcast. and along this was covered in and he's
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great book the extended mind. i've also set up kind of like my home office area. and collaborative work is also helping out a lot, just thinking a little bit more clearly. and even though we've been in this pandemic for a long, long time, it's got a little bit easier at a color than our brains. how are we doing? what have you noticed? yeah, i think a lot of people can identify with, like chris is saying about feeling overloaded during the panoramic and having to work from morning till night without a break, without a chat with colleagues or without a commute. you know, and i think that kind of puts the lie to the idea that the more we exercise our brains and where we use it, the stronger, i guess, i think a lot of us actually felt much less intelligent during the pandemic. and i would argue that another reason for that is that we were cut off for many of our usual mental expense. and, you know, our colleagues are classmates and we weren't busy, i knew in stipulating places we weren't maybe using our body so much because we
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were sitting in front of a screen for many hours a day. so i think that helped explain why a lot of people didn't feel like they were out there mentally during those and i it's definitely happening to me. i want to say that part of your book was about natural spaces and getting out of in nature, which is what the last speaker just talked about. and i thought that that was really fascinating. one of the things that natural spaces about is the piece of the wind, and then leave the founder running water that helps de exhaust us. and one of the reasons why i say that, is it anything that con, our brain and that source of north and f, and they talked about before, norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that a little bit goes a long way, a little bit helps you learn really well. but too much is what happens when you're stressed out. and when you're stressed out, you're norepinephrine system,
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it's too strong. and what nature does is didn't help the stresses, it helps. it helps that source of nerve connecting to calm down. so we can learn, and actually i think that the notion of the extended mind is also really useful, is when you think about the panoramic for conceptualizing how it is, we collectively make sense of a brand new event like this, right? this is a challenge that most people have never experienced anything like before and you can't figure it out on your own. you have to rely on other people. and you know, for example, we've learned over time how to understand the graph of disease spread or the transmission of cobra in your, in your local area or hospital usage rates. all sorts of information that ordinary people, most of the time haven't been paying attention to. and now at the beginning it was overwhelming and over time it become a plus. so for a couple of reasons. one is that we actually do learn how to cope with new kinds of information, right? over time, we get better at it. the other thing is,
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as part of an extended community of mind, we get better presenting information to others. so policy makers and ologist and people in science, communication, and so on, as well as the news media are now much better at showing people the information in ways that are understandable and that they can use in their lives than they were at the beginning. and that's a process was suspended, mind isn't just a tool we have inevitably at our disposal. we have to build it and we can make it better. i was like a martin border. he's a philosopher, a science that can't university. and i'm, he really tackled this idea of how we really max out our brains right now. what is possible within our brains? and then off the back of that, i would like some practical solutions that, or i guess can give us about how we work smarter. his mouth, many philosophers have argued that the human brain will never unravel certain
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mysteries about the universe. just because of the way our brain evolved. just like the mind of a dog will never understand. prime numbers, let's say the human mind is bound to have certain biological limits do. now disposition sounds modest and humble, but the trouble is that it's always thinking of human intelligence in terms of a single isolated human brain. without the help of mind extensions and gotten to scratches and collaboration, but this is exactly what makes human intelligence unique. human intelligence is open ended and probably unlimited. that that's what i like to thing. but my life proved otherwise. i want to talk to you about some personal things that people can do to really extend what their brains are capable of. for instance, i'm going to play a little video of workmen exercising in japan and tell us why this is important.
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and what would you be doing and i lost the, extend our re, regarding exercise and movement. i was working on the construction site that you had viral, la cima, very common on a wise move of important. how does that extend by this really lovely? that's a program of actually sizes that millions of people in japan do every morning and have been doing for decades and there's a couple of things going on there. i mean one thing they're outside 2nd about their moving and dr. poets told us how important that assist thinking. and 3rd of all they're moving together. they're engaged in synchronize movement, which help bring a group of people together and help get them on the same page. it's like if you're moving as one, if your body's want to help your brain kind of active plan as well. okay, i'm gonna keep this whole thing going. thank you for the exercises for the japanese
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construction workers. and we're going to gina singing q the singing gina, why are you singing to this? because cuba i am using in order to set up a time to help people about opens activated by the fall. the thing, by the way, please create the beat for the by the city will be shipping that looks, drawing memory is a way a to learn a fission. me yeah. how me why that wasn't just a trick. i can i thing my entire research for each episode. to the stream, and then i'm going to be better hosting with that. and so will your, your whole audience will be better duties because they help people remember better that 44 beat is in the stream frequency. and
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a song just helps us, especially thing together. when i'm giving lectures, i often have my id and seeing that to be here about what you're saying it together, snap their fingers, their hands, and like so many, i'm going to give you a picture right here is an office that i know pretty well. how do you make this office environments? how do you make it a better office environments, a thinking performing well? because right back here, this is my desk. i work in greatness. it's a very tragic office. dominic, what we need to do to extend the thinking that was going on in this office. okay, great question. it is a tragic office. i'm sorry, you know, i would say the most important thing in the office is the people. and i would worry less about the space where i know people in the office, well,
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whether they're in the office or not, you can put the paint on the walls. but i think it's the relationship between the people and their sense, particular of being a common unit as working together toward that sort of common mission and set of goals. we know to be crucial for both people be excited about the work, but also be productive and cooperative. and so building a collective and common identity regardless of the space around you would be my primary recommendation. all right, this is being such a fascinating conversation. we've only scraped the surface there so much more that you can find out when everything. absolutely not. gina, gina wants to talk some more. at the end of the show, i have the most right here they are doing the scene is going to be on the news and out. is there any 2nd now? okay, look at my laptop extended mind, i need the pool. you can find more about the book, you can either book, go to any murphy, poor try to cite dominate the power of up. he has
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a book as well and followed gina just because she's amazing and she may, will seeing you at the thing. thanks for watching everybody. i'll see you next time . take care. ah. in 2001. print around very well. our australians accused of being enemies within and attacking the way of life. treated like we were old suspects. we were all struggling to adapt to the new found home out there explored the history of the lebanese community in australia once upon a time and punch on outages era a year ago, one of the largest non nuclear blast in history killed more than 200 people. and injured 1000, the victims families still need answers. we want to compute just how did dangerous
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chemicals end up in baby support. let's be professional. it was not intended for muslim. and was the whole stockpile unloaded from the ship, the missing and well, and it wasn't all in one way or another in an illegal way before join me then a for there, for the full reports on algebra theater. lithium extraction is well under way at the level full snaps in the province of a boy in northern argentina. it is referred to as to why gold of renewable energy layer a. we're trying to establish a small supply chain of lithium batteries so we can comply with demand. one of the demands is a transformation of the public transport system. argentina has one of the biggest in the region, and we would try to transform my bosses to wanted a system. i didn't know until i have a wrong 70 percent of the world's lithium research live in liquid ryan research located in full flat like this one,
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thousands of liters of water are necessary to pump up the frying research to the surface there later on, distributed in evaporation. pool communities around this area are concerned that few extraction could complicate their access towards ah, the philippines is restoring the security packed with the united states switch presidency chart. they have threatened to terminate, ah, i'm have them. this is al jazeera life and so also coming up as more people get vaccinated, we are better protect as a nation to continue reopening safely and responsible for you as president offers incense.

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