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tv   [untitled]    June 7, 2021 12:30pm-1:01pm +03

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damaging buildings. their adventure has captured the imagination of millions of people following on line. but it's less entertaining for those in their pass. paula, you do? well, yes. i mean, i was scared. we came out and saw an elephant that was about 3 meters tall. it really scared a baby elephant even ran into our world before running away the herd was wandering into the village all day long. ah, hello again, i'm fully back to bo. with the headlines on al jazeera, 2 trains have collided in southern pakistan. seems probably killing at least 35 people rescue work because they're trying to find at least a dozen passengers who might be trumped under the rubble. at least 60 people have been injured. come out, hydra has the latest on these bonds. they bug it's on the military. i can do helicopter dispatch doctors and better medic, off to the academic side at the same time,
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the national disaster management or target. he said that all rescue efforts are now under way and likely to be completed within the next 30 minutes. what led to this tragedy is a big question mark, because the drain, i traveled over 500 kilometers, preliminaries all seem perused, presidential run off show right when candidate cake food, you maury, with a narrow lead election agency says more than 40 percent of the votes have been counted well then 77 percent of eligible voters can valid an exceptionally high turn out for per rule. in mexico, the governing party has lost its majority in the lower house in a set back for president, andras manual lopez over door. he's morena pony and its allies, short of the votes needed to push the constitutional amendments. mexico has been shaken by the corner virus pandemic, a deep recession and drug related violence. india's capital,
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new delhi and financial have more buy, have begun easing corona, vice restrictions in the capital, businesses and shops will not operate within limited hours. the metro will also start carrying passengers at 50 percent of its capacity on sunday in the reported is the lowest number of new cases. in 2 months. at least 17 people have been killed in sri lanka when torrential rains triggered must live and flooding. more than 250000 people had been had to abandon their homes. days of rain caused reverse to birthday banks in the south and west of the island. and google is said to pay a nearly $270000000.00 fine in france after regulates, is found. it had abuse its dominant market position in the digital advertising sector. the penalty is part of a settlement reach with 3 media groups who accused google of having a monopoly over online ad sales. those are the headlines next. in golden, h is a very bleak picture for a lot of americans out there,
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white supremacy. in fact, all of our patients, you're putting more money into the hands of somebody taking money out of the hands of other workers. everyone goes to their campus and it becomes the us versus them. this is a deal about constraining a nuclear program. the bottom line off, the big question. oh, now to 0 i they've been so many great involved in science over the past 100 years. everything from relativity and quantum mechanics to electronics computing. they struggled. but none of this progress would have impossible, without the mathematicians ation of science. and the development of algebra. the term algebra can be traced back to the arabic word algebra, which has its roots in the title of a manuscript written around $820.00. during the time i referred to as the golden
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age of science, this was the period between the 9th and 14th century. when scholars in the stomach world 1st applied the principles of mathematics science. and jim kelly, a british professor of the radical physics that born in baghdad. i'm going to look at how the mathematical underpinnings of science apply today and trace their routes back to this golden age. ah, ah, ah . the ag ation is one of the most remarkable achievements of
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modern science. and in order to be sure that the plains we fill, stay in the sky, we needed to mark the mathematics of flung the this is we come on the and be green, who's a jet pilot and a mathematician. the, we'll strike and you have the mathematics background, so you understand more than most the mathematics involved in a situation implying, absolutely, it is a great way to be able to understand how to fly an airplane, to understand the dynamics of what's actually going on in the aircraft, because i can actually dig into the equations and understand the science behind it . the, the mathematics that i'm interested in is something called a quadratic equation. square equation, the unknown quantity, x times itself, the square lower equation please the essential basic quadratic fundamental to how
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much lift and airplane can generate, how fast it needs to fly. it is the basis of all ation. it's actually not as complicated as many people might think. if we think about the lift and there were some various constance and then this half row v squared. so it looks complicated, lots of symbols. but if you brackets all this, all it's saying is lift is some number times the square of the velocity, very simply. if you go twice as for v squared, you will get 4 times as much lift which is why aerobatic airplanes are powerful. they need to fly off to do those very crisp, very precise maneuver, the if you want, for instance, to roll the airplane. then if you double the speed, we will roll full tundra dots, roll them to all the other part. when andy increases his speed, v to twice as fast,
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because the lift depends on the squared this 4 times as much lift so he can roll the plane 4 times of rolling our modern methods for solving mathematical problems like these involving quadratic equations. go all the way back to the golden age. in fact, for the wonderful title book, i'll keep carbon of our sob and joe, far below. which trends late says the compendium book on calculations by completion and balancing. it was written by the 9th century persian mathematicians of hard as me. now, as me, wasn't the 1st man to solve quadratic equations. they go all the way back antiquity . but he was certainly the 1st mathematician to provide the general method,
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the technique, the recipe for solving them. what we would today call the algorithm, a word derived from a whole new latanus name algorithm if he's also right regarded as being the father of the field of algebra. even the term algebra comes from the word and jibber in the title of his book. what's most remarkable about this mathematical textbook though, is not that it has any equations in it. because l code is me, wrote his whole book in woods alone. the code is in his book, contains many practical everyday problems of the time, such as dividing up land, paying laborers, or splitting up inheritance. businessman and traders would have found the equations, particularly helpful, but salary businessmen id, so on a high tree, grew up in the desert, raising camels and still keeps her today. so these are beautiful camel. thank you.
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how important all camels in arabia and embedded in culture? well, come of very important and when culture for transportation, for milking for me it's, it's heading both and yeah. and if i wanted to buy a campbell, i mean, what sort of price would they fetch rise income with that expensive, you know, when we $50000.00 to $70000000.00. yes. wow. that's the beauty of that expensive. you're talking about several millions. you know, it's not this is jennifer again, most jealous. yes. they won't be attention. very bought. i mean they're very expensive. up to 20000000. yeah. yeah. maybe more as simple one is maybe 500-2000. i asked you this because i want to use the value of a camel to carry out a particular mathematical calculation. while i want to give you a problem and show you the sort of thing the car is me, wrote about in his book of algebra, going to use the example of
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a man who dies owning just one campbell, which of course has to be sold. now what if that campbell fetched $80.00 homes? the man has a friend to whom he bequeathed a quarter of his money. he leaves a widow to whom he bequeath 18, and he has 3 sons. how, what does each son get? he would set up the algebraic equation where the unknown quantity, the thing shape is part of the equation. this is what we call x in algebra to day. so the way i would write it is 80 equals 80 divided by 4 plus 80 divided by 8 plus 3 x 3 sums each receiving x. that's what we have to work out of for me, work through the algorithm, the recipe to work this out. so if i simplify this, 80 equals 20 plus 10 plus 3 x. so 80
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is 30 plus 3 x. i take the 30 to the other side, 80 minus 30 equals 3, x 50 equals 3 x. and so x is 50 over 3. which if i'm correct, is 16 and 2 thirds the rims. this sort of algebraic equation was something very complicated to the people at the time of holiday me showed the recipe for carrying out very important calculations that would have been used in everyday life. that's right, isn't it? i use
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anti green isn't just a pilot. he's also a world record holder. in 1997, he became the 1st and only dr. and officially travel land faster than the speed of sound the longest standing record in history. and up to this point, nobody has broken it. that's about to change with building a new car to go a lot of the we all now building at the lead housing supersonic off. it is going to be a call like to know other blood town has been designed using the latest engineering techniques and complex computer modeling to create such an advance vehicle. the bloodhound engineers have sold thousands of equations. we're going to the limited modern technology. 1600 kilometer gonna pull 1000 miles and 40 percent faster than the speed of sound and went traveling that fast. some of the
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most important equations deal with drag the force of resistance that the car needs to overcome to reach a 1600 kilometers an hour in exactly the same way that lift will increase point 54. when you double the speed, the drag on a vehicle will also increase. how much drag you will experience is again a square law and even more extreme in the last record context. of course we're going so much false about the square terms, so enormous a bloodhound. we're looking at 1600 kilometers now. square that it can be very big number. and the amount of dragon is meant to create such an advanced high speed vehicle as well as quadratic. the bloodhound engineers have also need to solve many other types of equations. what's impressive is the korea nice work on quadratic equations then inspired other later mathematicians to solve even more complicated equation. and another great persian are high. regard is one of the greatest
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medieval poets in my view is an even better mathematician. he was solving cubic equations involving a call to the pons itself, pas itself again. and this is also important for bloodhound because the amount of power needed from the engine is a cubic equation. right, like make that step 2 cubic equations. they gave us the final building block, because it's not only when we double the speed we have on the drag, but it takes 8 to find the power is trying to do. and it becomes a very, very large number. it's that the cube which produces such a huge power on it. the fact that it's covered at medieval times is a scholarship ah ah . ready ready ready ready ready ready ready ready ah. ready ready
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ah. ready ready ready just one of the many comments you flourish in the 9th century. although he was persian, he spent his academic life in the city of baghdad, which had become a renown center of learning during the 1st century after the birth of islam, muslim mommies conquered vos, waves of the old world. they defeated the persians and entered iraq. in 762, the boss had keyless, established their capital in the newly founded city of baghdad, from which they wound over the great empire for the next 5 centuries. and it was in fact that they established the famous beta heckman or the house of wisdom. now it's not known exactly where this was or even if it was a single academy. but we do know that baghdad quickly became the greatest center of knowledge of the medieval world. the bastard rulers,
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with generous patrons promoting knowledge and scholarship. at the same money, a library and a stem bull. i'm meeting professor ramadan session. he studied the origins of the house of wisdom. the above here is the 150 are let me. i cannot among sort of hashtag, enough to don't miss the politic hello. why is that? when i run the coffee list of the tank can be is la bay to can, will model you have you make that character to that there was a ration. they were christians, they were jewish scholars, although it was under the office of the flemish empire being translated into arabic . many of these scholars came from all sorts of religions. working together in this one big movement. translation was central to the early work of the house
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of wisdom. doctor peter starr has studied this translation movements extensively. i think the translations are very central to the flourishing appliances in islam. one finds that the entire corpus of greek sonic literature finds its way into arabic. so they were translating essentially from greek, mainly from greek, but also languages, as well, from persian, ultimately from sanskrit. when did this. so at the end of the 8th century, we find the translations really picking up. this is the busted. yes. all the about the period, the earliest translations tend to be in the subjects which will serve the empire most medicine, astronomy, philosophy, mathematics. so without this remarkable translation movement that went on for 2 centuries, there wouldn't have been a goal the need to pull. i think that puts
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a very well me the house of wisdom was much more than just a library or translation house. this was the high point of islam, of civilization and unrivalled center of scholarship and learning. drawing on greek, persian, and indian texts, the scholars, their math, involve collection of world knowledge and then built on it through their own discoveries. the significance example of this use and development of knowledge from other civilizations was in geometry. ah, decoration is famous for its intricate patterns and geometric designs developed over the centuries. very often these were derived from earlier cultures. greek,
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roman bies, and time persian and central asia. they took that knowledge and created from it these beautiful patterns in geometry wasn't just about beauty. caught me and other scholars from the house of wisdom, translated books about mathematics and geometry in order to apply that knowledge to their world. that are very practical reasons for studying geometry. the arabs have now an enormous empire and need to measure its image facts in the book of elements of euclid, euclid elements, yes, as you be a very simpler building on the translations they studied. the scholars of beta heckman improved upon the measurements of the greeks, enabling them to create more accurate maps of the world. their mastery of geometry also allowed the scholars to make astronomical calculations and described the movements of the moon, planets and stars. i
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shall toners and merchants. one of the most fundamental aspects of mathematics was simply how to write numbers down in the golden age. there were several systems in use, including using arabic letters. the numbers similar to roman numerals. but for me, advocated a different number system. the number system we use today, the decimal system is called the hindu arabic numeral system called hindu because it comes originally from india, arabic because it came by the atlantic world. and scholars in baghdad like l. pardon me, transmitted it to the summit quilt and then to the rest of the world everywhere. today we use this decimal system one to 9 and the 0 and we forget how difficult it was before it exist shipment. so imagine if i wanted to add up my bill but
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not using the decimal system using roman numerals instead. let's see how could that would be if i 1st write these numbers down using hindu arabic numeral, 421614. now i can add these up very easily. the $16.14 makes 30 plus the $42.00 is $72.00. how about and roman numerals? 42 would be x l i. 16 is x v i. 14 is x i v. right? i have to break this down now, how many? so x l is 40, so that actually 4 x is and then i and then i have another x, the y. and then i have an x and 4, i ok. so now i have 6, x is x, x, x,
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x. and then i have a v. and then i have 12347. so there's another v 2 eyes. they give me another x. so finally, 123-4567, that l x x i which is 72. so i've got the right number, but it took a lot longer to calculate the i in the late 12 century, the italian mathematician fibonacci, traveled the world and came across these numbers in the slimy empire. in 12 o 2, he wrote his book, libra bashi, the book of calculation, in which he promoted the use of him, do arabic funeral system over the roman numerals,
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describing its many benefits for both merchants and mathematicians alike. how the uptake of the system was slow. both in the atlantic world and in europe. in florence, in 1299, they banned these numerals on the pretext that they were easier to falsify than roman numerals. however, common sense eventually prevailed, and the numeral system was adopted throughout europe in the 15th century, 600 years after as introduced to the atlantic world on mr. fields is computer encryption from email, confidentiality to government security. encryption plays a big role in an increasingly online digital world. and the study of encryption goes all the way back to the 9th century and the work of another famous mathematician from beta hickman. this is a very interesting book. i'm trying to figure out exactly what it's telling us.
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it's a book by l can be the philosophy of the arrows. now, kennedy was a great poly math. he was a philosopher, he was a mathematician. he was a musician. and i think the part here he talks about, he's got to disc with the arabic alphabet, and he talks about counting the number a particular symbol appears. l. kendy figures out the idea of frequency analysis that when a letter appears a certain number of times, if it's more common than other letters, you can work out what it is. i can this text is the earliest known description of frequency analysis. but that text was only discovered in 1987. before that we had no idea that the supposedly modern technique for study encrypted messages was in use over a 1000 years ago. now, one of the oldest and most simplest ways to encrypt a message to make secret is simply by substituting each letter by
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a different one. let me show you. imagine we have a simple sentence. al, kinda was a famous scholar. now provided we have the key, the encryption key, which is also called the cipher, which by the way, come from the arabic word for which means 0. with this fifa, i represent each letter with a different one. so by looking at the table, i would see that a corresponds to l and l corresponds to k, k for tindy k corresponds to v and so on. in this way, i can turn this sentence into something that's not readable unless you have the cipher. what if we have a paragraph like this which looks completely like gobbledygook without the key, without the cipher, i can't work it out. now if you don't have the site, you can use frequency analysis to try and figure out the meaning. i know that the
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follies, most common letters in english language, e, t a o and i. so far i replaced these into that text, i can start to see patterns emerging. for instance, if i look at the most frequently occurring letter in the text is w. so i'm guessing w is most likely and i carry on like this until i start to recognize individual words. so for instance, a 3 letter word that begins with t and ends with e is most likely the that gives me that code for the letter age and so on. ah, ah, [000:00:00;00] ah,
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developments in mathematics weren't the only legacy of the golden age. the translation movement had introduced scholars to a wide range of subjects and they made advances and fields of diverse astronomy and medicine. they took the mathematics they've developed and applied it to optic chemistry in engineering. science was now no longer just a philosophical pursuit. the mathematicians ation of science have the way to a multitude of fine, typic advances the next time we look at the state of the art robotic engineering. so you can see it move, not like a robot or a human fluid, but discovered that the idea of automatic machine goes back over a 1000 years, ah, testing, in a sense this isn't any programmable we fall down to that complex mechanism,
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such as close musical instrument and was supposed to move the water, we allow that moving back to the pool and it's like a double piston and investigate with that as possible. could fly all the way back to the 9th century. ah, living in a war zone is a risk not worth taking for most, but for a 10 year old boy, there is nowhere else to go. in the absence of his parents, his grandmother dedicates herself to his upbringing. never knowing whether the next explosion or echo one step closer to the place they call home. the distant barking of dogs. a witness documentary on al jazeera. the us is always of interest, the people around the world. this is been going on for a number of what's happening to 55,
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but i can see the report 30 minutes and perspective. we try to explain your global audience and why it's important that could impact the light at the height of the storm. water was so high, it wouldn't be there, but my hey, this is an important part of the world. people pay attention to what you have to do is very good at bringing the news to the world. from here. a reporters retreat in a brutal civil war. if a comment hadn't been that, the israeli invasion would not have been so well resorted. the commodore had become a journalist, extend, you could be in the safe enclave and then you went out into civil war. i started off leaving this other grand street condo hotel. the next room i was in was underground in a tiny prison. so as a hostage, a route to commodore war hotels on al jazeera. ah,
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ah ah ah, ah, ah ah, ah me, this is al jazeera ah, hello there, ms. garcia. hey, this is a news i live from headquarters here in durham, coming up in the next 60 minutes. at least 4 people are dead and dozens injured off the trip, passenger trains collide and pakistan. he led to military cruise in less than


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