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tv   News  Al Jazeera  April 5, 2021 7:00pm-7:31pm +03

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the person who is not eliminating the carbon dioxide right where to go direct for it to be high in the blood that means that they are therefore not eliminating it through ventilation or breathing. and that's a part that points to a possible respiratory. it can yes and that that increase in a carbon dioxide from a 35 to 45 to over 100 that takes some period of time in order to climb that heart. yes it can happen relatively quickly depending on how severe the ventilation problem is but what it generally it could take $3040.00 even an hour to climb that hour it could take that long it could take much less time yes the use of fentanyl do you know that to attribute to high carbon dioxide levels it can cause high carbon dioxide levels because it
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depresses the ventilation or the breathing so when someone in just vent know it can cause them to feel very sleepy because of an increased carbon dioxide are correct. and that's one of the reasons ultimately that know is so dangerous because it suppresses the respiratory system rick the primary reason it is so dangerous. now you testified that when the paramedics. gave their report to you. they did not give you any reference as to potential drug use correct. they did not tell you that they had minute administered. or no locks during their care correct correct and during the course of your care of mr floyd you did not administer can or no locks on did you know and when you talk about those drugs that are immediately able
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to reverse the effects that's what that does reverses the effects of. toxicity agreed. when someone has a high carbon dioxide level that causes that person to have a sensation of shortness of breath agreed. and that can happen to a person even with stress complicating. their body. respiratory that feeling of an inability to breathe.
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or fruit are you familiar with the impact of. taking certain narcotics interact early. and that they can provide a more powerful. or rapid. of an impact right yes. simply because a person has a history of chronic opiate abuse does that mean that not can't kill them you know. when someone is hyper ventilating. anxious and hyper ventilating they're actually decreasing their c o 2 by doing that cracked occurred. some
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of the considerations that you have to take also would be the potential occlusion of a coronary artery. yes in cases of korea aggressed yes . and someone who has greater than a 75 percent occlusion of the right coronary artery that poses a particular risk a vital ventricular cardiac arrest does it not. well you've been listening there to dr brad langan fell's if you recall the doctor responsible for the direct patient care for george freeways when he was taken into the emergency room last may and was also the man who is eventually. the man who pronounced him dead he's been answering cross-examination questions there from the
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defense and if you are just joining us now on al-jazeera we are watching the trial of former minneapolis police officer derek sheridan who's accused of killing unarmed black man george ford last year now mr sheridan is facing charges including 2nd degree murder $100.00 cuffing ford face down in the kneeling on his neck for nearly 9 and a half minutes in may last year and obviously caused a huge amount of anger in various communities and in the outbreak of large scale protests now dr langan feld is the 1st witness to be called in this in what's now the 2nd week of the trial so far he's testified that when mr ford arrived in the critical kariya he was in cardiac arrest that his heart had stopped he's so far been described in the medical procedures that were carried out and he's also been testifying that his initial assessment suggested that mr floyd had actually died from hypoxia at a lack of oxygen that that was the most likely possibility let's now go back to mark he's a law professor at the university of st thomas he joins us now from minneapolis
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professor thanks from for joining us again the focus from the defense there on surprisingly has been very much on the fentanyl and mr floyd system and how that could have affected his condition. yes one of the things we're seeing here is that both sides are using dr einfeld as a fact witness and we saw the prosecution get out certain facts that they will use and later argument in connecting up with their own experts now the defense is doing the same and cross-examination sort of trying to show him to be a liar something to bring out these key facts that will support their theory that in fact it was not the cause that. well it does seem that they are also trying to tackle this issue of whether mr floyd's use of opioids than the long term use could about tilly built up his resistance to other drugs where are they going with that well that's something that i think the experts will all concur and i know it's something i've seen in my own work is that when people use opioids for
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a long time they're built their body builds up resistance and they use more and more which of course increases the chances of an overdose and that's especially true with when to stop with the testimony previously from his girlfriend miss ross who said that he had gone clean for a while and then started up again definitely there's a particular risk of overdose especially when you've got those high levels of resistance in the binding thanks very much for that analysis professor will be coming back to shortly but let's take it now back to that courthouse in minneapolis where cross-examination is continuing that's continued innocent provide not laaksonen or nor can know. and it will be is it fair to say that the administration of nahr plan if you do not have opiates in your system is a safe procedure yes and if you do have opiates in your system the administration of narconon. could be my change. my saving yes not in
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this case prior to the. but again the. paramedics also basing your information did not administer correct. can i make a clarification you know there is no question. they wish. greg if they wish. and you would agree that mr floyd arrived at each c.m.c. at approximately $853.00 if we have seen evidence previously but sounds correct. i don't know for the question as you played well.
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for starters back knowing info there was an answer you wanted to clarify. please do so only to state that nor can it ministry nor can someone who potentially suffered a. overdose once that individual is in cardiac arrest the administration of narcan would provide no benefit. and mr white was obviously in cardiac arrest correct. you were asked questions just now about whether that's an all works by causing someone to feel very sleepy remember that discussion yes did the paramedics tell you that mr floyd with sleep or sleepy or anything this sounds likely. the report that i received it was that the patient mr floyd was unresponsive on their arrival and did not have a pulse soul there was no report that he had been sleepy or
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difficult to arouse percy. you were asked quite a bit to question number of questions about the carbon dioxide content in yes. first off if a person is suffering from hypoxia that is oxygen deficiency. is that an explanation for. heightened carbon dioxide content and the way. it can be in severe cases in this case do you find that the carbon dioxide reading from this to floyd is really all that significant. i felt that it was weak evidence. in support of what i was thinking at the time. what's difficult in cases of cardiac arrest is once someone has been in korea
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caressed for an extended period of time. the essentially the blood gas that i obtained could be consistent with cardiac arrest from any number of causes you you expect the ph to be low during cardiac and provide a little bit of explanation on that during cardiac arrest there's no blood flow to the tissues there for there's no oxygen getting to the tissues therefore the cells will die they'll release hydrogen ions which lower the ph creating in acidic environments the release lactate which complicates that further. because the person's heart has stopped from whatever cause will no longer be breathing either and so on you would expect that they're there c o 2 to be high. again it can vary a little bit depending on the cause but. in my estimation the blood guess in this
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case. wasn't very strong evidence for one cause over another as far as the etiology of their arrest it was simply consistent with the fact of cardiac arrest correct the fact that the heart stop cracked and i thought that the ice you too may have suggested a respiratory cause. now you were asked questions about. somebody ministry narcotics interactively remember that those questions yes did you get any indication that mr floyd. had administered narcotics interactively and i had no information to suggest that. dr one of the thank you. and if any of you thank you dr you may step down.
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thank you your honor your honor that the state calls chief materia era down. well if you're just joining us now over the past hour you've been listening to dr bryant langan felt that was the doctor responsible for george floyd when he was taken to the emergency room last year has it on some questions from both the
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prosecution and the defense and now we do expect to be hearing from the minneapolis police chief he's just been sworn in and he is appearing as a witness for the prosecution he has testified once before in another trial that it is very unusual for a police chief to speak out against one of his offices and if you are just joining us now this is the trial to form the minneapolis police office that derek shaven is accused of killing unarmed black man george floyd last year let's listen in to see what the minneapolis police chief has to say the old an deal is useless or thank you. sir what is your current role. my current role is chief of the minneapolis police department how long have you held that position for proximately 3 years and as chief of the minneapolis police department are you responsible for overseeing the operations of the entire minneapolis police department. yes i am and that's the highest ranking role at the of minneapolis police department is that
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correct that is correct. sir i'd like you to 1st sheer a little bit about yourself with us how old are you 54 years old in what city do you. where you from originally minneapolis were jew go to high school. the minneapolis roosevelt high school all right. have you ever lived outside of the twin cities minneapolis area. one way for college for a couple of years in michigan where in michigan did you go was hancock michigan which school. in atlanta university. certainly honor finlandia university and what is the highest level of education you could take. i received my master's degree. wintergreen and you received in hancock of michigan
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. that degree was a criminal justice degree. after you completed your college studies you returned to the twin cities area this record is that when you 1st joined the minneapolis police department. a prior to that i had worked as a community service officer at the minneapolis st paul airport police department what years did you do that. believe that was from 197-1989 then in 1990 do you join the minneapolis police department i did in what capacity i started my career as a minneapolis police cadet and then. was hired as a minneapolis police officer that year and chief why did you decide to become a police officer. i've been very fortunate to come from a city. a very resilient very welcoming.
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proud proud people here in the city of minneapolis and my parents taught all of my siblings and me about the service of love and so i've been very fortunate to have been eventually. give back to the very community the very city that embraced me and has been so good to me if you're familiar the with the motto of the minneapolis police department yes i am what is and that is to protect with courage and to serve with compassion and what does that mean. we are often times the 1st face of government that our communities will see and we will oftentimes meet them at their worst moments and so. the badge that i wear and that members of the minneapolis police department where it means
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a lot because the 1st time that we interact with our community members may be the only time that they have an interaction and so that has to count for something and so. so it's very important for us to make sure that we're meeting our community in that space treating them with dignity being their guardians and representing. and all of the men and women that came before us who serve so probably in this department and sometimes you have to protect with with courage and you have to use force is that correct at times yes as a police officer you will have to use force and sometimes serving with compassion means to understand when force is not required. rephrase what does it mean to serve with compassion. to serve with compassion to me means to
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understand and authentically except that. we see our neighbor as ourselves we we value one another we see our community as necessary. for our existence and so that's what serving with compassion means to me when you told us a little bit about your educational background i'd like you to share with all of us a little bit more about your specific law enforcement training you mention the academy is that where you received your law enforcement specific training yes it is please describe how that training occurred. i was a member of the 1st minneapolis police cadet program and along with many other candidates we received training both academic training on the laws of the state of minnesota we received training as
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a relates to everything from. driving and defensive tactics. community relations. and so we also there's post requirements minnesota post officer standards and training to receive our license there was a test that we had to take then it was also scenario based training as well. to grade and assess how we performed during that training in the academy. and so that was that was part of that that important training that i received along with my candidates at the at the academy and that was the that was the very 1st minneapolis police academy that is correct in a trainee academy is a trainee referred to as a cadet that is grim. in your employment you've been continuously employ
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a minneapolis in the minneapolis police department since it was at 1909 is friends . has the academy changed since you 1st were cadet back in 1900 it has and while i certainly believe that at the time back in 1909 that training was important. like any police department. we should not be monolithic our communities are not monolithic are they are training should evolve we should be focused on what are national best practices and so the training that our. recruits and cadets get today and rightfully so is far better than the training that i received those years ago we will circle back to that a little bit later you also mention the u.t. post credits is that right yes that is correct and post ins for peace officer standards and training that is correct. what is the
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requirement for post training how many courses are you required take in a given period that every sworn peace officer in the state of minnesota. received their license through the post office or standards and training board and so post will change up what some of those requirements are from time to time but some of the ones that i think of right now would be a crisis intervention training. there's certainly defensive tactics training there's there's. now a form of procedural justice training that is required and so. minneapolis police officers receive that mandated training but we're also very fortunate that. we're able to receive a day. training above and beyond what is required of the post board and you personally participate in this training in order to maintain your post license that
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is correct. chief you began your career in 1900 you're now the chief of police department fair to say you've had many roles within that are is that correct as the senate like to publish exhibit 2 o 9. and leave that up if we may while you testify if what was the 1st position you held within the department after you completed your candidate training. i was sworn in as a minneapolis police officer and we've heard that term sworn officer before can you please explain to the jury what that what that means. sworn officer after you complete the required educational requirements and certainly after you complete your performance measures at the academy then you are eventually sworn in at
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a location and. traditionally our city clerk has been there and you take an oath and you're sworn in as an official a member of the minneapolis police department also as the city of minneapolis employee and you serve her appointment with the city then. what were your duties as a sworn police officer that ran for the city of minneapolis primary duties was to be a 911 responder. to work in a geographical area of the city of minneapolis in a district at a precinct and respond to 911 calls on a given shift and those also called calls for service as far. as a patrol officer at that time did you remain a patrol officer. proximate lee 5 years or so in can you tell the jury what geographic district you served as
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a patrol officer yes i served. for a short time in the 3rd precinct and then i think the bulk of that time in the minneapolis for the precinct just look at north minneapolis the during that time period of 5 years as a patrol officer did you ever have occasion to arrest a suspect is a did of noncompliance suspect gives you had to place handcuffs on someone who was not compliant. proximately would you care to guess how many times. i'm sure several. this is something that's fairly regularly a fairly regular occurrence as a police officer as a patrol officers are right that. you've had to be in situations where you've had to use force is that right that it's rare have you also been in situations where
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you've had to deescalate or talk someone into compliance yes. it is a regular part of your job as a patrol officer yes it is even in from 1909 to approximately 1000 i'm sorry 994 it is. is an after serving this period of time is a patrol officer who is your next. and the product i believe in 1997 i was then promoted to the rank of sergeant in the media as police department what do you have to do to be promoted to the rank of sergeant what are the requirements. it is a civil service test that you take. and. you have to successfully pass that and receive a grade from that and. i'm trying to recall if there was an assessment center that
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was also part of that testing process. but there is a number of years that you have to at least have served as a police officer before you can take the sergeant's. test and promotion and what is the role of a sergeant in the minneapolis police department. sergeant's role and i've often said it is the most influential role in the police department also its most influential because you have the most proximity to the men and women who are all there serving in the community you're there for them at the role calls you are a mentor and you give them guidance they are going to see you far often than they would ever see the chief of police for example and you set the tone in the attitude and so. so that that's really a very significant role within the minneapolis police department not a 1st line supervisory position perhaps yes it is.
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and sergeants are people with that rank with an m.p. do you would serve in a variety of jobs or functions correct that is correct and how did you serve as a sergeant when you were 1st promoted i served as a investigator. with the property crimes unit at that time. how many people proximately did you supervise at that time i did not supervise any i worked as a detective or investigator alongside other detectives ok. hold on did you hold that position probably 2 years and after that. then i served as a sergeant in our minneapolis police department internal affairs unit. described what a sergeant in internal affairs does. sergeant internal affairs. is. responsible for investigating cases of misconduct involving. speech from an employee's and fact finding
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preparing reports and ultimately submitting those to their supervisor. can those investigations include inappropriate uses of force or excessive force yes they can. and interview ever evaluated in excessive force case in internal affairs contacts at leaving him yes. home did you serve as a sergeant in internal affairs. i served in that position of about 2 years as well . and then what did you do. then i was promoted to the rank of lieutenant. now what was required of you to promote to tenet that also required taking a civil service exam and i believe certainly at that time an assessment going
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through the sussman center which comprised of scenarios and different type of performance measures for that position isn't true that a lieutenant is just a it's a higher level of management above the 1st line sergeants yes our lieutenants are considered managers within the organization and what were your duties that is lieutenant. i served for a time as. overseeing the at that time the federal mediation agreement that the minneapolis police department had entered into with the unity community mediation team. and i also served time as a 4th precinct lieutenant on the night shift. and what is the what is lieutenant in the 4th precinct night shift we do. you are you have a team.

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