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tv   [untitled]    July 29, 2021 10:30pm-11:01pm AST

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actually, module that will provide more room for experiments as successfully docked on the international space station. the now commodity you launched 8 days ago from the russian space launch facility. and by can all come on and has been in free flights ever since. it will take several months and multiple space walks to integrate fully with the space station where your launch was repeatedly delayed because of technical problems. and i ok, has been a long time coming, but as now pulled into port of the international space station graduations that it was not an easy docking. we are on top stories on 0 evacuation from afghanistan, of interpreters who worked with us is finally begun as part of a special immigration program that will also see thousands of people who help the u . s. over the last 20 years move there. but as foreign troops withdraw on,
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the taliban makes major territorial gains and you're still waiting to hear when they will leave sexual fates as plans for the full scheme of still being made. the united states is committed to helping those who helped us during our time. in afghanistan over the last 20 years. and indeed we've had very brave afghans who stood with with us, with our soldiers, with our diplomats, mostly as translators, and interpreters. and as a result of that service benefit from the possibility of securing a visa to come live in the united states were actively engaged in that process. and notably in relocation planning for those brave afghans and their families and east 18 people have been killed as the battle intensifies around a besieged town in southern syria. government forces of surrounded neighborhood in dera for more than
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a month. it's home to 40000 people who've been cut off from food and medicine, russian back government troops warned opposition fighters to surrender their weapons and allow military checkpoints to be set up. but if the crisis in lebanon is hitting, the country's children hard with more of them being sent out to work, even as they go hungry, hundreds of thousands of them now often go without a single meal all day. a new report from said the children says the poorest family's going to afford a fix of the monthly cost of basic necessities. the us treasury secretary said treasury, i should say, says president joe biden is calling on all state and local governments to provide a $100.00 to every new de vaccinated. american, it says $350000000000.00 and a we provided to be used for vaccine incentives. infections arising again in the u . s. as the vaccination rate slows to stay with us, the stream is up to me
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. ah hi anthony k today on the street and we are thinking about rethinking, how does our brain work and how can we make it work a little bit better? you might already be doing some of the techniques we're going to be talking to you about. this is a picture of it pretty much sums up the last week of me preparing for the show. i am not intending to do all the heavy lifting by myself. i am bringing on the guests and we can meet them and they can tell you who they are and what they do. hello, annie gene at dominic. okay. have you on a introduce yourself to stream audience sir. i'm anywhere p. paul, i'm a writer,
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a science writer who writes about learning and cognition. and i'm the author of a book called the extended mind to the power of thinking outside the brain and you in spite our entire conversation. thanks for that. hello gina. great to have you on the stream. tell everybody who you are and what you do. hello, nicely be here. thank you. my name is gina po, i'm a nurse scientist at u. c. l a. and i do research on the function of sleep for learning and memory. great to have you and dominate. welcome to the stream, introduce yourself to our international viewers. my name's dominic packer. i'm a professor of psychology at lehigh university, which is in bethlehem, pennsylvania. and i'm an expert on group dynamics and how people's identities shape how they think, feel and behave. ok. so i'm going to give a couple of rapid fire questions. it's really help me to prepare for the show. i know you've got to know the answer like this. all right, so many, what is the mind?
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the mind generally refers to the thoughts. we have the emotions, we feel the perceptions we have of the world, how we make sense of things. the key distinction to be made with, with regard to the mind that some of it is, are things we're conscious of. so we are aware of our thoughts or feelings what we, what we believe about something. but a lot of the mind is also non conscious or very rapidly process conclusions we reach without necessarily having realized how exactly reached it. or that's good morning, gina. what's the brain? the brain is the oregon by which the mind thinks and acts and interacts with the world. is the organ through which we sent everything and it is organ through which we do everything it is our brain is our mind. ok, i the best metaphor that you have either created yourself or you've heard, or you've read about how our brain actually works. well,
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we tend to think of the brain as like a workforce that we just sort of keeps logging into like gets the job done. but i like to think of the brain as more like an orchestra conductor that at the heart of everything, it's bringing in resources from here and there and creating, you know, beautiful music. all right, so you're right, i guess. and you know, as i know this topic, what would you like to ask them about? how do we get more out of our brain? if you're new cheap, you can be part of today's discussion comments section is right there. i'm expecting your brilliant questions, no pressure. the show starts right now, and let's talk 1st of all about how you feel that most of us use our brain. you were science, right? if you, you write a lot about the way that we think the way that we use. i thought that was use our brains, had most of us use our right. well, to go back to this question of metaphors, i think many of us think of our brains as like a computer that we just feed information into. and then the output, you know, is the result, or we think of it as like
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a muscle that it's something that we have to keep exercising to, to get stronger. but the reason the metaphor of the orchestra conductor is more helpful is that we actually don't think with our brains alone, we think with our bodies, with the spaces in which we learn and work with them. that are interactions with other people with our tools like our, our smartphones and other technological devices. so that really broadens the idea of what thinking is when we acknowledge that all these other resources are part of the thinking process. dominic, i see you nodding, go ahead. i completely agree, i think the idea that and is exploring in your book, especially that so much of our thinking exists outside of the individual mind or the individual brain involves other people as well as technologies and devices. this is a super interesting one, and research is, is exploring how out sourcing, at least a lot of the thinking that we do affect the conclusions that people reach or the
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way in which their their minds. i'm just thinking thing and my sister walk around thinking about how we're thinking it just happens unless, unless something happens and then we have an injury or we have something that's not quite firing, right? why do you think that is? it's almost like we take our blame it we do take our great brains for granted, and it's only when we do have a head injury or something happens to our physical brain, oregon that we realized so much of who we are so much of our personality and what we know our memories, our consciousness really lies in this few pounds of flesh, but his brain is not disconnected from the world, at least most of the time. we have our senses that flow into our brain, through our bodies. and that includes our sense of space and nature, i sense of others and our ability to connect and reach out to them. so i think it's
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a beautiful book, and murphy, really well read. well written. it was a lot of fun to read. it was well researched and i take my hat off to you. i enjoyed every minute of reading it and that's not usually the case when i'm reading things related. related to my field. i usually don't read books and so this one was really, really a delight. thank you. i mean, what major writing extended mind the power thinking outside the brain. what, what was the, what was the inspiration, what, what did you think? i need to write a book about how we need to think outside of the mind outside of the bright. well, so i had to send to our school aids and i got very interested in how they learn in the science of learning. and in my research and reporting on the science of learning, i started to notice a bunch of different fields that were all looking at how these outside the brain resources factor into our thinking. and then i happen to come across
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a journal article by 2 philosophers that propose this idea of the extended mind, which is the idea that we don't just think with our brains alone. we actually extend our thinking process the out into the world with our bodies, with faces, with other people. and that to me, tied together a lot of the research finding that i was finding so interesting part of your research. you discover pizza? go go. hi, gina, go ahead. i just wanted to say i see annie, that you are talking with your hands, which is part of the recommendations of your book. so i haven't started adopting that to even though we're seated here, we're not taking a walk which would be even better. at least we are using our bodies. and what that does to our brain is it puts it in a mode where we can learn better, actually we can, we learn best through teaching, and then when we're teaching it for active,
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we are learning even better. our brain is in this state called the fate of state, which is about $5.00 to $10.00 waves per 2nd that occur in our hippa campus, which is our rapid learning structure in our brain, associative learning. so when we put things together and when we move, our hipaa campus goes into a theater state, which is really best for learning. so let me show you one of the people who inspired. and if to write her book and this gentleman's called peter ryan, a, he's a neuro ethics professor for the university of british columbia. and he explains what gina was just explaining that how our brain can then use other things to help us think better and operate better pieces. because much but exploration that i have so serious mentioned the following scenario. a few weeks ago you made an appointment to see the dentist say for next tuesday,
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tuesday morning. you wake up and you realize it today so that i can see the dentist but you're not for. was it the appointment at 2 o'clock or 3 o'clock? well fortunately, you also noted this time with this putting it in a diary, either a paper diary or in your phone for example. and you go and you check that diary and you find out that the appointment is at 2 o'clock. what you've done is actually a very smart thing for several reasons. first of all, biological memory is unfortunately, so toria slee, unreliable for details like this. on the other hand, the diary is a perfect source of storing and record recalling that kind of information. but more importantly, what you've done is you've offloaded the cognitive work of remembering onto the diary rather than taxing your biological brain with that same task. and by doing so,
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we open up a space for that biological brain to do what it does best make decisions. abstract thought, creativity and that is the future. so our extension could be our body fell through the hands i do all the time our surroundings using the surrounding. like a diary peter was saying that it could be relationships. collaborations with people, dominic, can you give us an example, going to make everybody give us an example the we can see this happening and our daily life as like to sticky late, like i'm going out of fashion and i'm going to die. if i leave my hands company hesitate. sure, well, i'll continue with the technological example. so, the example of a smartphone, we now all carry them around and increasingly use them not just to make phone calls and also keep track of dates, but for taking photograph. and the more we walk around the world and take
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photographs more, we are potentially outsourcing the memories of things that we've seen and events we've experienced. and there's actually research now on the effects that can have on your memory for events, say your turing museum. and you see art and as you walk around, instead of simply looking at the art, you take photographs of, of the art and especially your favorite pieces, how that affects your memory, then for that event. and what you find is that if people are using a phone or a camera, generally, to record the event, they're in some ways out sourcing the memory and the experience of the event. and it changes the way they remember it changes the way they can later on recollect what they saw. and the reason it does so at least in part is because as you take those photos, you're paying attention to the situation in a different way. so bike using that technology and outsourcing the memory. you're also potentially outsourcing a part of the experience and thus affecting what is like in the moment. and then what do you experience later on? i have lots of huge questions for you. guess i'm going to get you to austin pretty
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quickly if you can. some people are not getting quite what brain capacity means. is it possible to run out of brain space? well, you know, you brought on peter rider who just gave that. that very interesting example. a minute ago, and it was peter who introduced me to the idea that the biological brain is maybe running at full capacity at this point. meaning we are using every bit of our brain to deal with our really complicated modern world. and that's the only way to transcend the limits of the biological brain which evolved to do, you know, very different things. and what we ask it to do in our modern world of symbols and abstract ideas. the only way to transcend those limit is to bring in these external resources like the body, like spaces, like other people. just, i mean to, to offer an example of my own. there's an interesting phenomenon known as trans active memory. whereas where, which refers to the fact that in
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a group you can share memory and such that each individual has access to the memory of all the people in the groups we, nobody can know everything, but everybody in a group can have their own specialty. and when you know what other people know you have to work well. yeah, and it's fascinating any how when you talk and recollect an event with your friends, they might have a very different recollection of something that you do. and that active, recollecting together, helps you bring up that memory, and then incorporate all of your friends and recollections into your memory. and then when you re consolidate that memory, which occurs in while you sleep that next night, you reconcile. it ate their memories in with your own, and hopefully as a group,
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you all will remember more accurately than any one memory. jim wants to know what causes forgetfulness and how could he avoid it? occurs if 1st of all you didn't have all systems working in the 1st place when you were trying to remember, for example, or you were paying attention. so, neurotransmitter called a c to clean in your brain, helps you remember things in the 1st place and a seattle calling comes on line when your brain is in that data space that i talked about before and, and when we are actively attending to something, another thing that helps us remember better in the 1st place is to tag memory with another transmitter called north and entrance. and that's something we're researching in my laboratory right now. what does nora afteren do to help us time our memories that we consolidate them? well, while we sleep and then don't forget them later,
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just and i hope that answers your question. let me bring it in, chris. chris wanted to talk about how he changed the way he was thinking, doing the cover pandemic now, and particularly doing lockdown. i'm really intrigued, guess by how you think our brains have changed? gen locked down and when we, i said a faith, his christ festival, like a ton of people around the world. when the pandemic kid, i became cognitively overloaded with having to work full time from home and my son having school from home as well. i had a lot going on just like everybody else. and i needed different ways to kind of get through my daily process. so i started doing different things that i'm still doing to day, like going for walks every single morning while i worked through different projects in my mind, or i'm listening to audio books or podcast. and
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a lot of this was covered in and he's great book. the extended mind, i've also set up kind of like my home office area and collaborative work is also helping out a lot just thinking a little bit more clearly. and even though we've been in this pandemic for a long, long time, it's got a little bit easier at a color than our brains. how are we doing? what have you noticed? yeah, i think a lot of people can identify with chris and saying about feeling overloaded during the panoramic and having to work, you know, from morning till night without a break, without a chat with colleagues or without a commute, you know, and i think that kind of puts the lie to the idea that the more we exercise our brains and where we use it, the stronger, i guess, i think a lot of us actually felt much less intelligent during the pandemic. and i would argue that another reason for that is that we were cut off for many of our usual mental expense. and you know, our colleagues or classmates and we weren't visit, i knew in stipulating places we weren't maybe using our body so much because we
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were sitting in front of a screen for many hours a day. so i think that helped explain why a lot of people didn't feel like they were at their best mentally during those. and i, it's definitely happening to me. i want to say that part of your book was about natural spaces and getting out of nature, which is what the last speaker just talked about. and i talked that was really fascinating. one of the things that natural spaces about the piece of the wind and then leave the founder of running water that helps d exhaust us. and one of the reasons why i say that, is it anything that cons our brain and that source of north and f and that had talked about before. norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter got a little bit, there was a long way, a little bit helps you learn really well, but too much is what happens when you're stressed out. and when you're stressed out,
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you're not connected, system is too strong. and what nature does is it helps the stresses it helps. it helps that source of nerve and ask them to calm down. so we can learn. and actually i think that the notion of the extended mind is also really useful. as we think about the panoramic for conceptualizing how it is, we collectively make sense of a brand new event like this, right? this is a challenge that most people have never experienced anything like before and you can't figure it out on your own. you have to rely on other people. and, you know, for example, we've learned over time how to understand a graph of disease spread or the transmission of cobra. it in your, in your local area or hospital usage rates, all sorts of information that ordinary people, most of the time haven't been paying attention to. and now at the beginning it was overwhelming. and over time it become a plus. so for a couple of reasons, one is that we actually do learn how to cope with new kinds of information, right?
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over time, we get better at it. the other thing is, as part of an extended community of mind, we get better presenting information to others. so policy makers and ologist and people in science, communication, and so on, as well as the news media are now much better at showing people the information and ways that are understandable and that they can use in their lives than they were at the beginning. and that's a process the suspended mind isn't just a tool we, we, we have inevitably at our disposal. we have to build it and we can make it better. i think a martin border. he's a philosopher, a science that can't university and i'm, he really tackled this idea of how we really max out our brains right now. what is possible within our brains? and in the back of that, i would like some practical solutions that, or i guess can give us about how we work smarter his mouth. many philosophers have argued that the human brain will never unravel certain mysteries
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about the universe just because of the way our brains evolved. just like the mind of a dog will never understand. prime numbers, let's say the human mind is bound to have certain biological limits do. now disposition sounds modest and humble, but the trouble is that it's always thinking of human intelligence in terms of a single isolated human brain. without the help of mind extensions and cognitive scratches and collaboration, but this is exactly what makes human intelligence unique. human intelligence is open ended and probably unlimited. that that's what i like to thing. but my life proved otherwise. i want to talk to you about some personal things that people can do to read and extend what their brains are capable of. for instance, i'm going to play a little video of workmen exercising in japan and tell us why this is important.
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and what would you be doing it? i lost the extended range regarding exercise and movement. i was working on the construction site that you had viral, la cima. very common. why movement important? how does i explained that by this really lovely, that's a program of exercises that millions of people in japan do every morning and have been doing for decades and there's a couple of things going on there. and one thing there outside of other moving and dr. poets held us home for that assist thinking. and 3rd of all they're moving together. they're engaged in synchronize movement with help bring a group of people together and help get them on the same page. it's like if you're moving as one, if your body's wine will help your brain kind of active plan as well. i'm going to
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keep in the school thing going. thank you for the exercises for the japanese construction workers. i'm going to gina, singing q the singing gina, why are you singing to this? because cuba, i am going to set up a beta to choke people about opens activated by this fall. the things i way research, please create the beat for the by the city will be shipping networks. drawing memory is a way a to learn a fission. the dana, how me, why that wasn't just a trick. i can i sing my entire research for each episode with the stream, and then i'm going to be better hosting with you. and so will your, your whole audience will be better. duties are debbie's because they help people remember better,
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that 44 beat is in the stream frequency. and a song just helps us, especially sing it together when i'm giving lectures. i half and have my audience seeing that after they hear about what you're saying it together to snap their fingers, their hands. and this is like so many times, going to give you how reflect picture right here. it's an office that i know pretty well. how do you make this office environments? how do you make it a better office environments? a thinking performing well? because right back here, this is my desk. i work in the greatness. it's a very tragic office. dominic, what would we need to do to extend the thinking that was going on in this office? ok, great question. it is a tragic office. i'm sorry. you know what? i would say the most important thing in the office is the p. and i would worry less about the space where i know people in the office, well,
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whether they're in the office or not, you can put the paint on the walls. but i think it's the relationship between the people and their sense, particular of being a common unit as working together toward that sort of common mission and set of goals. we know to be crucial for both people be excited about the work, but also be productive and cooperative. and so building a collective and common identity regardless of the space around you would be my primary recommendation. all right, this is been such a fascinating conversation. we've only scraped the surface there so much more that you can find out when everything. absolutely not. gina, gina wants to talk some more. at the end of the show, i have know most of your day been doing the is going to be on the news on now. is there any 2nd now? ok, look at my laptop extended mind annie murphy. paul, you can find more about the book. you can either book, go to add a murphy pause,
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try to cite dominic the power of up. he has a book as well and followed gina just because she's amazing and she may, we'll see you at the thing. thanks for watching everybody. i'll see you next time take care. ah, ah ah, with energy to every part of our universe or small to continue the change all around by technology and human ingenuity.
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we can make it work for you and your business. a year ago, one of the largest non nuclear blast in history killed more than 200 people and injured 1000. the victims, families still need answers. we want to come to justice. how did dangerous chemicals end up in sports? let's be profession. it was not intended for muslim and was the whole stockpile unloaded from the ship? the missing amal and it wasn't. it was in one way or another in an illegal way before join me for their, for the full report on when freedom of the press is under threat. you know, you just cause thought genuinely about your thoughts toward the making government step outside the mainstream. the has been a all is implement here, some of access points shift the focus, the pandemic that's turned out to be a handy little pretext. the prime minister clamped down on the press covering the
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waves. the news is covered, the listening post i care about help us engages with the rest of the world. we're really interested in taking you into a play. you might not visit otherwise and feel that you were there. ah, hello, who am learn? tainer and under the top stories on 0 evacuation of interpreters who worked for us from a canister has finally begun is part of a special immigration program that will also see thousands of people who help the us over the last 20 years move there. but as foreign troops withdraw on the taliban makes major territorial gains. many a still waiting to hear when they will leave. the united states was committed to helping those who helped us during our time.


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