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tv   NEWSHOUR  Al Jazeera  April 8, 2021 9:00pm-10:01pm +03

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april on al-jazeera. if you want to help save the world more. sneeze in your elbow. this is al jazeera. hello i'm adrian for the good and this is the live from doha coming up in the next 60 minutes. it's like. breathing through a drinking straw but it's much worse than that on the 9th day of the dairy trove and trial expert medical testimony from a pulmonologist who says that a lack of oxygen cools floyd's death. and gun violence in this country is an
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epidemic and it's an international affairs u.s. president joe biden announces measures to reduce gun violence. the world health organization warms that a 1000000000 people in africa remain on the margins of the curve at 19 vaccination programs governments look for alternative supplies. of the show must go on musicians in berlin find creative ways to reach their audience during the pandemic. the physical pressure on george floyd's lungs during his arrest has been likened to that of a tightening vice grip veteran dr martin turban has been testifying as an expert witness on breathing and risperidone systems he says that floyd died from a low level of oxygen for the minneapolis policeman derrick servant is on trial
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accused of murdering george floyd by kneeling on his neck for more than 9 minutes his defense lawyers arguing that drugs contributed to floyd's death well in his testimony dr tobin explained the medical complications that led to floyd shortness of breath but ultimately his death. and it's because of the positioning of the handcuffs at the back there and how he's manipulated with the handcuffs by both officer shaaban and by officer king how they manipulate the handcuffs and they're pushing the handcuffs into his back and pushing them high then on the other side you have the street so the street is playing a crucial part because he's against the hard ass faults 3 so the way they're pushing down on his handcuffs combined with the street his left side and that's particularly the left side we see that it's like the left side is in a vise it's totally being pushed in squeezed in from each side.
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but also explained how difficult it would have been for sawyer to brief while being the strained when you have to breathe through such a narrow passage way it's like. breathing through a drinking straw but it's much worse than that because breathing through it thinking straw. and b. it is somewhat unpleasant but not that one person and that it gets much worse than that. so as the space narrows is it more difficult then to breathe through enormously more difficult and we know that from physics let's go live now to minneapolis officers and i'm sure she has been watching proceedings in court on what bearing will dr tobin's testimony have on the case against show that. more than 2 hours of testimony from a breathing expert with 40 years experience it was a significant moment in the trial dr top in explaining how the george floyd diet
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simply because he couldn't get enough breath into his body his brain failed and then that caused his heart just stopped beating and the fact was that the police officers continued to exert pressure for more than 3 minutes after george floyd in the water the full been freed his last breath that is of course many parts of the evidence which over 2 hours stuck out 1st of all there was a picture of george floyd placing is hands that would dr to open said was him trying to breathe through his knuckles through his hands because his body was so desperate to get breath into his body as he said it was like trying to breathe through a straw only much worse than the phrases like that tend to stick with the judy and we know from inside the courtroom the jurors were taking notes as the doctor went through nick works each of them touching the part following the instructions as they went along getting a really graphic idea of what happened to george floyd there was this doctor toobin
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said nort sujan left in his body at one point he was asked would a healthy person have suffered the same way if he did lloyd underlying that he said given that such a pressure was exacted then a healthy person would have died well there was a question about the moment where george leg kick off the police. it was him resisting arrest continuing to fight not so was said dr talwar and this was the brain responding to fatally level of oxygen he didn't know he was doing it was the body desperately trying to grab some beer from somewhere it was essentially george lloyd in his death row it's the question was asked could fentanyl have caused the problem for george floyd the defense alleged that he'd taken drugs that wasn't the case he hadn't taken a breath for more than 9 minutes from lying on the ground till eventually part of medics and the ambulance taking him to hospital finally got
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a line in term to be able to breathe said that simply wasn't the cause of the death here it was because he hadn't breathed for more than 9 minutes and there was one telling to praise from dr toben as we were watching video again of what happened to george floyd he had dented 5 the moment he said that is the moment that life goes out of his body how is the defense likely to counter such compelling testimony as. well they have been able to find little bits little bits that they can drill down on clearly they are going to go and talk about the whole idea of derrick sugar not putting pressure on the neck but dr top and has essentially said it doesn't matter whether it's the neck it's the side of the bike all of these with the pressure that was exacted caused george foid problems breathing at one point he said you could see that the police officer had his foot off the ground that was him exacting 90
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pounds of pressure on the body of george boy that's more than 40 kilograms of pressure. clearly the defense believe they know that this witness was coming they will have a strategy to deal with the otherwise they would have said no questions but they will examine dr top and evidence over the next couple of hours he is a man. with a great deal of credibility he has been widely published he's given evidence in more than 50 court cases all of them malpractise cases and he's different they represented both doctors and the patient he's never given evidence in a criminal case so it would be difficult to suggest even if there was a suggestion of that that he has some sort of problem with law enforcement this was a very compelling piece of evidence and something that the jury played a great deal of attention to not doing it b.d.'s point following along very closely taking notes and as i said if you're just afraid of this is like trying to breathe
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through a straw only much much worse it's phrases like that that tend to stick with judy's when they go into the jury room to make their final decision as alan fischer reporting live from minneapolis island for the moment many thanks indeed let's bring in kelly carjacks news in boston she's system professor at wellesley college a good to have you with us what did you make of what you heard from martin turban and his testimony this morning just how safe significant in this trial will it be. oh i mean this was probably one of the hardest testimonies to hear from the trial and i've heard a lot of them and many of them have been. dramatic and troubling to say the least but this one hearing from you know a palminteri expert talk about the amount of weight and the amount of pressure that was put on george floyd's neck the idea that it's misleading to think that because he can speak he can somehow breed because seconds later he couldn't speak at all i
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mean there's so much about this testimony that i think a lot of clarity and insight into what people witness and i think it's going to be really difficult to combat this kind of. expertise and information that's been presented it is difficult to see how the defense could counter i mean as you see it was so compelling from a witness who is an undoubted expert. yeah it was and i think that you know so much of this trial has been hard to hear but i think this in some ways is a fur mean because i think it sort of legitimizes the way that people have felt over and over again that this death was caused through a need to a neck by hit a knee on his neck that he was not able to breathe and that other factors just don't compare to the amount of brutality that was caused george boyd when this
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happened do you think this is a pivotal moment in this trial i do i do i hope so i think you know people believe the experts and believe in science and believe in how the body works and i think everything he said today again that is so compelling ok kelly could so too many thanks indeed kelly cut to jackson's system fessor at wellesley college in boston. this is that he was off from officer put it on the program still to come including me a law school playing out on the streets of london the ambassadors of the u.k. finds himself locked out. rage in northern ireland dozens of police officers have been injured in the worst on west that in years.
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president joe biden has unveiled a 1st try out of measures to reduce gun violence across the united states and they include executive actions to regulate self assembled guns and upgraded pistols based calling on congress to go further he insists that reforms will respect the constitution 2nd amendment the right to bear arms nothing nothing i'm about to recommend in any way impinges on the 2nd amendment their phony arguments suggest either these are 2nd amendment rights at stake from what we're talking about. but no memon no member to the constitution is absolute gun violence in this country is an epidemic we say to get gun violence in this country is an epidemic and it's an international bad. every day in this country 360 people are shot every single day. 160 of them die every day.
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our flag was still flying at half staff for the victims of the horrific murder of 8 primarily asian american people in georgia. when 10 more lives were taken in a mass murder in colorado. you probably didn't hear a prayer between those 2 incidents less than one week apart for more than 850 additional shootings 850 the took the lives of more than 250 people and left 50500 injured this is an epidemic for god's sake a white house correspondent kimberly how could joins us now live from washington to talk us through the measures that the president announced earlier we had him saying that kimberly that come violence is a pandemic it's a blemish on our character as a nation he said. and in the absence of congressional laws to
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curb gun violence the u.s. president says he is taking what are called executive actions putting in place measures he believes will least begin to curb violence as a result of firearms that not only did he and now it's that he would be putting in place a ban on stabilizing braces which were used in the mass shooting in colorado last month but also put in place a model federally for states to enact their own legislation with regard to so-called red flag laws he says that already in states that have these laws they've saved lives essentially this allows a family member or friend to believe that someone it's dangerous to petition the court to prevent them from getting a firearm to take a firearm from them away if they already possess it also investing in communities making sure that those cities like los angeles washington d.c. even chicago where there is gun control in place but still gun violence
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proliferates investing in communities to see that that stops so these are some of the things he's put in place but he also outlined his wish list with this list rather. and what he's wishing for it says if he has just one would be to see that ban on assault weapons put back in place he was in place back in 1904 he helped do it as a senator expired 10 years later so he said that's one thing he wants he also wants his wish list to see an end to a munity forgotten manufacturers essentially that they can be held liable for the cost in the human casualties as a result of the weapons they make so these are some of the things the president put in place some of the things he's looking for and again defending the criticism that's likely to come from gun advocates saying this in no way he believes infringes on the 2nd amendment or the right to bear arms under the u.s. constitution war his chances of getting congress to take it from the.
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well they is going to be a challenge to work with congress given the fact that you know you need to pass this in the house of representatives that's controlled by democrats that seems likely but it's the senate that is always up for question and while there is a narrow majority in the senate there are some democrats from rural states where there may be some pushback for example joe manchin from the state of west virginia it's known for its sort of wild rugged beauty and there are a lot of governors there be very unhappy with their democratic senator voting with democrats to ban firearms in any sort of way so there may not be the will in congress to do this add to that the very powerful national rifle association the gun lobby that really holds to account these lawmakers so there's a lot that democratic lawmaker makers are up against still many of them believe that the time is now and they're going to push ahead so the president taking the 1st step as a result of these mass shootings in colorado and also georgia recently but he's
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calling on congress to do more he says they've offered their thoughts and prayers now it's time to enact legislation a white house correspondents' committee how could reporting live from washington can believe anything. public figures both at home and abroad the country's former ambassador to the u.k. has been locked out of the embassy in london by diplomats loyal to the military. reports. protesters at the embassy and on wednesday night ambassador to men was locked out allegedly by his deputy and the military attash a last month the ambassador a former army colonel himself had broken ranks criticizing the coup on february 1st and calling for the release of the country's democratic leaders in the morning he returned and spoke to reporters outside he said embassy staff were now taking
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orders from the military attaches a. surprise rule of the military from your comments last month do you like yes. or does this. issue he said his own options did not likely include returning to his country you seem. to be looking. in the water may be one of his last journeys in an official diplomatic. means headed to a meeting of the u.k.'s foreign commonwealth and development office in a statement foreign secretary dominic robb had earlier said we condemn the bullying actions of the me and military regime in london yesterday and i pay tribute to for his courage the u.k. continues to call for an end to the coup and the appalling violence and for a swift restoration of democracy. the british government has imposed sanctions on
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myanmar military interests since the coup but it's not clear what more can be done now a foreign office spokesman said myanmar's military authorities had given notice that they terminated the ambassador's position and decision the government accepts what is it you'd like the british government to do. over there don't. let them out. george i mean says he considers himself still to be the ambassador here in london at the foreign commonwealth and development office does not this country has a long standing tradition of recognizing states not countries and so it is the military in myanmar that has authority over what happens inside this building jonah how al-jazeera london. health workers around the world say that vaccines are our best bet after the corona virus pandemic but short of just delays of heart thanks nation drives in many
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countries in africa the world health organization says that more than a 1000000000 people are on the margins of urged an equal distribution in order to stop variance from emerging thanks in asian is a lifesaving tool in the response to the pandemic and 100 days into the year and also more than $600000000.00 in those it's emitted globally africa has that minutes that only 20 percent more than $1000000000.00 africans remain on the margins of this is starting to end the pandemic african countries like ghana are one and i'm gonna have delivered a significant proportion of their vaccines within a short space of time and some of the success that includes training was in advanced simulation exercises prelims think parenting and communicating early with communities. some of the miller more reports now from south africa where the vaccination campaign has been slow to recover after the suspension of the astra
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zeneca vaccine earlier the c.i.s. south africa suspended its vaccination program using the astra zeneca jab that after a new strain was identified and a trial show that astra zeneca would not be as effective against the strain and since then about a 1000000 doses of that vaccines been sold to other african countries and now so africa says it's been refunded for the other $500000.00 doses that would you to be delivered the government has been criticized for potentially wasting money but it says it's continuing to engage with astra zeneca as they continue to research and any development on a new generation vaccine the government hopes it will deal adequately with the new variant in the meantime south africa has poured millions of doses of the johnson and johnson vaccine and it hopes to meet a target of vaccinating about 252270000 people a day and that's to achieve what he calls herd immunity for all many south africans
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it's been a long wait for a full vaccination program so far only health workers have been vaccinated about 270000 of them and so many south africans are waiting to hear when that broader program will begin. meanwhile the african union says that it's dropped plans to buy the astra zeneca vaccine from india and says that it will instead switch to one made by johnson and johnson the head of africa and the africa centers for disease control says that it's not because of concerns about a potential and extremely rare link to blood clots the serum institute of india will still supply the astra zeneca vaccine to african nations through the kovacs global vaccine sharing facility. most of the 600000 doses of china's side of vaccine sent to sri lanka a single ace the government hasn't approved it for use over syria's model
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philander's reports dolphin colombo anyone thinking the scenes are in china could be forgiven it's actually you who read 1000 vaccines into the chinese nationals living and working in she lanka. they were the 1st to receive vaccines from the 600000 doses they need to do the south asian island might be using this tactic to give only for the chinese city sense while living here working and living in the families and those who love working in interland after the next thing i think there is no more i don't have any heart so for now i feel good. but these reactions are not enough to sri lanka's regulator the national medicines regulatory authority to clear the use assign a farm on local it's demanding more detail it will make new decision we had to go over the scientific evidence and then only give the poor for anything like over the it's a diagnostic method or drug or rexy so it is therefore the sign of
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a morsel if the if a good data is available regarding the efficacy and the safety then there's no problem with that but without those that are definitely we cannot because we can't risk of giving something to other people. off with 3 are not the doolies causing displeasure within the government would present good to have been his brother mine the rajapaksa have worked closely with china in recent years the president received a shipment of vaccines from the chinese ambassador in colombo we need to arrive last week our finest are just pandemic out all countries under 2 peoples power will be always standing for money together under you supplanted or hardly a friend to each other we face many difficulties during the last 2 to 3 weeks
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to bring this to sri lanka due to certain unexpected. influences from various parties how we were your calm all these influences and not immediately make it to success not going as the regulatory authority refused to be pushed to grant approval the government removed 7 of its 13 board members describing it as a move to reform the body but a senior doctor teamed then removal was connected to the senate phone maxine at a time when corporate vaccines around the world are coming under scrutiny regulators here say they cannot approve the sign off on dos until this study all necessary data they say the sooner they receive this the sooner they can make a decision with f. and end as dizzy or colombo. argentina is clamping down with restrictions on movement and bans on one essential workers using public transport
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a 2nd wave has brought an unprecedented number of covered pointing in infection reports from one of us. this images are from a central train station in one of. the amount of people here could be one of the reasons why corona virus infections have skyrocketed in argentina in the past days on wednesday argentina's government confirmed over 22000 new infections of kovac 19 and that's why president i want to finance this announced new measures to prevent the spread of the virus and in these months we want to help health care aid economic recovery and keep schools open as much as we can if we do this we can diminish the speed of transmission the higher the transmission and the hospital occupation the more restrictions we will have to impose and that's why we need to protect ourselves from memphis also announced a curfew had midnight restrictions on public transport and social gatherings in
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private homes last year argentina was one of the 1st countries in the region to impose a total lockdown to prevent the spread of the virus but the situation is different now. argentina's government is trying to avoid imposing a told down mostly because of the impact it would have on argentina's fragile economy where millions are struggling to make ends meet and that's why it's focusing on analyzing caseload they tap imposing short term restrictions and getting hospitals ready to cope with a 2nd wave. the long lines of people at this testing site show mounting concerns with the rice and infections but most of those we spoke to say they cannot afford to stay home. a single c.d.'s are blowing it's impossible to close everything it's impossible i hope they move forward with the vaccination. campaign and we can move forward this is a delicate time for president of the for
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a man this who tested positive a few days ago some 2 months after receiving the russian sputnik vith vaccine later this year argentina will hold retirement lections and he will have to defend his party's majority in congress since the lengthy lock down last year its popularity has been bruised by a shortage of vaccines and economic troubles exacerbated by the pandemic you know. i would imagine that the solution is going to be very flexible very much handling the day to day and that it will be managed by different levels of government national provincial and for the city of borno say this coordination of some restrictions will be necessary without restraining the economy argentina like most emerging economies he's finding it tough to come up with cash for pandemic relief efforts and like many wealthier countries and that's why international organizations like expressed concerns about the mounting cases in this part of the
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world because they know economy difficulties pose a challenge when it comes to fighting disease. one of. our processes appeal to world financial leaders to reduce the debt of poor countries hit hard by a coronavirus pandemic the head of the roman catholic church says that the international monetary fund the world bank must also give developing nations a greater say in global decision making francis says the pandemic has highlighted the connection between socio economic ecological and political crises facing poor countries is once again appealed for vaccines to be made available to all countries . we'll get a weather update next here on the news out then the u.s. commits to removing all remaining combat forces from iraq but without setting a timeline that africa's leaders meet to combat the threat of i saw think fighters in mozambique.
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how i once again the temperatures starting to ramp up now across much of the middle east much but not all we have got some snow in the forecast which you blame the snow in areas pushing up into to. just 6 degrees celsius to friday doesn't it say about around the levant lossie fondant rise a 24 celsius there for damascus take a look at sas day all change 14 degrees in damascus a 10 degree fall in nice temperatures some wet weather started to push in as that area out and writes the snow comes in across central parts of to eastern areas also say some of that wintry weather that's sleet and snow coming through here as well as she tended to right as we go on through the day but push further south and this by the warmth is $38.00 in riyadh that's $100.00 in found out woman off in doha at
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around $33.00 degrees although come sunday it's probably going to be about i told 9 degrees cooler than that pleasantly warm nevertheless it has to be said with plenty of sunshine for your sunshine too just around the horn of africa because some showers there just around lake victoria some pos you can the same some heavy showers really heavy showers up towards the gulf of guinea cameroon and southern parts of nigeria seeing some bursts of heavy right some wet weather to all the way it's a northern parts of madagascar but to the south of that is fine dry and sunny. but . the climate has changed every year for millions of years decades of told but little action it's all about destruction to create confusion to create smoke and mirrors the shocking truth about how the climate debate has been systematically subverted new oil industry was a main bankroller or opposition to climate action the campaign against the climate
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do you think that's a bad thing. it was fears of the things absolutely coming soon on al-jazeera. the athletes in the eyes of the world of sumo wrestling is shrouded in secrecy want to win. skitz rare access inside a sport where ancient tradition meets modern scandal on al jazeera. played important role in protecting him and. don't change face.
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but i get his kids have you with us everyone for the good here with the news off from al-jazeera the headlines are aspersion expert has testified that george floyd died due to a lack of oxygen stanage his brain of course is home to stop the train dr martin tobin spoke on the line today of the trial of the former policeman derek sjodin who's accused of murder. u.s. president joe biden is on fail the 1st round of measures to reduce gun violence think through to executive actions to regulate self assembled commons but upgraded pistols. the u.k. government has condemned but accepted the decision by myanmar's military to replace some passenger in london he was locked out of the building after expressing sympathy for the protest. ok let's take you back to minneapolis the mind of proceedings in the. trial he's the police but accused of murdering george floyd. this gentleman we look
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at him is pulled a very critical care expert dr toben has been testifying for the past few. as the proceedings get on the way off break for lunch let's listen in by the state of minnesota to assist them in the review of the medical issues in this case cracked correct and. you have volunteered to do this work at no cost correct career and that's you're not normally involved in criminal cases of this nature racked correct and this is the 1st time you've ever been involved in a criminal case cracked correct and it was that reason that you decided not to charge a fee correct credit now when you are in other cases what type of feed do you normally for. her age per hour so what's your hourly rate and then my already rate is $500.00 an hour. ok. but you agreed to waive your hourly
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rate for this topic or you felt it was an important case right yes. now in preparation for your testimony today you met with the state numerous times correct credit you have had the opportunity to review all of the medical information that was obtained in this case right yes that would include mr floyd's previous medical history correct current the autopsy and attending toxicology reports that were prepared in this case yes as well as some investigative materials police reports things that he tracked her and just correct me if i'm wrong but you were not a path ology extract correct and. of the others your specialty is in poland ology critical care things that you career and then you also have an interest and and an impressive resume relevant to applied physiology as well kurt and you've been
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honored quite extensively for your work in that regard right career. you know minneapolis police officer credit it's fair to say that the training that is provided by the minneapolis police department in terms of medical care comes nowhere close to your level of expertise heard you understand that minneapolis police officers are not even e.m.t. career they have a basic life saving certificate dealing with gunshots just seals turner kits and c.p.r. is so your you've also had the opportunity. to review a lot of the body camera footage correct as you've done i think you testified that you've watched these videos hundreds of times kirk and you've watched them all from all different angles tracked curd and you have the luxury of slowing things down
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moving it into slow motion still framing various times right curt and so your analysis of this case comes after hundreds if not thousands of hours of time spent looking at this information and i don't know the total amount of time that i've spent but it's substantial. so then you alternately based on the review of all of that you prepared a report back to credit and you provided that to the state of minnesota late january of this year january 27th and after that you had numerous meetings with the prosecution team in this case. by phone. including january 30th of this year i don't know the date. but that sounds correct right so if i were to tell you the dates were january 30th march 3rd march 9th march 17th march 21st april 6th and april 7th you would not have any reason to
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dispute you had had no reason and you understand that notes are made of those meetings and provided to the defense. and then you've also been able to spend a substantial period of time preparing the the exhibits that the jury was able to see earlier to their career and those were all prepared by you or someone within your team right there by me and you provided those to the prosecution in advance of today's testimony occurred and you understand those were provided to me last night . and if so you know that you had a lot of time to prepare both yourself as well as the prosecution team in connection with this case for say kurt now you talked quite a bit about physics in your direct testimony agreed it is and you would agree that physics or the application of physical forces is
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a constantly changing. set of circumstances. sure you would agree with me would you not that when you look at the concepts of physics these things are constantly changing right signs to be const i mean in milliseconds a nanosecond right yes and so if i put this much weight or this much weight all of the of the formulas and variations will it will change from 2nd to 2nd millisecond to millisecond man a 2nd to massacre grade 3. similarly biology sort of works the same way. as my heart beats my lungs breathe my brain is sending millions of signals to my body at all times career again even i mean faster than the speed of light career millions of signals every manison has
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and i think in your report you even kind of discuss that when you're talking about these instances where you're talking about the physics or the biology what you're really talking about is single and of nano 2nd all of these processes are working in concert at all times right rather than the way we kind of put it does the mean value but i mean that it's then into an instant you've you've taken this case and you've literally boiled it down into a nanosecond. because it's obviously in my report as you see it's a sequence really there's a whole chronology begin from the time the knee is placed on the neck and then all the time. but happening in hennepin county e.r. and so you talk your report talks about the sequential nature of things but when we
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talk about the biology in the physics of this case these things are working simultaneously contemporaneously all together right that in an incredibly rapid fashion yes. and you would agree with me that that. as this incident was occurring there was nobody measuring units of force that were placed on any particular position of any particular person at any particular moment right there was nobody there major in them at the time that put but they're all. understood and that's when you calculate then what you have to do is you have to boil it down into what you would call the mean or the average right curb and so whenever we look at the concept of an average there are things that are happening moments before moments
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after. and forces will increase or decrease relative to the nanosecond of time. and ultimately when we talk about kind of the biology of things. path ologist tries to look at all the intersection of all of the things that occur to a particular in a particular death investigation act but i mean they're not looking at anything to do physiology understood but they're also looking at how other. factors may contribute to the death of an individual right i mean they're basically look sorry it's a yes or no answer some object. yes partly they're looking at things beyond their. agreed. no i mean i think in terms of a pathologies they're looking at
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a nanosecond they're looking at the nanosecond of that. but they're taking into consideration things simply that extend beyond physiology right. looking primarily at pathology right so what causes the heart to stop what causes the longs to cease to function etc maybe they're making it in fruits based on. time point. considering a multitude of biological factors that are involved in the death of a person. and it is the same is that any physician is looking at a multitude. so in terms of again of your review. you would agree that the amount of time you've spent looking at video as analyzing these videos from different
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perspectives and angles is far greater than the length of the sense of yes probably to the times a fallacy. i really don't know but i mean but it's substantially longer than the incident. and ultimately you conclude mr floyd. died as a what we would call hypoxic deaf you don't have a low level of bugs and that there was a low level of oxygen caused damage to the brain which resulted in a pulseless electrical activity cracked. how did you phrase be here a level of oxygen that caused damage to the brain the brain didn't cause the poses electrical alton's so the low level of oxygen caused both the low level of oxygen caused the damage to the brain the low level of oxygen separately cause the pulses electrical so it's an example of how multiple processes are occurring
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simultaneously. really it's just one process it's a low level of oxygen that's doing both that's having an effect on multiple. the heart and the brain and along a number really it's just to the brain and the heart the brain in the heart are now you talked about i think you called it. knerr is that the new college i meant. my saying that correct. that's that space at the back of the nath that's very very hard right is not so much as bass i mean it's a long bit but it's roughly the palm of your hand is that the palm of your head in the back here next and you're right over that. and that you set a very very hard surface right they can withstand a great amount of pressure. and and so when we talk about the placement of the knee there would be periods of time where mr sheldon was placed at
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that nuchal ligament based on your observation of the ideas. and you had an opportunity to review the autopsy. you understand that there was no bruising either atop the skin or under the the skin surfaces that were noted by dr baker yes i'm aware. and you also are aware and you talked quite a bit about the hype affair. you're aware that the hypo pharynx was photographed at autopsy and no injury was noted i'm aware. now i phone it find it very interesting in your testimony in your report when you're kind of talking about this notion of if you can't speak or if you can speak doesn't mean you are sorry after if you can speak you can breathe. and you
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describe this as a very dangerous proposition because you describe this as causing a false sense of security to people. and in fact in your report you actually write a paragraph about how physicians oftentimes have trouble with us right and so people who've similar to yourself attended medical school right but sorry you have to say yes it is or if. so you know intelligent men and women who've graduated from college going to medical school and are engaged in the practice of medicine sometimes. have problems with this notion is they a patient comes in and says that they're having trouble breathing and oftentimes a physician will. not believe the essential. it's important mr
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nelson that to make sure we were talking about speech or difficulty in pretty deep there if an raf well you write in your report that some doctors incorrectly consider patients to be hysterical or. it's not proper. oral you wrote in your report that some doctors incorrectly consider patients hysterical and the symptoms imaginary in nature which further aggregates patient distress. as i recall and you wrote that this view represents a physician's failure to understand the fundamental cost of a clinical disorder. different thing there that's hyperventilation syndrome so somebody could be very different than the typical who had speech through their. ok but if physicians are right someone comes in and hyperventilating and they articulate to their physician i can't breathe right and it's hyperventilation.
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and physicians oftentimes as you indicate it would confuse this issue where they blame the patient. or the baby the patient but i mean that certainly missed the diagnosis. and it's. kind of when we're talking about speaking and breathing simultaneously it is a different consideration. if. minneapolis police lieutenant who trains police officers happened to have testified that that's a common statement in the course of treatment or in the course of training a minneapolis police officers might take exception with that say. i didn't follow your goods and so it's very hard here so that it would be less and i'm losing my
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voice and. if a minneapolis police officer tried to talk course are going to mark the minneapolis police lieutenant who trains minneapolis police officers testified that it is frequently said and trained to police officers that a person can talk means they can bring you would have a problem with you because i mean they're able to breathe at that moment in time but 10 seconds later it may be that. and because dealing with any person is a rapidly evolving situation that can change from 2nd to 2nd. now in terms of the calculations that you have made. you would agree that your calculations are generally theoretical cracked no they're not theoretical i mean they're based on direct measurements they're based on extensive research but you're
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making certain assumptions in the application of that science are you not very few assumptions you're assuming the weight of mr show right where i mean obviously i'm aware that there's 2 different weights that are given and you're assuming the weight of the. equipment at the office where yes and if not actually ever physically measured the weight of the equipment a police officer care is cracked you know i mean i to the measurements that are reported and you're not actually weighing what mr rove in weighed on may 25th of 2029 and in your measurements you're all you are you appear to be at least from my understanding which could be limited from my understanding is that your measurements assume an equal distribution between the right and the left.
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yes that correct and so again as we know as things change and evolve and flow that's weight is pretty frequently redistributed right that is correct. and again terms of the. movie by saying that e.l.v. . if you end exhibitor. you're also basing that those calculations on the presumption that a person is a healthy individual for the p. it's not going to change really but in terms of the normal respiratory rates excuse me some of the other factors that you put into your analysis it's all premised upon
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a healthy individual right and it's based on it's 46 year old person a particular height in sex. who's health. and so you would agree if biology can change rapidly. that the biological. the specific biological conditions of mr chauvin and or mr floyd come into play. and. those volumes or those figures that you've assessed in connection with this case. they are. conditioned upon him being a healthy individual. it varies in terms of the lungs i mean say for example compliance with perry but and expert long body m is pretty robust but it just isn't beer ok so some other factors like you said it was the 1st study compliance with
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vary from from one person to the next person but it's that it varies the different segments within the law they're not all monolithic now and you talked about one thing in terms of and this is a little bit of an aside in terms of the prone position and the pushing of the stomach into the long so that. the size of a person's stomach has some bearing right does a person like myself who has a few extra inches if i'm prone it's going to perhaps push further or harder up into my own right as a person who is healthy physical. muscular it's going to have less of an impact and is grim. but again in terms of what we have learned about mr floyd from his autopsy and his medical records is that we understand that mr floyd had some heart disease right kind of record in fact i believe that he had some of his
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arteries somewhere between a 75 and 90 percent occlusion and churchill are right current that's going to affect blood flow. in the pain in a person writes going to make the body work a little harder to get the blood through the body. no not really somebody who then ok this how does that affect a person's respiratory. they coronary artery is affecting it and if the coronary artery was contributing to shortness of breath you would expect that he would be complaining of chest pain and you would expect that he would be demonstrating a very rapid response rate we don't see either ok we'll come back to the risk risk . respiration rest i can say or i'm taken by here accept. the rest but to have respiratory rate as high compensate for i don't want.
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appreciate. as i'll say like you is risperidone right. we also we also understand that mr ford based on his medical records has a history of hypertension high blood pressure is going. now in terms of we also understand that mr flight had previously been diagnosed with. curve and he may not be symptomatic have been symptomatic on march 25th but it's fair to say that. a lot is unknown about the effects of covert 19 on a person's last long term i mean not it's much as it would appear to be the case i mean because obviously it's a viral in this we have a huge amount of information about the long terms of effects of ireland and always
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can affect the elasticity of the lungs right not that last is that it would be if it's having any effect it would be within the sensory receptors within the trachea prompted 3 surgery wouldn't have anthem to do it the best is ok now but we also learned quite a bit about the toxicology as well as me on the koven 1000 you testified that. treatment of people with over $1000.00 includes leaving them in the prone position right critter and so those people who would be treated for kovan $1000.00 in the prompt ization based on your calculations you would have a 24 percent decrease in the red meat this is people with copd it where it there during the time that they have copd would. expect that same decrease in the e.l.v. you know it's going to be very different in somebody who has say pneumonia what's going to happen in the prone position will be very variable from one person the
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other as a result of that you moni it's different than normal so so in that sense every person is different over for certain. and. now you calculated his respiratory rate to be $22.00 rather and you said that that was within the normal respiratory rate. and you would not describe him as hyperventilating and the word hyperventilation is open to an awful lot of misinterpretation that is most certainly not hyper bent. and hyperventilation assists in the removal of carbon dioxide from from. it's not it's not that simple in its simplest terms to be the simplest terms yes it does is it gets rid of carbon dioxide. but frequently miss.
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now in terms of the toxicology of mr. floyd we did learn that there were some controlled substances in his system right yes we know that there was for example. nicotine did mr ford was a smoker career and smoking changes the long function grade. but. now we also learned and i'm not suggesting that people who people who small cap one problem right less than 10 percent do 90 percent don't have any. life before 30. 1 so we focused on your direct examination quite a bit in terms of fat and the fat not as a fact on the risk respiration rate. and
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you would agree generally that fat now is a respiratory depressed. it's used in operating it's right for him and it's also used in the management of chronic pain that is correct and medically speaking those are really the only 2 reasons that would be prescribe it. but you understand that fenton all has become far more prolific in street drugs right it is underwear and there is a you would agree generally that there is a significant difference between fat no that's manufactured according to the united states you know. there are whatever rules apply right to the pharmaceutical companies make it much differently than the street dealers to write imagines of right and so when you are when
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a person is ingesting illicit street purchased fact now it's every time they take effect and all dose it's a different experience for that person. if it's affecting their respective resent or it's going to actually do you reset who's in the middle of the lung that there's no way around that it's not the event that isn't going to have an effect on respiration but some other mechanism understood. and result of that know can include. respiratory depression right through them you are is that right and we also learned that there was methamphetamine in the low dose in mr floyd system career and then found on the methamphetamine they can kind of kalar act right. i mean there are no winners but to me but in terms of their respective presenters there is not going to be so the meth i'm fat i mean would not i mean the methamphetamine is going to increase the heart rate.

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