this is al jazeera. hello i'm adrian for the good and this is that he was live from doha coming up in the next 60 minutes prince philip the husband of britain's queen elizabeth has died it was 99. we give thanks as a nation and a kingdom the extraordinary life and work of prince philip you can bet. what it means to me is that the activities of the law enforcement officers resulted in mr floyd staff a forensic pathologist rejects defense arguments in the trial of the former
policeman who is accused of murdering george floyd. leave the state next to their mars u.n. ambassador urges the international community to use all necessary means to help protect his people. and the 1st week of talks to revive the iran nuclear deal end with tehran demanding that washington remove its sanctions. prince philip the husband of the reigning british monarch queen elizabeth has dies at the age of $99.00 flags at buckingham palace a flying at half staff the royal family has entered an official mourning period or so then by his title that you have edinburgh philip spent more than 70 years at the queen's side al-jazeera story chalons takes a look now at the life and legacy of the duke of edinburgh.
he was by his side throughout the longest reign of a monarch in british history the prince philip duke of edinburgh it wasn't only a marriage but the life of service to his wife queen elizabeth the 2nd born into greek hands danish royalty philip had a lonely childhood he was taken under the wing of the british aristocracy when he married her then princess elizabeth in 1947 he was a promising young naval officer. it was a fairy tale wedding for a country emerging from war and hardship it's all change for the young couple when elizabeth sparta king george the 6 died at only 56 years of age she became queen and philip in the words of his private secretary looked as if the world would fall and down on him his naval career ended along with his independence prince philip was sort of forced into making huge sacrifices he was very much a man's man not someone who was going to naturally fall into the position of
playing 2nd fiddle and walking 2 paces behind his wife and calling how ma'am in public and so on and so began life in the queen's shadow hundreds of engagements a year he did however manage to find time for his own charities helping young people and conserving wildlife very energetic a problem solver a sort of scientific cast of mind so there is a sort of you know on the positive side the attributes that people admired sometimes you know his hit his detractors would would would say that you know some of his forthrightness could come across as rudeness philip had a reputation for embarrassing politically incorrect remarks whether he was being rude about the chinese or indians or swearing at photographers who kept him waiting too long often a sideshow to formal occasions yet even though an air of racism hung over him the
story royalist u.k. media generally forgave him he was certainly given a much easier ride than politicians politicians who tend to make a racist or an offensive remark in this day and age 10 to have to apologize a couple of days later because so much pressure on them but i've never known a prince philip to apologize for a mark and i remember once he won it over after he said to an aboriginal leader do you still throw space at each other and i saw him do this in australia in 2002 and the next day he came over it made front pages all over the world and he just wanted to. know since if you the complete absence of human so he was going to apologize. his retirement from public duties came in 2017 with a sendoff from the royal marines. whatever his faults his 60 years of public service was admired by many people while their marriage was said to have had its ups and downs in the couple's younger years prince philip remained dedicated and supportive to the queen chill receive immense
sympathy from a british public known to view her with respect and affection. rory challenge is with us now live outside buckingham palace in london laurie many people paying tribute to the brits a day emphasizing as you were then his long and loyal service to queen and country . yeah absolutely whatever you think about the man whatever you think about the institution of monarchy it's undeniable that he had an extraordinarily long and eventful life yes a privilege one but one that had many many years of dedicated service to his wife and to public duty there have been outpourings of condolence coming from around the world we've had leaders in ukraine leaders in armenia united states we've had
president joe biden and barack obama by sending their condolences so this is a figure of importance around the world there are plenty of people though in the united kingdom reader are indifferent to the monarchy or are opposed to it and for them there may be you know the younger generations or those who lean left on the political spectrum they might say well why does it matter to me it was a math my life what is the monarchy it's outdated it's not representative and i should give no more attention to the passing of prince philip than i would to any other 99 year old man but there are plenty of other people perhaps a majority who are more right leaning on the political spectrum perhaps older they will be affected by this they would have held him in high regard as a symbolic figure of the country and they will be sad and of course you have the views of the political establishment the governments and we heard those from boris johnson earlier on today prince philip the affection of generations here in the
united kingdom across the commonwealth and around the world. he was the longest serving consort in history one of the last surviving people in this country to have served in the 2nd world war a cape mattapan where he was mentioned in dispatches for bravery and in the invasion of sicily where he saved his ship by his quick thinking and from that conflict he took an ethic of service that he applied throughout the unprecedented changes of the post-war era. like the expert carriage driver that he was he helped to steer the royal family and the monarchy so that remains an institution indisputably vital to the balance and happiness of our national life. there is a central pillar of the british monarchy that the husband the console's of her
majesty the queen what sort of funeral will be will prince philip be afforded. will not the kind of funeral that was initially planned as we know has laid waste to the plans of many people many organizations across the country and across the world and the role family had its own ideas about what it would like to happen on the events of prince philip's death there would have been a big parade through the streets there would have been crowds lining the streets to watch his coffin past there would have been a proper condolence periods at. an institution to to pay attention to his coffin to come and and pay respects and that none of that is going to happen essentially what will happen we don't know when is that it will be a much lower key affair it will be mostly family the royal family and perhaps
some heads of states invited from across the commonwealth we don't know when it's going to be because. the plans haven't yet been announced by the the royal family we also don't quite know yet who is going to be attendance from within the royal family particularly howry and his wife meggan going to be there the deacon duchess of sussex of course of had their big differences with the roll family in recent years they are in the united states at the moment we understand that prince harry the. planning to come back but that has not been confirmed yet. how does their authority challenge reporting live from buckingham palace in london rory many thanks a span charles manson a former press secretary to her majesty the queen he joins us live via skype from brighton in the u.k. could have you with us former british prime minister john major said the prince philip appear to my eyes to the british spirit what are your force today on the
passing of the duke of edinburgh well i think prince philip was a very distinguished. of public service of the of the both in supporting the queen and also earn his own right very energetic man who contributed to the words in the benefits of young people to benefit in the environment in many many other causes that he's he supported so that his contribution. his work queen and rights in way he's combined starlix way to what extent. taught extent was was he the driving force behind the modern british monarchy. i think you jeff prince philip was definitely one of the driving forces behind the evolving british more acute i mean the reason why the british one of his wives or world has adapted to changes in society. has been
a driver of that and very much supporting. sort of adjustment to stay relevant and his own natural interests and new environment young people in industry and engineering ideas. and action and i think that's an example of. public an injury in the modern age and in making a deal of snow sort of sleeves it was obviously a very old man but he still retained that that that energy the that that you described that intelligence had happened dimmed to what extent will the british monarchy remain relevant without him. well i think one of the one of the great things that he's done is that he's passed on prince philip passed on plains children and grandchildren
a lot of his own the. prince of worlds as he was interested in the environment the prince's trust in young people prince william equally as a strong environmental interest so i guess he's provided a good example of highly conserved makers conserving public life in a way that. contributes but also isn't joy or exciting. and or jackson i think certainly is a figure. who died years and to get things done is a marvelous chairman for example as well as counsel to the queenly chairs all church on sorts of world leaders in the. round table for years then great one for encouraging people to give him the best and to give their ideas and take part in society as things that are much cherished really by polish generation
he was of course concert convention meant that he could never be called king. the husband of the queen even the the wives of kings can become a call queen you think just think that of the 10. i do anything for them but still in control we had a great deal of road blood in virtually all the royal families of europe particularly the danish greek but many other rostam this is world to another to be bothered about titles and he's a man who's achieved a lot. more was really quite modest about his we're sure it was not to make. you like to just get on the things and predict what you were known for violence he wrote for but also very encouraging him to made sense he was tremendously encouraging people no matter what mistakes as war with something new to me
personally. general or captain history at dealing power. i want to ask one more question about about the british public we know that prince philip didn't want a state funeral the british government has asked the public not to bring 4 floral tributes to the various royal palaces although people have largely ignored that i would say from the pictures we're seeing of windsor castle. tonight do you think that the british public will feel deprived of the fact that they weren't a state funeral an opportunity if you like to mourn his passing. i think most people with go there than the restrictions of the so quite cautious. will understand that the funeral will be. a slight correction and in fact i believe my time in buckingham palace and even then some preparations in the form of
a day like this it was a very strong feeling those offers and the one in fast make. and those always been this way it's a very strange thing in the war his contribution creates an engine whereas in the war isn't always a very modest disposes in men's achievements so i think people were allowed to start. with you know maybe quite. close to the more i think those things were so mindless star and dignity and i think come. it'll be a small i expect their small thing will mainly be confined to members of found their own close family but it was to have some sense of thought or tribute to a great who was contributed so much to the public life and was country. made
a difference in all sorts of other countries around the work 3 tickets to buy thanks to you for being with us charles manson for press secretary to the cream. this is that he was from al jazeera still to come on the program new violence looks old fear is a northern island look into what's causing the worst rioting that any years. well because alison plants in alabama find out the pay pal if they have enough votes to unionize in a push that could affect hundreds of thousands of stuff that is. at sports tokyo the big guys to say the test events that have been threatened with consolation could still take place. another expert has testified that george floyd died from a lack of oxygen here's the way that he was held down by police forensic
pathologist lindsay thomas has explained how the pressure george floyd was on the during his arrest restricted his airway making it difficult for him to breathe she rejected the defense theory that floyd's drug use and underlying health problems that killed him prosecutors asked dr thomas to explain her analysis of floyd's autopsy and what it means to me is that the activities that the law enforcement officers resulted in mr floyd staff and that specifically those activities were of the subdual of the restraint and neck compression and does this not also represent your own conclusion yes a conclusion you have reached an opinion you hold a reasonable degree of medical certainty yes. lived out of minneapolis alan fischer is covering the trial for us and i'm talking through what we've heard so far on this day 10 of the trial. moments of mention several times adrian this is all about the prosecution building the blocks of their
case yesterday we heard from a pulmonologist a breathing expert here we're hearing from a forensic scientist who's essentially seeing the same thing that if it wasn't for the police george floyd would still be alive that they put a lot of pressure on his body he was unable to breathe and therefore because of that he struggled to get the necessary breath that meant his brain stops working and his heart stopped working at the same time she said the video helped her come to that conclusion but she said you could see from the video that he was struggling in fact she pointed to the incident where at 1 point one of the police checks george floyd for a pulse finds that is not mentions the fact that there is no pulse yet the police officers continue to examine the same pressure for several more minutes as she said that methamphetamine was not part of the cause of the death of george floyd even though there were traces of the drug phoned in his bloodstream and he would have died that night so he said that any healthy person would have died that night with
the police doing what they were doing exacting the force they were exacting on the body in she was asked about the idea of homicide being mentioned on the death certificate she pointed out when it comes to medical examiners homicide for them is marking 2 people who read the reports that he died at the hinds of someone else she says it's not a legal determination that you pointed out was for the courts to do no there was interesting questions coming from the defense they're clearly trying to build up the idea that george floyd died because either he took drugs or 'd he had a heart condition and asked a couple hypothetical questions one if he didn't take drugs. and there was no police pressure could this heart condition have killed him and he said if that in a set of circumstances that was possible and then he flipped it around if he'd taken drugs in a new heart condition with no police pressure could he have died and again said luke in
a separate set of circumstances that could possibly happen the defense is just looking for ways that they can undermine the credibility of the experts that are being wheeled by the prosecution that is their job after all be some form of reasonable doubt and after we've had a lunch break the court is at the moment we should hear from the medical examiner who actually carried out the autopsy on george floyd's body and determined that his death was caused by pulmonary failure and also that there was some drugs and his body and that of course is key to the defense so will be interesting to hear what the prosecution make of someone who is a prosecution witness but could end up backing up some of the points being made by the defense also says helen fisher reporting live from minneapolis for the moment many thanks indeed alan jones is george floyd's uncle he joins us now live via skype from get his book in south dakota could tell you with us. what do you think of the way in which the prosecution is making its case in the trial so far.
i think saying what i say is the same thing that you say i think is cut and dry but maybe in a black man for 54 years i'm saying less things happened so i'm hoping and praying that my family's hope and pray that that judicial system does what it's supposed to do and rest and the rest convict because we basically saw him use power and control oh my nephew and we i waited to die with my nephew after 2 after about 3 minutes. you sit there and you are torn by struggle and didn't they come up with they are the same judge they would have started out and you can tell when you're i trimmers and died. and like i said i want the judicial
should do what it's supposed to do and that's what we can help right but you know man yes that was bad yes they were bad because you can't stand every angle and you literally saying where he had i trim or. if it were from life and death a matter of seconds he suffered for 6 minutes viciously so yeah man all of them just want the rest of the do all of this. is bringing back as you say in very sharp relief to the agony of that time in may last year how is that the family coping with with hearing all of this this expert testimony and what george floyd went through from that time child and trying to put his name on my nephew next that was probably the most
gruesome horrific hate filled anger fear he literally think about this after about after watching those clips for about 1015 seconds you knew in your heart that he wasn't never late. and that's what we've had to deal with man you know some people we deal with different things different ways i have been. spread the word or gesture said the quality i've been trying to push let's get rid of qualified immunity i didn't don't want everything that that i have bought in my power to make a change to not to have another black man rally man white man. to get harmed by police brutality because a brother every day of my life just walk out of think about it remember somebody
not here because somebody wanted to be judge jury and executioner for a night 10 dollars and a 100 pain these a hell of a way to go out really really appreciate you coming out to talk to us for southern just many thanks indeed for being with us thank you thank sure accomplished ronald some of them is a professor of law and the director of criminal justice institute at harvard law school he joins us now live from newton massachusetts could have you with the same lawsuit that the same question of you what do you make of the way in which the prosecution is making its case in this trial so far. well it's been ups and downs these last couple of days have been very good for the prosecution the medical experts have confirmed the prosecution's theory that mr floyd died because of pressure to the neck expert cea so what the experts have done thus far
simply has been confirm a tory of what most people's comments it suggested them as happened people saw the video and people thought that the death was a result of the video the defense last week did a great job at suggesting of trying to do reasons for the death they elicit a lot of testimony about drugs and heart disease and so forth and they began to plant the seeds of reasonable doubt this week the prosecution has come back the latter part of this week the prosecution has come back and pat scientists say no we're pretty sure that the cause of death was that he couldn't get air and that was because someone was compressing his neck so right now the prosecution is winning as it were we will see what happens when the medical examiner comes he will testify next and his significance is that the medical examiner is not
as s. as as sure as these other witnesses with respect to the cause of death i his report is not as certain with respect to. the mechanism by which george floyd died which is why the prosecution's had to bring in these expert witnesses so what would the defense now have to do after that the compelling testimony that we've been hearing what would it have to do to sway the jury it's way. well the defense is going to say i have to cross-examine the medical examiner in a way that suggests that the medical examiner did his job without being in any way biased by what was going on around him what i mean by that so he's going to argue at closing that ladies and gentlemen the prosecution
brought in all of these other experts because they didn't like the opinion of the expert who 1st view the body he viewed it in an objective manner he viewed it not in the light of social unrest not in the light of protest not in light of after the fact conclusions about what happened but this medical examiner viewed the body shortly after mr pruitt was killed and that's what we should trust and what you find is that there were complications they keep drilling down on this word complications so he's trying to convince one juror in this one juror that that a substantial cause of death with drugs or something else and not the the neck the the prosecution on the other hand has to stick with its theory and say ladies and gentlemen this is a simple case you saw the video you heard the experts there's no reasonable
explanation except that mr floyd died from pressure being applied to his carotid artery his neck professor many thanks indeed for that could talk to so little sullivan that and then you can massachusetts. because applied for u.s. approval for the vaccine for 12 to 15 year olds the from say that phase 3 trials for younger teenagers have proved effective the company's plan to file similar requests across the world in coming days let's go live to washington d.c. now to see as mike hanna is there mike tell us more. well basically what you said that the tests for 12 to 15 year olds that phase 3 tests indicated this success rate off 100 percent this is very high indeed also revealed that the side that thinks for patients this age was exactly the same as side
effects for patients age 16 and above now at present the emergency use authorization does apply to ages 16 and above but now all pfizer is seeking to increase the pool of those liable of a double for vaccination between 12 to 15 now what happens next is that the f.d.a. sits down and looks at this request for an extension to the emergency authorization that's a process that should take pretty speedy time given previous authorizations that have come through all previous extensions to amendments but why this is particularly significant at this moment is that yesterday for example in the united states thursday there was some 60000 new cases of corona virus reported now this is being an average for a number of weeks now and health officials are warning that this it represents a major threat to the country and particularly to the majority of new cases are
that u.k. variant now this is of great concern to health officials any action that will widen the pool of those available for vaccine could have a major role in terms of continuing to attempt to push back the virus to serve as mike hanna reporting live from washington mike many thanks. the number of judges making up the u.s. supreme court is to be reviewed the white house says the president by will order the creation of a bipartisan commission to study potential reforms it's a priority for the progressive wing of the democratic party after republicans rushed through a replacement to ruth bader ginsburg last year ahead of the election in order to extend the majority a white house correspondent kimberly how could his life for us now well so in washington d.c. can be wise to buy but ministration doing this well because it was a campaign promise made by president biden on the campaign trail so he's making good on that pledge to at least study the issue but i can tell you that packing the
court as it's called is controversy all in the united states currently it's favored by democrats who want to see the ideological balance of the court which right now tips to the right or conservative given the 3 appointments by the previous president so they're in favor of it it's something that for the most part conservatives oppose this just to give you some context is something that we really don't know what joe biden ultimately thinks about whether or not this is a good idea all he would say of the campaign trail is that he was willing to set up a commission if he became president so that's what we're seeing right now this commission being set up the white house press secretary saying that he will be listening to a diversity of viewpoints we know that they will sort of conclude their findings after about 180 days of review but that they will not be making any recommendations so it's really a little unclear what's going to happen next but cammed this administration
justices to the supreme court if it wanted to could it pack the court as you say. technically yes it could what it would do is it would have to encourage congress to pass a law and right now that's something the democratic white house can do given the fact that the house of representatives and the senate are controlled by democrats so yes congress could pass a law in the president could sign it into law effectively allowing joe biden to pass the court if you will or increase the number of justices just to give you quickly some historical context so we haven't seen this since 869 that's the last time that the number of justices was set at night and that's where it's remained other was a little bit of controversy over this in the 1930 s. and says that it's been relatively quiet but activists now not quiet about this and still not happy that donald trump picked 3 conservative justices and they're pushing biden to change the ideological makeup of the court i was there as company
how good life are in washington but i thank steve kimberly by going to take you. live now to minneapolis it is the 10th day of the trial of former policeman derek shaven he's accused of murdering george floyd during his arrest last year. and i see 8 you know be a k e r. s but thank you roger good afternoon dr baker good afternoon you know before we 1st of all you conducted the autopsy on this george for i did before we get into the specifics of the the autopsy. what do we spoil your background a bit you do you have a chief in the county medical examiner that's correct and would you tell us what it means to be the chief medical examiner have to count so i've been the chief medical examiner for hennepin county since 2004 i'm actually the chief medical examiner for
one of the dakota and scott counties my office provide service to. all 3 of those counties which is about 1850000 minnesotans or about a 3rd of the state falls within our catchment area being the chief medical examiner means that i supervise the rest of the staff in particular my other physicians i have 6 other doctors as well as a doctor in training that work under me. and so before becoming the chief you were the assistant chief correct and that was in roughly 2002 career that i was the assistant chief medical examiner for 2 years so all it has been going on 1000 years is you this in chief or the chief curry. what did you do before joining the head of the county medical examiner's office. are you asking me to go back to my educational background or just my post graduate training maybe to the air force some air force oh prior to coming to him in county from 1908 to 2002 i was a major on active duty in the united states air force i served as a forensic pathologist for the department of defense our unit was known as the
armed forces medical examiner and at that time we were headquartered in the washington d.c. area. are you a board certified in the areas i am which you tell us which ones i am board certified in anatomic and clinical pathology and i hold some specialty certification in forensic pathology. dr would you tell us what the national association of medical examiners. yes the national association of medical examiners is the professional organization for people who do what i do for a living. i want to say we have about 8 or 900 members many of those are fellows like need meaning they're fully board certified forensic pathologists we do have a variety of other membership categories as well for investigators for administrative personnel and for other support personnel in the profession. now u.s. our former president of the national association of medical examiners yes i am in
fact at least as of today you are the youngest president of the un has president ever to hold that position but the am i dead i don't actually know that's true but i will take your word for it counselor i think i did not know that yeah i thought it was just listen to you dr baker. so but if you have been the president of any of the yes i have. so let's move now to the specific autopsy of mr floyd. could you give us some sense of what you knew about the circumstances surrounding his death before you started your work on this to floyd yes so i was a minute away or that mr floyd had become unconscious well in police custody that he had been transported to hennepin health care that that was where he was pronounced dead i believe at the time i started the examination my staff was probably still working to confirm mr floyd's identity and properly notify his next of kin but that was basically the background information that i had and had you
seen any of the videos at the time you started your work i have not i was aware that at least one video ahead gone viral on the internet but i intentionally chose not to look at that until i had examined mr floyd and i did not want to bias my exam by going in with any preconceived notions that might lead me down one pathway or another so it was in several days after you done your work on the autopsy that you saw the videos. one video. shortly after the autopsy and that was the one that i think most of the public had seen through facebook or other social media the other videos such as the cup surveillance video and the body worn camera videos i did not see until 3 or 4 days after the autopsy. good could you dr baker give us and hoover view of how it is you conduct autopsies what's your approach to sure so in a case that's believed to be a homicide or a potential homicide there's a few more steps involved than a typical natural death or an accidental death we start every exam with
a very thorough external examination of the dizziness body in an as is condition meaning the medical devices are still in place if the decision came in with clothing that clothing would still be in place on their body all of those things potentially could be evidence to us as the medical examiners and in many cases we will also collect trace evidence for example if the dizziness fingernails are long enough we will collect fingernail clippings we will collect some pulled ahead here as as exemplars in case those are needed to match to anything. it wouldn't apply in mr floyd's case but in other circumstances we shoot a fair number of x. rays before the autopsy starts if we're looking for things like bullets or stab wounds broken knife tips that sort of thing once all of those are done then we very carefully set the clothing aside and we very carefully remove the medical advice devices and then we examine the body again from head to toe front and back we're documenting this with copious photographs as we go and then the final step in the
external examination is we clean the body very very thoroughly because we don't want to give blood any foreign material any plant material anything that might be on the body to obscure the injuries or diseases that we're looking for and then we again photograph the body head to toe front and back. once that part of the exam is done then we proceed to the internal exam which is i think what most lay people would think of when they hear the word autopsy we make a set of very careful incisions on the body that allow us to remove all of the organs one by one so we can look for evidence of natural disease internal evidence of injury and while we're doing that we're collecting specimens for toxicology typically blood and urine are the ideal specimens we do remove all of the organs from this ip of the tongue to the bladder we also remove the brain we also remove all of the structures from the front of the neck looking for any of the injury or evidence of disease in a case like mr floyd's there are some additional steps we will take that wouldn't occur in most autopsies so for example in mr floyd's case i did make incisions of
his wrists and a sect around the skin underneath to look for evidence of what we would call subcutaneous bruising or bruising under the skin from the handcuffs that were applied or old. and then the last thing that i was going to say is also in mr floyd's case i did make a special incision from the back of his head all the way down to his box and i decided underneath this in all the way out to the side of his neck all the way up to his shoulders and all the way out his flanks and you might ask why we would do something like that and the answer is because sometimes fresh bruises can be difficult to see in some people and so we look underneath the skin to make sure that we haven't missed something again those last few steps wouldn't be part of a typical autopsy but in circumstances like this it's a generally accepted practice that we do that and dr makers' the autopsy part of our broader death investigation yes the autopsy is just one piece of the medical
examiner's death investigation and could you generally characterize the. what's the the death investigation in tail overall so the medical examiners alternate mission in addition to properly identifying people is to ascertain their cause of death and their manner of death the autopsy is just one component of that it obviously has a great deal to do to inform the cause of death and manner of death but we also need to know the dizziness past medical history we need to get ahold of the dissidents next of kin to see if the disease could potentially be a donor if there's any family history that we need to know about we will typically contact a seat in this primary care physicians as well as get their hospital records if an ambulance was dispatched and took them to the hospital will even get the ambulance run sheet as part of our investigation because to get the cause and manner of death right you need to assemble all of those things for the whole picture. so so let's go back to the. autopsy aspect of it how important is it to have
a detailed documentation of what you do. it in terms of the autopsy yes or well if it's critically important that the autopsy be very detailed particularly if the death is potentially a homicide because obviously it could end up in a court in the work that you're doing would be evidence and do you create what we might refer to as a robust data set documenting what you do yes what's all included in the so when i use the term robust data set what i really mean is i have dictated the most detailed autopsy report that i can describe a lot of scars all the tattoos all the birthmarks all the injuries in many cases it's the pertinent negatives meaning the lack of injury places where you might expect to see an injury but you don't all of those things are very carefully dictated in a narrative autopsy report but that's not enough you have to take copious photography as well my goal is to create a set of photos that's so robust that on the other pathologist could take my set of
photos and almost feel like they've been there for the autopsy that person has enough data that they could look at my work in to reach their own conclusions they don't have to take my word for it because it's in the photos. and in the case of mr joyce way that's what you do that was certainly my goal yes. your honor if this point i'm going to. ask dr baker to identify the photographs from the autopsy i still have in your heart. you have started making.
dr baker i've had to do. a number of photographs that should have exhibit numbers 186235185236187 when 88 when 891-919-1192 i represent you that's what you have ok and if you could just look through the set and just confirm for the record that those are photographs that you took. during your autopsy of mr george for. these are involved autopsy photographs of mr void and they were taken by me thank dr baker i'd like to redistribute them to the jury or.
the prosecutor now distributing photos taken at the autopsy of george floyd 2 members of the jury who are not shown in the television coverage here which is why the pistol be a delay at the moment but the jury obviously nice to see these photographs. of. what was taken. at that autopsy. so the prosecutor coming back to his position in just a moment and then proceedings will resume. dr baker let me just ask you jim we 1st. about documented injuries that you saw
with the spectacles george floyd i'll ask you about specific parts of the body ok did you know to the injuries to most of floyd's back i did not didn't see any bruises scrapes etc correct. what about the injuries to just a fleet's face. yes mr floyd had several injuries to his face. and if you could dr baker look at exhibit 186. and exhibit 235. you. know represent to the jurors of see these 2 photos but is the.
first tell us with what do we see in these 2 photos these are photographs of the left side of mr floyd's face this would be after i have removed or cut away any medical intervention on had there been any blood or foreign material as body was cleaned up before these photographs were taken as well and these were specifically taken to illustrate the injuries that you see on the corner of his left eyebrow and on his left cheek you can see the bruising in the abrasion that's fancy medical lingo for that big scrape on the left side of his forehead and you can see the scrape or the abrasion on the left side of the cheek it's very common for abrasions post-mortem to take on that dark black color after death the moisture that would be an abrasion on you or me isn't there anymore and so they tend to dry out look a little bit more like this what you see in the photo do you have a an opinion as to how mr floyd would have incurred these are very cheap. well these would be entirely consistent with the left side of his face being pinned against the asphalt or the road surface that he was on the night before. in the
prone position correct. if you would dr baker look at exhibit $185.00. what do we see in exhibit 185. this is in the overall photograph of mr floyd's face taken early on in the post-mortem examination you can see the scale there in the photograph that's actually in all the photos you have with this case number on the scale allows you to gauge the size of what you're looking at this is a photograph i would take in any case that you can put a face with the dissidents name and as you can see case number you can see the the injuries that we illustrate in the previous 2 photos there on the left side of his head and on his left cheek you can also see a small abrasion on the left side of his forehead it's that kind of that pinpoint
thing about an inch above his left eyebrow you can see a laceration which is a tearing of the skin on the right side subtle bruising of his nose and a couple of small abrasions on the right side of his nose and i think you can feel a few small abrasions under the left corner of his mouth and dr baker which is the tube that we see in his mouth to mr floyd's mouth is the under tracheal tube that was put in during the attempts to resuscitate him we do leave those tubes in place and cut them off before we start the autopsy that some quality control that we do for the hospital and the paramedics that we can confirm the tube was in the right place when we do our exams. dr baker if you would go to exhibit $100.00. what do we see in exhibit $187.00 this is
a close up photograph of mr floyd's right shoulder centered in the photograph just above the scale you can see what i would call an abraded contusion which is a fancy medical lingo for a bruise that has and scraping superimposed on it. and exhibit 188. exhibit $188.00 is the close up photograph of mr floyd's left shoulder and you can see occupying most of the photograph there is an abrasion the the deep red and slightly less red and pink injury that you see again it looks darker than you might envision this on yourself typically these will dry out after death and that's why it takes that darker appearance and this is an injury that is consistent with the fluid line prone on the asphalt yes. i must look at exhibits when 89 and 190.
what do you see in exhibits when the value when they exhibit 109 is a photograph of the back side of mr voids left in exhibit number 190 is a photograph of the backside of mr floyd's right hand in any case that we think has the potential to be a homicide we do examine the hands of very carefully and we photograph the hands very carefully our hands are largely the way that we interact with the world around us and so injuries on the hands or sometimes lack thereof can tell us something about what happened specifically in mr floyd's case you can see a number of scar like areas on his knuckles on the left and some scattered across the back of his right hand i don't specifically know what those are from those obviously predate the events of his death and i don't know where those came from the more acute injuries that you see in the photograph right above the scale in each picture you can see kind of a patterned bruise that almost looks like a tram track those parallel marks that's pretty typical for what handcuff marks
look like when we see them at autopsy. and dr baker exhibit 191. exhibit number 191 is a close up photograph of the back of the index and 3rd fingers of mr floyd's right hand you can see that he's got some injuries over his knuckles just for orientation if i were to use my own right hand we're looking at an injury right here than an injury right here on the back of those 2 fingers and if you have an opinion as to what may be the cause of those injuries so these are blunt force injuries these are abrasions and lacerations again and that's damage to the skin from blunt trauma these would be entirely consistent with him having been in an altercation with another person they certainly could be from the asphalt or just about anything his hand could have banged into. thank you dr baker and. for the photos for the photos way.
not like to talk with you for just a moment about your examination of this if weights are ok did you take a photograph of mr floyd's heart still intact. no i did not would you tell the jury why not. i don't normally photograph organs that appear to be for perfectly normal unless there is some reason to i don't have a photograph of mr floyd spleen or mr floyd's liver either because those are also grossly normal his heart was enlarged by weight but that wouldn't really be something you could capture in a photograph unless it were so excessively enlarged that it would be obvious from the from the picture. and so when we talk about the tissues of the heart are you
able to describe them generally such as into cardio the my hardihood center sure would you tell the jurors what those are that you would never look at yet so deceptive in the heart is one of the most important things we do in every autopsy because the heart is involved in so many of the deaths that we investigate so the 1st thing we do is we carefully remove the heart from the lungs the next thing you do is you carefully make sure that there is no blood or clot left in the heart because you want to get a very accurate weight it turns out that the weight of the heart is a very good predictor as to whether that heart is normal not people who have high blood pressure for a long period of time their heart will actually get heavier just like any muscle that's that's worked hard at the heart will grow in response to that kind of stress so we do weigh the heart 1st the next thing you typically do is you very carefully desexed the coronary arteries and when i say carefully deceptive i mean you take a scalpel blade and you cut every 234 millimeters in
a very fine slices along every one of the coronary arteries a normal adult heart will generally this be described as having 2 coronary arteries the left and the right the left immediately branches into the left interior descending and the left circum flacks so we decided to those 2 very carefully and then we look at the right coronary artery so usually you who keep your people describe 3 coronary arteries the circum flex the left anterior descending on the right so we want to make sure those arteries are in the right place we want to make sure they have normal openings where they connect to the aorta and then we go tiny slice by tiny slice making sure that none of those arteries have narrowings or blockages in them. after we've done that then we typically will carefully slice the heart meaning of the whole organ we're now cutting through the muscle and as you're making those slices what you're looking for is evidence of previous heart damage is there a scar in the heart is there hemorrhage in the heart suggesting maybe
a more recent heart attack if you will there's many more rare conditions of the heart that we're also looking for what we do this none of those apply in mr floyd's case but those are always in the back of our minds as we do this in the last thing we do is once we've cut through the muscle of the heart we open all the valves of the heart generally in the same direction the blood flows we make sure the valve leaflets are normal make sure there's no infections there's no calcifications there's the normal number of leaflets. so yeah we've now we've now looked at the outside of the hurts the corners the muscles of the heart in the valves so and so having done all of that with respect to mr floyd did you find any previous damage to his heart muscle no mr of would had no visible or microscopic previous damage to his heart muscle you know and i apologise to you dr baker and the jury but there is one of the photograph i do want to look at ok so if if we could just number one that to which i should be the heartfelt.
so dr bigger would you tell us what we see in the exhibit 192 yes exhibit 192 is cross sections of the what i would describe as the worst or the narrowest of lesions that i found in the street floyd's coronary arteries so above about the 3 mark on the ruler you can see 3 pieces of coronary artery that are fairly close together the uppermost one in your photograph is what we would call the proximal left interior descending coronary artery so that means that's pretty close to the aorta that's close to the origin of the artery and in most adults the left interior descending is the largest of the 3 coronary arteries so in this picture you can see
that mr floyd's left anterior descending or artery is is quite narrowed. i would put that at 75 percent narrowing the cut that you see right below that which is the middle of the 3 that's another section through mr floyd's left the interior descending coronary artery so you can see that that area very tight narrowing is still there again i would put that at about 75 percent. and then the 3rd one you see in that series of 3 the one closest to the ruler is the 1st branch off of his left hand here descending coronary artery that's called the 1st diagonal branch that can be a big one in some people it was pretty good sized in mr floyd's case but that one is also quite narrowed as you can see in the photograph and i should probably back up and explain that when i mean when i say narrowed i mean the yellow plaque that you see eccentric lead lining those coronary arteries like a partially clawed plumbing pipe that's the that's the cholesterol that's the fibrous tissue that's the scar that you don't want in your corner arteries that's why your doctor checks your cholesterol and asks you not to smoke until you to
watch your weight your blood pressure this is what he or she is trying to prove prevent is that plaque buildup that's the yellow discoloration you see in these arteries they should be wide open you should be seeing through a round hole in each of those but at that they're pretty severely narrowed so getting back to the description of the photograph the 4th cross-section you see which is more closer to the one on the scale that's mr floyd's right coronary artery in most adults that would be the 2nd largest of the 3 coronaries you can see that one is also significantly narrowed by atherosclerotic plaque as well. so that to bicker you kind of me with the concept of acute changes in plaque build oh yes we did tell the jurors what that means so there are times that autopsy when we can tell that a plaque has suddenly changed because it has fractured these plaques can actually be kind of hard to that's why this is known as hardening of the coronary arteries sometimes these plaques will fracture and you can see clot or fiber which is
protein from the blood suddenly filling that plaque and so the plaque went from being smaller than it used to be to being bigger than it used to be very very quickly. sometimes you can even get hemorrhage into a plaque as it fractures and so the plaque can grow very quickly we can we can see that with the naked eye at autopsy sometimes we can see that under the microscope as well to get to the heart of your question counselor i did not see those changes in the stroke floyds coronary arteries these looked to me to be i guess you would call them stable plaques for lack of a better term and if they had fractured in some way and created a a clot of some kind would be observable on autopsy yes and that's one of the reasons we discuss these arteries so carefully as you wouldn't want to miss an acute change or a from us because in most cases that would tell you a lot about how the purse.